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"A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way" (John C. Maxwell). A leader can be compared with a sailor of a boat, and the boat could be a house, community, nation, and or an organization/ intuition.
Key dynamic force of leadership can accomplish objectives of an organization through motivates and co-ordinates. A leader has a vision for the followers and his leadership directs them towards achieving that vision. To be a leader he must have followers who have confidence in him and who give him their support and commitment to a goal.
In the history we learnt about great leaders and their achievements. Very few of the followers also become great leaders as they follow their leaders. People are queries to know about the great leaders and their leadership. What is the difference between a common man and a great leader? Are they born as a leader? Are they extraordinary? Is it possible to make leaders in the institutions? There are many questions in the mind of common people, researchers and other followers. Lots of studies done on leadership and there are many leadership theories proposed so far from the "great man" to notation of the heroic leaders to the "transformational theory". There are few well known leadership theories proposed by Max Weber (1948), George Burns (1978), and Daniel Goleman (1995) which are breakthrough research and roadmaps of future leadership research.
Globalization transform the world into a global village, people are just a click away from each other around the world. Things are changing very fast and the changes create more competition and new challenges to the society. Real leaders are in demands at various levels to face the challenges and make strategy to overcome the challenges. Plenty of leadership theories suggest everyday by various groups of people e.g. motivational speakers, CEO, students, and researchers. Recently most of the leadership theories based upon the proposed earlier theorists but there are significant finding reported in various articles on the implication of the theories in various fields. So the existing models and theories are more refining with involvement of wide ranges of researchers.
As the time is changing the role of leaders are more challenging so leadership should be adopt according to the situation. In the 21st century, the next generation leaders have to face more challenges in the advance modern technology equipped world.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the global village, markets are highly competitive and equipped with modern technology. At every stage each one is competing with other for survival. Real leaders and their leadership influenced by the environmental demands. Leaders have to priorities company's profit and growth before to think benefit of employees, customers as well the society. Every moment a leader has to proof himself in term of success of the company to secure his position.
Researchers support "emotional intelligence and empathy in the workplace"-tool for effective leadership, positive job performance but is it possible for leaders to continue their effective leadership in this stressful situation. Does it mean that lifespan of the leaders are getting shorter day by day with the stressful environment and performance based job recruitment?
In the 21st century, a huge group of researchers are motivated to work on leadership theory and new findings after the Goleman's model of emotional intelligence and its practical applications at workplace (Boyatzis et al., 2000; Goleman 1998, 2001) but need to find more on how the emotional intelligence is cultural-bias free and effectiveness for global company's leaders.
PURPOSE OF THE REASEARCH
Purpose of the research is to know in-depth of the proposed leadership models, new findings and implication in the workplace and impact on the practical application at different level of daily living. The research is best way to look insight yourself scientifically and analyze the present situation and to fill-up the gaps with the building blocks using of the appropriate leadership model. And also to learn the various implication of the models and the shortcomings. Main focus of the research is also know in-depth of Goleman's theories and reviews of other researchers and impact on my personal and professional carrier as well as the implication in my workplace to improve the performance and outcome. Now I am an employee of an organization and I have a dream that one day I become a leader of my own company and with my leadership I will impress the followers and become model for other organization. My employee feels proud, comfortable and happy to work under my leadership. So this research will help me to improve my leadership skill and to know myself better and to identify the areas need to work. Also I would like to find out more with this research on the leadership qualities for a global company's leader where need to work with multinational and multicultural team.
Richards, J., 2007. Emotional Intelligence: The Key to Leadership Success. Volume 86, No. 5
In this article, the author Jan Richards supported Daniel Goleman's (1995) model of Emotional Intelligence. He explained that "the well known leaders and their kind of quiet charismatic power by which they influence us know as emotional intelligence and we all inspires and admire the leaders". He further says that Goleman's believes that the emotional intelligence is twice as important as IQ for a successful carrier of a leader.
Some significant features of emotional intelligence which is associates with successful leadership are described such as:
What is emotional intelligence? Why is it important and how can it can be increase?
