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My paper work will be concentrated on defining the question which I am interested on is: What Oil companies may see in Arctic region in Barents Sea and the opportunity to be involved in the process of developing?
First of all I will concentrate on the ideas as theoretical framework and practical dates, will define them to the idea how practice and theory may work together in the real life time. Here I will try to define the stakeholders perspectives and will use method which will be most useful in my field of definition. The literature which will be attached to my project work will support my ideas of researching the question which I am interested to get answer on it. I will collect data through the given information and will collect it. It gives answer that the main method which will be useful in my project work is quantitative, as the main method in the field of oil/gas or sustainability. As well support materials will be from the strategies and from the communities which have been involved in due work.
"The Arctic and our northern regions contain colossal wealth. We must create a Soviet organization which can, in the shortest period possible, include this wealth in the general resources of our socialist economic structure". - Josef Stalin, 1932.
In particular, the political tradition of experience with social democracy, and mixed capitalism with powerful trade unions have made the striving for consensus a major force in Norwegian society. We believe this experience has created its decisive 'corporate social responsibility' stamp on the moral way of thinking in Norway.
Why I am interested in this topic.
Delimitation to the limited research.
Development theory and historical chronology
Instrument of definition
Companies involved in Shtokman project
Regulations which have been signed up during the project process.
Philosophical point of view
Data validity and reliability
Last days we have been observing different situations, collecting materials, coming up with questions and doing conclusions. All these help us to realize in some cases, how I need to present major ideology end result through the busy time, where were connected, so much resources.
As have been discussed in the research method to collect data should be planed correctly, approach to do that expected to be planed or organized, as expected to be structured.
The main platform in the Arctic dialog was studying tour where we as students can be involved in real life stories where major topic related to the Arctic Dialog with huge problematical questions. Where in my opinion gave us possibility to built some approach or resolution - how we could present our resolution and in which form that shows the end result.
We do observe huge recourses of information which have been giving during the time period in the Arctic region, from the theoretical analysis, we have to observe as much as we can, whole type of information can be useful and important, but in my case I will concentrate my research idea on the relationship Between Russia and Norway in the Barents Sea, so this project got a name as Shtokman. What we know about it? Well from the searching information I can conclude that already were writing and presenting much information and dissertation about it, but I will try to maintain and come up with my own research which may give some understanding in case of study the research management.
We can observe the situation between oil and gas companies which do operate in the Barents invested in competence development, establishing new business contacts, and learning about offshore practice.1
1.1 Why this topic is interesting for me
The growth of the world market of energy resources is depended, first of all from the oil and gas, bringing possibilities to the politicians from all over the world to be active and establish new strategies to promote own national interests in the Arctic region. As well, they concentrate to develop science research and to learn more about Arctic with natural resources in it, as it is the main strategic region for developing. They provide militaries activities for tasting.
From previous research which shows that almost 25 % of the oil and gas are located in this region. This information became in danger for the North countries, as it is may pay attention from others to concentrate their mind on it. As we know from geopolitics and history that these resources did big damage in the life style of people.
The big concentration on developing, using or exploration oil and gas has influenced the Global warming which is growing rapidly and the huge amount of glaciers are melting as shown in statistical dates.
The developing process may help people to change the situation in the place where are they now, as we do live in Arctic region, we do want to extend cultural relation, to develop in a way with understanding the environmental and ethical aspects.
Delimitation to the limited research.
The delimitation process will help to narrow down the research of my topic where my concentration will be more delimitated on the information which I am interesting to define. Well, the idea of this process to define or limit the amount of the information where you will be more concentrated in. So, I will define geographically, the common project there and the research method2.
Geographically - my focus will be on the Barents Sea, I will try to define the population, communities, location and common resources there;
The common project there - well, it is Shtokmon and co-operation between Russia and Norway, and I will observe the agreement between them, as historically and legal document.
