Applying The Social Entrepreneurship Concept Commerce Essay


This project is about applying the social entrepreneurship concept in the ICE-Port design.This project will be focused on the approaches to promote the social entrepreneurship activities via the ICE-Port.The ideas for the programs to be conducted are not only come from ISEC committee or MASMED, but it is also will enable all the ISEC members to give and start any related programs.The objectives of this project is to identify the social entrepreneurship concept, to identify the features for ICE-Port as social entreprenteurship concept and to design the ICE-Port.The implementation of this project will be in 3 phases, problem identification, requirement and and analysis and also design phases.This project is expected to complete within 2 semester.The anticipated result of this project would be ICE-Port prototype and SDD.



This chapter discusses the project background, problem statement, aim, objectives, scope and significance of the project. The project background presents the overview of proposed project and the problem statement will identify the problem occurs. Significance of the project is also stated in this chapter.

1.1 Project Background.

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Entrepreneurship programs were conducted among university students in order to expose students to entrepreneurial values and skills, which cover leadership, innovation, creativity, resilience, competitiveness, independence, calculated risk and the ability to identify and create opportunities (, n.d).

To enhance the entrepreneurship programme, The Higher Education Entrepreneurship Development Policy was launched on 13 April 2010. The aim of this policy is to encourage the development of entrepreneurship programs among higher education students in a holistic manner and well-structured program.The implementation of the policy is aim at producing graduates which not only success in academic but also have the entrepreneurs attributes, thinking and skills, to increase the number of entrepreneurs among graduates for the achievement of economic transformation (, n.d).

'Kemahiran Insaniah' program, one of the approaches introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for the development of human capital among university students has outlined entrepreneurship skills as one of the 7 elements as the objectives of the program (, n.d).

Before the implementation of the entrepreneurship policy by MOHE, UiTM one step further in develop and support the entrepreneurship elements among their students. UiTM has introduced entrepreneurship courses as an effort to promote entrepreneurship as a viable career option (Arshad, Buyong, Wahab & Salleh, 2011). This can be seen in academic study plan which entrepreneurship course has been highlighted as one of the compulsory subject in some faculities such as Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences (, n.d.).Other than that, one of the iniatitives is the establishment of Malaysian Academy of SME & Entrepreneurship Development (MASMED).MASMED is the combination of Pusat Pembangunan Usahawan Malaysia (MEDEC), Tunas Mekar and Entrepreneurship Research and Support Centre (ERSC) was established in April 2010 to conduct and organizes entrepreneurship programmes among UiTM students (,2011).MASMED responsible to produce entrepreneurs among the UiTM students and to build the entrepreneurship skills and values among the students to improve the marketability of employment. (,2011).

Besides the introducing of entrepreneurship course, UiTM exposed the entrepreneurship elements through the extracurricular and club activities (Arshad, Buyong, Wahab & Salleh, 2011). As defined by Dalrymple and Evangelou in 2006, extracurricular activities refer to the activities which are not covered in the university curriculum and it will take place outside the class time. Perlembagaan Persatuan UiTM in 2012 highlighted the activities will be conducted must provide some value to the targeted group, including entrepreneurship, academic, community service and leadership.According to Arshad, Buyong, Wahab and Salleh (2011), there are only 0.6% of UiTM students participated in more than 3 entrepreneurship activities while studying. This very small percentage is due to lack of promotion on entrepreneurship activities.

To support the MOHE and UiTM efforts in developing the entrepreneurship elements and interests among students, this project will be attempted to find an alternative to promote the activities to be conducted by designing a portal and applying the entrepreneurship concept and social entrepreneurship concept was chosen. As one of the student association, ISEC was chosen to reflect for this project. Since ISEC do not have any community engagement portal, social entrepreneurship concept will be applied for the design of ISEC community engagement portal (ICE-Port).In suppport MOHE and UiTM entrepreneurial mission, this portal will be functioned as one of the medium for ISEC community to gain information about ISEC and activities planned at the same time promoting the entrepreneurship activities.

1.2 Problem Statement

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The non existence medium to promote an entrepreneurship activities have causes the students to not participate in such activities.

In my informal discussion with Information Systems Engineering Club (ISEC) committee, current practices have been applied to promote or inform the students about the extracurricular and club activities is through the social network medium such as Facebook and through the messaging between the organizer and class representatives.There are issues arise with the current situation such as the students do not get the information because do not have social network account and class representatives unable to explain in details about certain activities.