It's is an excitement for me to know the significant facts and importance of emotional intelligence that will help me to improve my leadership skills and I become an effective leader.
"Emotional intelligence is the basis for such personal qualities as realistic self confidence, integrity, knowledge of personal strengths and weakness, resilience in time of change or adversity, self motivation, perseverance, and the knack for getting along with others" (Cherniss and Alder 2000). Golemen (1995) suggested 4 important competencies that make up EI and help to manage and handle human relationship successfully are as follows:
Self awareness: leaders who are know themselves better of their strength and weakness.
Self management: leaders who able to manage their emotions and maintains self-control.
Social awareness: leaders who able to read power relationship and built networks .
Relationship management: leaders having sensible humor and have essence of empathy.
EI helps people to make a successful leader so that people follow under their leadership, cooperate in the workplace, work together with harmony and have a better understanding.
EI is not a fix trait and it can be develop further as we have experiences and have better understanding of our own emotions. It might be gain through meditation or reflection. Aware of the identified goals and continue to work on the gaps as identified and the areas of competencies that most impact the performance and need to practice and examine the new changes. It will help to strengthen the new behaviors and become an emotionally intelligence leader.
Heggestad, E. D., 2008. A Really Big Picture View of Social Intelligence. Journal of personality assessment, 90 (1), p 102-104
In this article the author reviewed Daniel Goleman's new book Social intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationship, this is an interesting topic for social scientists to know more about the people how they react, perceive and interact within the social world where they live. According to the author- "the book wasn't at all what I expected, rather than focusing on the relatively narrow concept of social intelligence or on the more broadly defined domains of social effectiveness".
He further explained that "I had hoped that social intelligence might move the field forward by providing a thoughtful review and synthesis of the social effectiveness domain" so the book doesn't justify the name title. There are lots of non-standardized terminology has been used in the book and the terms are not clearly defined which make difficulty for further researches e.g. social intelligence, social competence and social effectiveness etc.
The book is not empirically based, however Goleman present a model of social intelligence and he identifies two categories of social intelligence: social awareness and social facility.
Social awareness: deals with sensing and perceiving important social clues including others' emotions and others' thoughts and intentions, and understanding complicated social situations.
Social facility: factors that allow an individual to effectively deal with others.
The author also noted that the above two categories are similar to the Thorndike's early definition of social intelligence (1920), with social awareness corresponding to the "ability to understand and manage men and women" and social facility corresponding to the propensity to "act wisely in human relations". He mentions the key points of the book that acc to Goleman social intelligence is simply more than processing social information and the relation between social effectiveness and emotional intelligence. The book is a good resource for research in the field of social neuroscience. Final word of the author is the book didn't address any extensive manner with the history of the concept of social intelligence or its measurement but broadly defined domain of social effectiveness.
Matousek, M., 2007. We're Wired to Connect. AARP magazine
The article is very close to my preferred leadership, and I am happy to write a brief review on it. We are surprise that how smile of a stranger transform the day great while a yawn can change the day exhausted. Author mentioned that Daniel Goleman also wondered that how it work and how we are connected to others mind without wire connected. Because breakthrough research in neuroscience, experts able to observe the activities of brain when we are in act of feeling. "The brain itself is social-that is the most exciting finding", mentioned by the Goleman. "One persons' inner state affects and drives the other person. We're forming brain-to-brain bridges- a two way traffic system-all the time. We actually catch other's emotion like a cold." My personal experience also supports the statement that a leader has a great power to influence followers and it applicable in office, at home, in a team and in the society. "If we have toxic relationships with people who are constantly putting us down, this has actual physical consequences" (Goleman, 2006).