Research method - will control the findings, as the research in my paper will be stress on the Barents declaration between Russian and Norway.
"This is a historic milestone. The treaty resolves what for several decades remained the most important outstanding issue between Norway and Russia. We are pleased that we have now established the maritime boundary between Norway and Russia in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean," noticed Prime Minister Stoltenberg3.
My findings will be defined and observed from the law, books, personal interviews and on-line publican materials.
Political, business and general public attention paid to develop of the Arctic resource and to the Shtokman field in particular, has grown during the last decade in Russia and in the global perspective. The region in the Arctic shows the situation which is happening there and where the focus is concerned on the future security and on the resources of the vast hydrocarbon. The common demand to increase rapidly the amount of energy needed, energy companies' stress on the Region where they can get as much as possible, and common topic is the Arctic.
The main idea of developing the Sthokman is to transport the gas via pipeline to Europe, as well as shipment of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) to the Atlantic markets. The collaboration between does change the top place in the oil market of USA, as domestic production of shale gas created challenges for both Russian and Norwegian natural gas exports. Nowadays the both parts of the declaration to maintain, develop and analyze the Arctic in a way of investments for the Shtokman project due to changes in the oil and gas market.
The project was organized as the location with the largest gas condensate deposits in the Barents Sea in February 2008, and this project was established, as a company «Shtokman Development AG». Shareholders are Russian Gazprom, France's «Total SA» and Norwegian «StatoilHydro ASA» with shares of 51%, 25% and 24% respectively. The project is a long and expected to be til 2043. The project provides a complete cycle of gas field development from research to refining and transportation. The huge knowledge and experience do conduct the partner to this project from "Gazprom", "Total" and "StatoilHydro", the national and international specialists rotation (Russia - Moscow, Murmansk, St. Petersburg, United Kingdom - London, France - Paris, Switzerland - Canton Zug) technological and managerial solutions necessary for the success of this unique project. The successful development of the Shtokman field will be crucial in ensuring the supply of gas to international markets4.
A last thing to keep in our mind, is that all researchers imagine and construe theoretical representations in their own way, and this means that different researches will come up with different theoretical representations even though the general topic of the research may be the same. Three further characteristics of good research, whether it be grand or humble, and which distinguish it from activities such as decision-making or consultancy, are identified by Phillips and Pugh (2005). First, good research is based on an open system of thought. This requires continual testing, review and criticism of other' idea, and willingness to hazard new ideas, even if one can't find half a dozen references to support one's view. Second, one must always be prepared to examine data critically, and to request the evidence behind conclusions drawn by others. Third, one should always try to generalize the research, but within stated limits. This means attempting to extract understanding from one situation and to apply it to as many other situations a possible.
2.1. The empirical setting
The region in the Arctic shows the situation which is happening there and where the focus is concerned on the future security and on the resources of the vast hydrocarbon. The common demand to increase rapidly the amount of energy needed, energy companies' stress on the Region where they can get as much as possible, and common topic is the Arctic. This topic which is discussing in my paper during whole session is about the current legal regime which is common nowadays in the. The way to analyze or come up with conclusions is mainly concerned on the current resources there. The law and declarations which were suggested to be useful there, do play important role to operate there and do changes, as well as support the region in the way of high security of the Arctic region. It is true that the regime which is common there is un structured and for the investments are quit unknown to do correct the projects energy companies where the stress to exploration and the main object of this regime. "It is suggested that the Arctic States reconsider their current stance and explore the issue of a comprehensive and holistic legal framework for the high seas portion of the Arctic Ocean"5.
2.2. Social constructivism
I our case work I will use a positivism understanding which says that the key idea is that the social work exists externally and that its properties should be measured through objective methods, rather than being inferred subjectively through sensation, reflection and intuition. And social consructionism which has been developed by philosophers largely in reaction to the application of positivism to the social sciences, stems from the view that reality is not objective and exterior, but is socially constructed and given meaning by people.