And since ISEC is a student association, in solving the problem stated, as mentioned before, this project will be focused on the applying a type of the entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship was chosen because Minister of Higher Education Datuk Seri Mohamed Khaled Nordin in 2011 said this approach will gives students the opportunity to practice the process of innovative solutions by combine knowledge, entrepreneurship, and research experience.The approach, he said, can be used in order to organize programs to provide social change to the local community.Resolution of issues or problems faced by the community, he said, can be addressed through programs organized by their students through this approach. This concept more relevant to apply among ISEC committee because it is non for profit intiatives (Austin, Stevenson & Wei-Skiller, 2003) and the profit gain will be re-invested to the ISEC community.

1.3 Aim

To apply sosial entrepreneurship concept for the design of ISEC Community Engagement Portal (ICE-Port).

1.4 Objectives

The main objectives of this project are:

1. To identify social entrepreneurshipconcept.

2. To identify the functionalities for ISEC Community Engagement Portal (ICE-Port) according to social entrepreneurship concept.

3. To design the ICE-Port.

1.5 Scope

The implementation of this project is to assist ISEC Committee in applying the entrepreneurial concepts in their activities and engage the community of ISEC.

1.6 Project Stakeholders

The potential stakeholders for this project are:

1. MASMED Staff

2. ISEC Committee.

1.7 Significance of Project

1. Development Team.

This project can assist those who are interested to implement this project further.This is

because this project will design the project according to the social entrepreneurship

concepts and it will make easy for them to develop the system.

2. ISEC Community.

Once the project have been implemented, it will give benefits to ISEC committee and

community in terms of engaging the community and the information regarding ISEC

activities can be informed in more proper ways.



This chapter aim to review the relevant literature of the portal development concept, community engagement concept and social entrepreneurship concept.

2.1 Portal Development

2.1.1 Definition of Portal.

The portal is an single log-on online campus services which would provide students

with access to online university websites, and course information from any location.

(Cabacungan, Clark, Feldman, Flamm, Ford, etc.,2002). (n.d, as cited in Maltz, 2005) defined a portal as a website or

service which provides many services and functions such as news, search engines,

email, forums which can attract a huge number of users.

Whereas "What is Portal"(n.d) defined portal as all in one websites which contains

the collection of information from different sources and integrate it with single access

point.Tatnall (2005) described portals as a door which enables users to access to the

other websites by using internet, intranet or extranet.

2.1.2 Portal Classification

There are many types of portals as listed byTatnall in 2005 as described below:

1. General/Mega Portals.

The goal for this portal is to become the mainpage for their user to access to

the other websites.Free e-mail, links to chat room, shopping websites, contains

the information and news about sports and current issues are some of the

services provided by the general portal.They make their money through the

advertisement, and the success of this portal are measured by their number of


2. Vertical Industry Portals.

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These portals basically focused on the specific industries such as health care,

camping equipment and steel products.

3. Horizontal Industry Portals.

These portals are based around a group of industries and it provide their user

with the information on a wide area of topics.

4. Community Portals.

It managed by community groups to share their common interests among each


5. Enterprise Information Portals.

This portal designed for business-to-employee (B2E) processes. It enable the

employees to access and share data.Usually can be access using intranet


6. E-marketplace Portals.

It is an extended of enterprise information portals but it can be access to a

company's extranet connection. Very helpful for business-to-business processes

such as booking, reservation and supply of items. The aim to reduce cost and to

ensure the services or order will arrive on time

7. Personal/Mobile Portals.

This portal was designed to make easy for mobile user to communicate

especially from a distance.

8. Information Portals.

This portal contains specific types of information such the sports information

portals dedicated to provide information about sports.

2.1.3 Common Features of Portal.

A research done by Butters in 2003 shown there are common features in portal development. He listed as below:

Utilities which includes email account, calendar and planner.

User profiling-The information about an user based on their interests and background( Schiaffino & Amandi, 2009).

Resource discovery including subject-specific and single sign on.

News/News feed.

Community communication which contains message boards and online discussion.

Advertising refers as the advertisements through the using of internet.

Maltz in 2005 listed the common features of portal as below:

Single sign on- A single user identification and password will enable a user to access all authorized systems without having to log on in separately (Anchan and Pegah, 2003).

Role-Based authentication

News and announcement.

Search engine.


Student information system.


According to Cabacungan, Clark, Feldman, Flamm, Ford, etc (2002), agreed with Maltz in listing the common criteria of student portal specifically. They added student portal should have:

Learning Management System-Is an information system that monitors the learning courses and keeps track of student progress records (Brown & Johnson, 2007).