Positive interactions secretes oxytocin hormone (the same chemical released during love making) which helps us to boost the immune system and decrease stress hormone. Stress produces a harmful chemical in our body called costisol, which interfere certain immune call in our body. Stressful environment impact on our health, relationship and performance. Goleman also mentioned about the mirror neuron: "neurons whose only job is to recognize a smile and make us smile in return". In a stressful working environment we forget to smile and communicate with colleagues and leaders also excuse their physical appearance with followers which impact the performance and create miscommunication. In a stressful environment staff often gets sick and quality of the work affects. Goleman believes that we stop treating people as objects or as functionaries who are there to give us something and have to promote richer human connection. Goleman also notice that we are losing social connectivity and more prone towards the digital connectivity which is not good for human brain "social interaction only can helps neurogenesis". Leader should be vigilant and need to connect faster with the followers' brain to understand them. The leader should have EI and SI, it will help them to improve their quality of leadership and will be more effective and followers will be cooperative and perform effectively.
Quintessential Leader Description
Arrington, A., 2009. Leadership and organizational theory the heart of the matter. Leaderlab, Vol. 1 Issue 2
"Leadership is much more than an art, a belief, a condition of the heart, than a set of things to do. The visible signs of artful leadership are expressed, ultimately in its practice" (DePree, 2009). Here are the great authors who did research on leadership and proposed leadership theories including charismatic, transactional, laissez-faire, servant and transformational. Here are some significant quotes of the great scholars and authors mentioned in the article:
"Leaders should be servant leaders who coach, influence and empower team member towards goal achievement" (Bennis & DePree, 1990 & 2004).
"Leadership is a result of knowing yourself and effectively communicating a clear vision while establishing trust among peers, colleagues and followers while ultimately owning your actions as an effective leaders" (Bennis, 1990).
"Leadership is an art and teaches stewardship over this art in regard to relationships evolving around effectiveness, principles, values and legacy towards mankind" (DePree, 2004).
"Leaders must possess clear vision and a willingness to serve as others will be drawn to this servant hood. A selfless and sacrificial nature attracts people" (Greenleaf, 1970).
"We need more broadly educated managers [leaders] with a focus on performance improvement, his key to effective leadership" (Wren, 2009).
These above lines are significant and insightful for leadership readers. Each of the lines is trying to view the different sides and style of leadership. A very good point mentioned by the author of the article that "there is multiple leadership styles have been researched, studied and applied so far but there is no one style is recognized as the all in all of leadership". Leaders used different style of leadership to adopt different situations and few leaders choose their preferred theory as they wish to lead. An effective leader should be choosing wisely the leadership theory to match the environment in which they are leading. Author says that "the team management approach is a proven and highly effective method that considers human, technical and conceptual aspects of the skill approach it is situational and can be highly motivating". "Leadership style is the essence of a leader's heart and soul and determines how the leader's hand and head are used" (Blanchard & Hodges, 2003) but it is not necessary that followers will follow the same preferred style of leadership as their leader.
The importance of leadership apparent when there is any crisis or conflict arises. We don't value of a coach or a captain when a team always wins rather than we say that the team is very good that's why always wins. When the same team suddenly underperforming then the club is looking for a leader coach and gives importance that can bring back the team on winning track. Leader-follower relationship is also creating a critical impact on growth and development of an organization. An effective leader can influence the follower with his effective leadership style and the followers can continue the same work started by the leader. "Mentoring is being real, it is being a catalyst, and being sometimes a kind of prophet. It is therefore far more art than science. It is about personal power, not expert or role power. The most powerful and most difficult part of mentoring is being who you are" (Bell, 2005). It will be always a critical phase for an organization when there is sudden leadership crisis arises due to an unforeseen reason. Leaders are not just hired to make the company profitable, a leader's responsibility to mentor and guide the followers and share his vision and experiences so that they also develop their leadership strength and follow the same strategy by the junior staff.
The new generation of courageous fellowship views from an inclusive and globally strategic perspective. To tune with the advance technologies diverse culture and global challenges, emerging and seasoned leaders should think and behave strategically. The strategically thought process ought to encompass a variety of leadership styles, behaviors and characteristics that embrace transformation and the evolution of change and which is essential to continually transform. Leadership is more than a science rather than an art and passion of an individual that how you act and react to a situation and how effectively influence followers. The article focus on today's evolving global business world challenges and characterizes leadership impact on organization's strategic perspective, using of strategic leadership and followership relationship.