'All good intellects have repeated, since Bacon's time, that there can be no real knowledge out that which is based on observed facts.' - Auguste Comte (1853).
This statement contains two assumptions:
An ontological assumption, that reality is external and objective;
An epistemological assumption that knowledge is only of significance if it is based on observations of this external reality.
According to Kuhn, science progress in tiny steps, which refine and extend, what is already known: but occasionally experiments start to produce results that do not fit into existing theories and patterns6.
Development theory and historical chronology
Development implies a process of social changes. The notion has its root in the original transformation of Western European societies or the rise of modern industrial societies.
Development involves: New institutional set ups and changed patterns of human interaction with their social and natural environment implying new social organizations of economic activities in order to satisfy peoples' needs and desires.
Two main perspectives: Growth and progress
Growth:. Economic growth is in focus. Economic models of relations between rates of savings and investments- capital formation, industrialization and economic growth;
Progress: Focus is on qualitative changes, human development, which can be enhanced by human knowledge and progressive movement of productive forces.
The process of economic transformation in countries involved both internal and external factors:
Internal factors: Natural resources: Raw materials, fish and timber, hydro-electricity.
Institutional factors: The state's role in economic planning, capital accumulation supporting a long term structural change; regulating interest rate, credit, price, wage etc., and in constructing infrastructure. Equal opportunity for higher and vocational education through state funds paving the path for intensified political participation7.
External factors: International opportunities: External impulses of technological revolutions from USA.
Instrument of definition
Strategic planning determines where the Shtokman project will move in the next few years or more, and then how it gets there. Usually, the process involves the entire organization, as a whole, or concentrates on a particular functional unit, such as department or area, well in our case it is Barents sea. Strategic planning is a dynamic process; it is living organisms that have evolved over time. Therefore, strategic innovation and mid-course corrections "Strategic Plan" should be the cornerstone strategy of the organization that wants to survive in a constantly changing and unpredictable climate of the business world8.
Providing our strategic direction is to determine the potential effects of the main problems and draw conclusions about what the current project takes in order to obtain long-term competitive advantage. These findings represent the overall results (strategic objectives), which should make the project and the overall methods (or strategies) to achieve these results. These conclusions or objectives should maximize the following characteristics: Identification, measurable, suitable for those who realize the goal, realistic, limited time.
At a certain stage of the strategic planning process (sometimes, in determining the strategic direction), we will formulate or update that can be called the strategic "philosophy". This includes the formulation or updating of a mission statement, vision and / or values â€‹â€‹of the organization8.
The final step is the so-called "contingency planning", action planning is the development of a detailed plan of the strategic objectives of our project. Action planning often consists of productions, under each strategic goal, objectives, or specific results. Thus, the strategic objective, usually linked to the implementation of intermediate targets - in this sense, the problem is the goal, but on a small scale. In our case, it will be associated with a strictly defined tactical move, which represents one of the methods needed to accomplish the task. Implementation of the strategy consists of the realization, as the Stokman project concerned to develop Arctic region, co-operate and open new activities together with Russia and supply the resources of oil and gas to the Europe, USA and Asian market.
Action planning also includes accountability, or agreement on the allocation of responsibility and timely implementation of each task between the affected parties. The process of planning must also disclose methods of monitoring and evaluation plan. These methods allow to understand, how the organization finds out who, what and when did it.
The budget is usually present in both the strategic plan, and in the operating room. Budgets also reveal details of how the money will be used, such as manpower, equipment, raw materials, etc.
Two years of the first phase of the Shtokman budget will be $ 800 million, and shared between the three main companies Gazprom, Total and StatoilHydro10.
Phenomenology, as it is commonly discussed in accounts of qualitative research, emphasized just the opposite. It aims to identify and describe the subjective experiences of respondents. It is a matter studying everyday experience from the point of view of the subject, and it shuns critical evaluation of forms of social life. So, in this point of view we will observe the companies and people, and how they studied from the previous spills of oil and what programmers in this case were provided.