From a research based on the literature review, a functionalities that serves in student portal should have features as shows in the next table.



Author / Source

Identified Functionalities


What features in portal?

Butters, 2003



-User profiling

-Resource discovery


-Community Communication



-Miscellaneous services.


Leadership development program 2001/2002: Student portal project.




-Single sign on

-Role-Based Authentication

-Learning Management System

-Search engine


-Student Information System.


Portals:A Personal Door to the Information Enterprise


-Single sign on

-Role-Based Authentication

-Search engine


-Student Information System.

-News and announcement


2.4.2 Types of Open Source For Portal Development.

In this section, researcher identify several open source application framework to be

choose for the designing the ICE-Port prototype.There are several application framework

identified, as described below.

1. Jetspeed.

According to, Jetspeed, written in Java language

is a Apache Sofware Foundation product, an open source for the development a

portal. Released under the Apache License, all access to the portal is controlled

through a portal security policy Provided tools for developers and user interface

designers, the aim of Jetspeed is to allow the quickly portal development. It

supports a variety of access medium such as web browsers and mobile devices

and has been widely implemented.


Using an open standards-based technologies such as Java and XML, uPortal

provided an easy single sign on campus application and end user customization.A

special factor of uPortal is it is focuses on the development of universities portal.

Nevertheless, it still provided the common features of portal.

3.LifeRay Portal

A free MIT licensing fees, LifeRay is designed for ease of use and provided

functionalities such as blogs, wikis and message boards.It allows the end users to

customize their pages using predefined portlets or gadget.





Table 2.4.1: Comparison between open source to be selected and used for prototyping.

2.2 Community Engagement

2.2.1 Definition.

In the Principles of Community Engagement Second Edition, the authors

described community engagement as:

"...the process of working collaboratively with and through groups of people affiliated by

geographic proximity, special interest, or similar situations to address issues affecting

the well-being of those people".

Communities Scotland(2007) explained community engagement is the process of

involving people in decisions that affect them, by involving communities in the planning,

development and management of services. stated, with the community engagement, it can help:

To introduce the online communication for campus, groups or clubs.

Be more efficient in delivering news and announcement based on the user's role.

Support multiple unit with different needs.

2.2.2 Community engagement model.

According to Hashagen in 2002, there are 6 models for community engagement

as described below:

1. Consultation/public participation models.

This model is often use by public authorities in getting the opinion from the society and community.It includes surveys, forums and discussion and opinion polls.

2. Asset-based/social economy models.

These focus on recognising the value of the physical assets and human

resources of a community, and try to maximise the community control over,

and benefit from these assets.

3. Community democracy models.

These set out to extend local democracy into the community by, in effect,

establishing an informal community tier of government.

4.Identify based models.

Typically it is come from the minority groups.

5. Learning-led and popular education models.

It focused on building and supporting the skills and interests among

community members.It will inform the members about training,employment and

skills development opportunities.

6.Service development models.

This model aim to help in identify the community problems and find a way to

solve the problem. For example this model was applied by youth club, sports

club and many other clubs by act as a volunteer.

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation as cited by ......listed community engagement models in 5 ways:

1.Providing Information.

Provide information about activities to the community.


Community allowed to give any feedback or opinions regarding any issues.

3.Deciding together.

Involved community in decision making.

4.Acting together.

Making and acting together in decision making.

5.Supporting independent community interest.

Gives support to committee to develop their agenda.



Author / Source

Identified Models


Models of Community Engagement

Hashagen, 2003


-Consultation/public participation models.

-Asset-Based/social economy models.

-Community democracy models.

-Identify based models.

-Learning-led and popular education models.

-Service development models.


Good practice in community engagement from an equalitive perspective.

Equality and Human Rights Commission,2009.


-Providing information.


-Deciding together.

-Acting together.

-Supporting independent community interest.

Table 2.2.2 The models of community engagement.

From the review of community engagement model, researcher choose to apply the models as described by Equality and Human Right Commission in 2009, which are the combination of providing information model, consultation, acting together and supporting independent community interest model.Researcher found all these models more relevant to be applied because ICE-Port will provide the information about the ISEC and programs will be conducted, allow community to give an opinion about any related issues,and it will give support to community to develop their agenda.

2.3 Entrepreneurship

2.3.1 Definition

According Martin and Osberg (2007), entrepreneurship can be defined as the

identification, ability and opportunity to create a new business or enterprise with the

intention to bring something new to the world.