Proposed Leadership Model or My Preferred Leadership Theory
In this competitive market and technological equipped society, we are surrounded with electronic gadgets and we are attached to these gadgets. Today's lifestyle, we cannot imagine a life without television, cell phone and computer etc. Now we are more mechanical minded as compared to earlier days because everyday use of mechanical gadgets. In earlier days, people interact with each other often for entertainment e.g. plays games, sharing emotions etc so they are more social minded than currently. The government, NGO and organizations are spending millions of dollar to promote social relationship within the family, organization and society or nation. Currently, in an organization staffs are working together but everybody is limited to their own cubical only interact when necessary. Organizations are spending valuable time and money to promote social interaction and to encourage team building among the staff. Today's leaders of an organization or a nation meet each other to discuss issues and there is an agenda of the meeting which limits the leaders to discuss beyond the agenda and so now leaders are also surrounded by boundaries.
In our organization we always regret on the leadership of our leader that he unable to understand the employees and frequently misunderstood among us. So the interpersonal relationship is not good which delay the task and create barrier to take initiative or to add value to our designated task. An organization is successful because of successful leader where he understands the employee better and has good interpersonal relationship which facilitates team work. Previous experience, environment, education and family background influence a leader and all these factors are collectively works together to build a character of a leader and his leadership.
For a global, multinational and multicultural company it is important that the leader have a better understanding of employees and knowledge of their culture. It will help the leader to get respect from the followers and cooperation to complete the task or to run the company.
So I personally prefer transactional theory, I wish to have a better understanding with my staff and the staff also feel comfortable to work under my leadership. It will help me to create stress-free working environment so that the staff are physically and mentally sound and they make more effort to improve the quality and increase the quantity of the product or services. Ultimately, the attendance of employees is regular and the company saves on medical expenses.
Many of organizations or companies top priority is to look beyond the traditional strategies for management development and recruits to create a cadre of leadership who are capable to move the company forward. And research shows that ineffective managers are expensive, financial burden for the organization but surprisingly half of the today's managerial pool is ineffective (Gentry & Chappelow, 2009). Transformational leaders need empathy in order to show their followers that they care for their needs and achievement (Brass, 1985). Many theories suggest the ability to have and display empathy is an important and fundamental part of leadership. "Empathy is the ability to experience and relate to the thoughts, emotions or experience of other. Empathy is more than simple sympathy, which is being able to understand and support others with compassion or sensitivity" (William 2007). The ability to be empathetic is especially important for leaders working in global organizations or across cultural boundaries (Alon & Higgins, 2005) or for leaders getting ready for expatriate assignment (Harris & Moran, 1987; Jokinen, 2005; Mandez-Rusell, 2001). I would also prefer to use more empathy in my workplace
To become a successful effective leader the best practice is to adapt according to the situation and demand of the task. Use your past experience and knowledge to take an appropriate decision. Every leadership theory has an advantage and disadvantage and not any of the theories or models that all-in-all as we have seen in the articles so it is difficult to adopt a particular theory to become an effective leader. Leadership involves leading or influencing people to develop shared values, vision, and expectations based on shared principles and behaviors and to advance organizational effectiveness. "If a person cannot influence others, they will not follow that person; and if they not follow, the person is not a leader" (John, 2002). Goleman mentioned that an average people can become an effective leaders if the person work on his emotional intelligence, it is not always necessary that with age EI will increase. One thing is yet not clear that how many days it will take for an ordinary person to be an effective leaders and what is the adequate age to start work on EI. It is very important factor to know that the brain itself is social but as we are always around the mechanical gadgets so it affect our brain to act mechanically. We are human being and we are social animal so it's good for us that we are more socialized. It will help to create stress-free environment and have good relationship. So empathetic leaders are effective and they are assets to the organization because they build and maintain relationships.