Companies involved in Shtokman project
Do stress on the main study about the Shtokman we are drawing on a comparative study of two Norwegian oil companies as Statoil and Hydro, France Company Total and the Russian one Gazprom. It is argued that the holistic focus on history, implementation and outcomes of the innovation ideas brought by these companies potential to be involved in this huge project. The evidence shows that the institutional entrepreneurship can themselves only, to a small extent, change the existing norms of power and privilege in a top-down regulated context. Rather they can help to micro-actors associate and innovate. The kind of institutional work stimulates bottom-up change mechanisms which differ from adaptation to isomorphic pressure from environmental aspects11.
Regulations which have been signed up during the project process.
The Euro-Arctic Cooperation in the Barents Sea and the intergovernmental dealings in the Arctic region was happened in that time when the Foreign Ministers of Russia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and the European Commission were signed the Kirkenes Declaration on 11 January 1993. Norway -Russia Maritime Boundary Agreement signed September 13, 2010. (http://barinternational.no/about_kirkenes)
The Council program came up with idea from the Northern countries as Russia, Norway, Sweden and Finland, as to closer co-operation between them in the Barents region. As well as groups of indigenous people and some organizations and members of this region was connected to the Barents Euro-Arctic Council, where the object of the Forum is to promote and develop the Barents region12.
It is obvious that the contract with the Russian side is primarily for the benefit of the commodity lobby, which can not wait to start developing hydrocarbon deposits in the Barents Sea. The interests of the fishing industry have been grossly marginalized.
Meanwhile, nothing prevents Russia at this stage to negotiate with Norway's only section of offshore hydrocarbon fields, not at all referring to questions about the boundaries of exclusive economic zones, means fishery issues. So it was possible to deposit and withdraw, and to maintain the status quo in the fishery. And that status quo is certainly beneficial to our fisheries, which proves from the practice of the last 35 years.
Philosophical point of view
In this case we will observe the philosophical assumptions about the nature of the social world - ontology and epistemology which is concerned about the nature of different approved social knowledge. The subject matter of the social sciences is distinctive from that of the physical science. Social reality is an important subclass of reality, and its facts are facts only by human agreements. When it comes to the perspectives of institutional theory, contemporary theorists not only select different pillars (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive) to support their versions of institutional structure, but these pillars are constructed using varying types of ontological rules and making different ( epistemological) assumptions about how best to account for social behavior13.
Before adopting the data collection, it always helps to be clear about the overall objectives of the research. So to do that we have to concentrate our mind on:
We have to be suspicious of data collection that goes according to plan;
Research subjects have also been known to be people;
The evaluator's scientific observation is the person's real-life experience.
Total trust and complete skepticism are losers in the field. All things in moderation, especially trust and skepticism;
Pay attention to temptation in the field that it appears to have something to do with what we are studying;
Always carry extra batteries and gateway money.
From Halcolm's Fieldwork Laws
Purpose is the controlling force in research. Decisions about design, measurement, analysis and reporting all flow from purpose. Therefore, the first step in a research process is getting clear about purpose. The centrality of purpose in making methods decisions becomes evident from examining alternative purposes along a continuum from theory to action.
The practical significance of the research lies in the fact that its provisions may be used as well: a) in the activities of environmental protection, law enforcement and judicial bodies to consider cases of environmental violations;
b) In the government operations that perform public functions in the management and protection of the environment;
c) For the further research in this area;
d) In the law making activities in improving the existing environmental, administrative and criminal legislation, legislation on the territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Russian Federation;
e) The foreign activities of authorized government and management to conserve marine environment and its components, and in the learning process in teaching the courses "Environmental Law" and "International Law".
It will be always a number of people who will pay attention on the information which you are trying to define, and person who is going to protect as much as possible some information which he or his company tries to protect from the observation.