Entrepreneurship can be referred as the process of creating something new which

has to have value to the stakeholders, or people for which it is developed,have return

values to an entrepreneur and assuming risks such as financial, phsycological and social

areas (Hisrich, Robert, Peters & Shepherd, 2005). defined entrepreneurship as the ability and readiness to

take any risks in order to make a profit through the development and organization of

business venture.

2.3.2 Types of entrepreneurship

Blank (2011) listed there are 4 types of entrepreneurship which can be described

as below:

Business Entrepreneurship.

Social Entrepreneurship

Is an entrepreneurship concept which focuses on the solving of social needs by producig products and services.It can be for profit or non profit but it is not to create profit for the investors.

2.3.3 Entrepreneurship principles.

2.4 Social Entrepreneurship

2.4.1 Definition.

Hibbert, Hogg and Quinn in 2001 has defined social entrepreneurship as the

applying the entrepreneuship principles for social mission impact rather than for profits

and that profits will be used to solved a social needs to specific group.While Pomerantz

in 2003 defined social entrepreneurship as either individual social entrepreneurs and

non-profit organizations action in the development of innovative, mission supporting and

creating jobs.Lasprogata and Cotton (2003) agreed social entrepreneurship as the non-

profits organizations approach which will give a greater impact on their social mission by

applying the entrepreneurial principles.

Social entrepreneurship as defined by Dees is the combination of social principles

and business principles and it is differentiated from the other types of entrepreneurship

by its mission related impact (Barley, 2009). According to Seelos and Mair (2005), social

entrepreneurship refers to the effort for compitently fulfill basic human needs which

unable to satisfy by using current system. It is also the combination between the

traditional entrepreneurship with some added value to change society.

Nicholls(2006) agreed social entrepreneurship as the using the existent resources

to bring social impacts through the innovative activities and creating new

opportunities.Mair (2008) also defined social entrepreneurship as the process to satisfy

basic needs which unable to satisfy by the organizations involved with the objective to

make improvement in social and economic structure.In other words, social

entrepreneurship can be defined as the identification of new solution and opportunities to

address the problem of unequal distribution of social which results from conventional

systems ("Defining Social Entrepreneurship",n.d).

Another definition by Zadek and Thake (1997, as cited in Noruzi, Westover &

Rahimi, 2010) social entrepreneurship is the innovation with the mission to

create social impact rather than personal or profit impact. As cited in SME's

Entrepreneurship and Innovation in 2010, Cochran (2007) defined social

entrepreneurship as the solving of social problems by applying the entrepreneurship

principles.Zhara, Gedajlovic, Neubaum, Shulman (2008) as cited by SME's,

Entrepreneurship and Innovation in 2010 suggested social entrepreneurship as the

mission to bring social wealth through its activities and creating new opportunities and

ventures in an innovative way.

2.4.2 Differences between social entrepreneurship and business entrepreneurship

There are many discussion about the differences between business and social entrepreneurship. Boschee and McClurg (2003) differentiate the business and social entrepreneurship as stated below:

Social Responsibility

Business entrepreneurship generally do no put a direct effort on solving the social problems. This form of entrepreneurship plays their social roles through charity program such as donation and have a good relationship with their employees.

Whereas social entrepreneurship effort are directly attached to social problems. For example the social entrepreneurs will hire disabled, living in poverty and former prisoners who are difficult to get a job.

Performance Measurement

Business entrepreneurship measured their performance by financial results. The success or failure of project is determined by the economic value to the owners or investors.

Social entrepreneurship performance are measured by both social and financial returns The profit are re-invested to achieve the social mission.

Mair and Marti in 2006 described the differences between business and social entrepreneurship as below:


Business entrepreneurship priority given to economic value.

Whereas social entrepreneurship priority given to social value. This does not mean the profits do not necessary in social entrepreneurship, it is also important to ensure the effort sustainability and self-sufficiency.

Uhlig(n.d) with the same opinion also stated:

Perception of Value.

For business entrepreneurship, the entrepreneur and investors will focus for the return on investment as the main value.

While social entrepreneurship lies in the social impact and benefits which can solve the social problems and needs. The value for profit also important to re-invested for the next social entrepreneurship activities.

Wealth Creation Approach.

"The business entrepreneurship is driven to innovate within a commercial market, to the ultimate benefit of consumers. If successful, the innovation creates wealth. The venture's success is gauged by how much wealth it creates".