In my point of you it always has to be a partner or person which can protect or follow you during the case definition with the same view, experience in the interested filed.
In my case study I definitely will use interviews. So, I will use simple questions which will help a person start to be in an open, friendly position and may give him a chance to start to talk and to share the information with me. The starting point can be: "Can you tell me please about your background, working experience, how did you start to work in Energy Company or what is common or high-flown discussed topic in a case of oil and gas field?". As a result of several interviews may give a challenge to deal with them in a case of getting the important materials.
Validity and reliability
To do stress on the qualitative study which is associated with the freedom to choose definitions and develop interpretations of the data. The main poi nod the qualitative method is to make your work paper easier and softer, means that research supposes to be available to people, who is not scientists. The connection between data which we got and theoretical framework may connect them together and to do that you have to concentrate you mind in a proper way. For example, Chapman argues that the field is not open for the researcher's favorite explanations.
Theoretical explanations or interpretations are to be developed in a meaningful way, consistent with collecting the field data. The quality of this process has to do with the validity and reliability criteria. And both validity and reliability is the main concept which you may see in my paper work.
So, procedural reliability is about maintaining the approved research method. Contextual validity is about assessing each piece of evidence by comparing it with other kinds of evidence regarding the same issue. To make this process more transparent would represent a new approach to validity in qualitative studies. And to do so, multiple sources of evidence can be used.
Data analysis started from the obtained information into following categories: organized network, description of the key actors, experienced challenged, gotten result from the interviews, corresponding controls, the development of regional measures to protect the environment faces a number of complexities.
First proposed by representatives of the science of classification of protected areas are less suitable for use by legislators because of the different categories of multi-variant and regimes and we have to choose between the needs and better reflect the needs of environmental environment and opportunities of legal technique will be shown below, this choice does not always provide the optimal level of protection and conservation of natural systems in terms of increasing anthropogenic.
Regulatory framework of research are international treaties and conventions on the protection of the marine environment, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Russian federal legislation, the legislation of the European Community and individual Member States, laws U.S., Canada, Australia and some countries of the CIS.
Among the sources analyzed law - acts regulating the implementation of regional measures to protect the environment in general and the acts establishing the features of the implementation of such measures in the marine environment during the operation were also examined regulations establishing the characteristics of government in protecting the marine environment
Empirical basis of this research is the data about the environment, reports on activity of the authorities and administrative bodies on the implementation of territorial environmental protection measures in individual states, the materials of international intergovernmental, international and public organizations dedicated to the organization of regional measures to protect marine environment.
The degree of the elaboration of the research topic. The regional measures of the environmental protection, is a complex institution of environmental law implementation of such measures involves the use of legal resources related areas of law (including administrative, criminal, and civil). The choice of measures of legal protection of the territories in order to protect the environment or its components depends on the geographic, biological, economic and other knowledge necessary for effective resolution of complex social situations in connection with the imposition of restrictions on all or some activities on selected areas of legal tools used to deal with such social situations, in theory of law have been called legal regimes feature of legal regimes is precisely is the availability of its internal structure to provide the desired level of the diverse control of the social relations through a combination of methods and tools inherent in the various branches of law.
With regard to the territorial protection of the marine environment, to the general problems of constructing the legal regime is added to the question of the relation between international law and national legislation.
The administrative reform and the growing influence of the Russian Federation on the international scene aroused the interest of researchers to the problems of governance in the environmental field, including the marine environment devoted to these problems, in particular, work in a Vlasov14 "Public administration in the field of environmental protection and nature."
Should recognize that the subject (except for some publications associations) the scientific community has not been given special attention because among the variety of work carried out by Russian researchers in the various branches of law (international, international marine, administrative, ecological), the author could not find studies dealing with issues of legal regime of the territorial measures protect the marine environment, highlighting the need and timeliness of this work.
Novelty and scientific research results are as follows15:
- Carried out the collection, processing and analysis of the normative documents of the Russian Federation, foreign states and international organizations in the sphere of regional measures to protect the marine environment,
- Been demarcated legal regime of specially protected areas and protected areas on the basis of the characteristics of their organization and functioning of the marine environment,
- The basic directions of law-making in the organization of the legal regime of specially protected areas,
- Based on a review of scientific literature and regulations give definitions of basic concepts used in the organization and functioning of marine protected areas, and also highlighted their characteristic features.
Conclusion and Suggestion
As many decades the question between Russia and Norway has not been agreed in a case how to divide the Arctic region in the Barents region. Already in 2007 two countries agreed to distribute 120 km of the southern part of the disputed waters, which is located between Russia 'Rybaczkiy' and Norway 'Varanger' peninsulas. After three years of discussion they finally agreed the northern part and a part of the open sea. In 15 of September in 2010 has been signed up a declaration where 860 thousand km2 went to Russia and 510 thousand km2 went to Norway. In addition, the signed up agreement is allowed to remove the moratorium on geological prospecting.
Dispute between them opens for Russia great perspectives in the development of the Arctic resources. Thus, the northerners have unique equipment for deep drilling in the Polar latitudes. Without it, Russia can confront with difficulties to explore the Shtokman and many other fields. The Norwegians will not lose as well - their companies are connected to the Russian wealth.
It is difficult to overestimate the international significance of the signed up agreement. Russia, Norway, Denmark, USA and Canada are arguing in the case of dividing the Arctic shelf. All expect that Russia will join the NATO and theoretically are able to against them as an united front. Americans, Canadians and Danish have repeated that they will not give any piece of Arctic to Russia. Fortunately, the Norwegians were positive to find a solution and a potential anti - Russian block has been broken. How to assess this agreement? - Well this agreement is beneficial for Russia.
First, the fact that Russia is poorly technology developed, even for production of the hydrocarbons in shallow waters, and Norwegians have successfully begin to drill in deep water.
Secondly, Norway shows itself in negotiation process with Russia partners and does that in a flexible way, in contrast to all other contenders of the division the Arctic wealth. It is proven that by resolved agreement. Oslo did not raise a cry about some pressure from Moscow, they divided this region almost equally.
And third, a similar agreement is also the starting point for future improving relations between Russia and Norway in the case when other Arctic countries try to divide oil and gas resources, by pushing each other.
Collaborating together and supporting each other will better defend their position in the world.
Acknowledgement: I am grateful for the lectures of the Research Management with Jan-Oddvar Sørnes, which may give us understanding of the common research methods, and possibility to do research more about the Arctic region. Well, our study or more theoretical assumptions as a research gave us to be closer to the Norwegian - Russian collaboration.
From my research I can conclude that I still have to study more and organize my paper work in better way, but what we have studied during this semester gave me a possibility to get more knowledge in the methodological framework as a research management.
Qualitative and research and evaluation methods, 3 edition, M.Q. Patton, USA 2002.
Martinussen J.D: 1997: Society, State & Market: A guide to competing theories of development, Zed Books, London, Chapters Introduction, 1, 2, 3,4, 5, 7, 9 (102 pages).
Theory and society, W. Richard Scott, 2008, USA.
Approbation of the research results. Main provisions of the research reflected in the published papers, presented at the III All-Russian scientific-practical conference "Actual Problems of Jurisprudence" (Mr. Penza, September 2007), an international scientific-practical conference "Large marine ecosystems of Russia in the era of global change (climate, resources , control) (r Rostov-on-Don, October 2007).
'The future history of the Arctic' by Charles Emmerson, 2010, London.
'Oil and Gas law in a nut shell' by John S. Lowe, 2010, Southern Methodist University, US.
'Arctic Energy in EU Policy: Arbitrary interest in the Norwegian High North' by Kristine Offerdal.
'The Geopolitics of Petroleum and Natural Gas' by Andrew Browning lector