"To the social entrepreneurship, wealth creation is necessary, but not for its own sake. Rather, wealth is simply a tool the entrepreneur uses to effect social change. The degree to which minds are changed, suffering is alleviated or injustice is reversed represents the organization's success."

2.4.3 Differences between social entrepreneurship and charity(traditional non-profit)

Social entrepreneurship also differed from charity. Meldrum in 2011 described the differences as below:

Role of Social Value Creation.

The charity exist to redistribute income collection to those needed.

While social entrepreneurship creating the new ideas in order to improve and give benefits to society.

Social Structure.

Charity works within existing structures in society.

However, social entrepreneurship will identify the social problems and creates opportunities to solve the problem.


Charity to ease of burden while social entrepreneurship purpose is to improve the social condition.


In terms of financial, charity primarily financed through donation while social entrepreneurship financed through the conducted activities.

While Boschee and McClurg in 2003 differentiate social entrepreneurship and traditional non profit as belows:

Sustainability and Self-Sufficiency.

Charity has been driven by a dependency model, relying primarily on voluntarism and governement or upper management support in terms of income.The authors also believed as long as the charity organization depends on the third party, they will never become sustainable and self sufficient.

For social entrepreneurship, the help from the government and volunteer are welcome, but they do not primarily depends on it.

Based on the definition and comparison between social entrepreneurship concept and the other concepts, in general, social entrepreneurship can be clearly described as below:



Social Mission

Business Principles




Hibbert, Hogg & Quinn(2001)





Pomerantz (2003)




Lasprogata & Cotton(2003)





Dees as cited by Barley(2009)



Seelos & Mair (2005)






Mair (2008)


Defining Social Entrepreneurship (n.d).



Zadek and Thake(1997) cited by Noruzi, Westover &

Rahimi, 2010





Cochran (2007) as cited by SME's

Entrepreneurship and Innovation(2010)



Zhara, Gedajlovic, Neubaum, Shulman (2008), as cited by SME's

Entrepreneurship and Innovation(2010)




Austin, Stevenson, Wei-Killer(2006)








Boschee & McClur(2003)




Table 2.4 The element of social entrepreneurship

From the literature review, researcher has identified the social entrepreneurship concept related to be applied for the design of ICE-Port. In general, all the literature stated shared the same ideas about the social entrepreneurship that are its objective is to resolve the social problem, and the programs are social entrepreneurs innovation and it is applied business entrepreneurship principles. Social entrepreneurship also is for non-profit organization which gaining and re-investing profit for the next entrepreneurial programs.From the literature, researcher agreed on Hibbert, Hogg and Quinn review.They has defined social entrepreneurship as the applying the entrepreneuship principles for social mission impact rather than for profits and that profits will be used to solved a social needs to specific group.This opinion more relevant for this project because it is not only focus on the social mission but also applying entrepreneurship principles as stated in the literature early.Since ISEC is a non-profit association, the profit gain from the programs conducted will be reinvested for the next ISEC programs.This project also will not only focuses on ISEC community social needs, but it will looking to the wide area of social problems which cannot be satisfy by the conventional approach.From the researcher perspective, it is not necessarily to innovate new programs, but it can also adapt the existence social mission programs, according to UiTM students environment.

2.4.4 Features in Social Entrepreneurship Websites.

Dees (2001) stated the term of social entrepreneurship may be something new but the phenomenon is not. There are many social entrepreneurs before even nobody call them with that term.For a long time, entrepreneurship does benefits society by producing new, useful and valuable products and provides more job opportunities. (Austin, Stevenson & Skillern, 2006). Martin & Osberg (2001) also stated the rebranding by using the social entrepreneurship term is rapidly attracting attention from many sectors.

In 2006, the Nobel Prize Award to Mohammad Yunus, the founder for the Gramen Bank which has helped thousands of people, mostly women, out of poverty, thrust social entrepreneurship into the global attention (Noruzi, Westover & Rahimi, 2010). He believed that the poor people have under-utilized skills because of the conservative systems and structures fail to provide the necessary resources to them. From this issue, he founded the Gramen Bank in 1976 to provide loans to the poor people in his hometown,Bangladesh (Seelos & Mair,2005).Other than Yunus, there are many social entrepreneurs and they are using internet platform in promoting their social mission.Researcher have done some review on the social entrepreneurship websites to identify the features of social entrepreneurship websites.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT)

In support their students social interests and needs, MIT provide a wide range of support for social activities.It help students to get involved in the social issues and serve communities itself.The features provided in are:

What We Do-Describes the activities among their communities involved such as volunteering program, fellowship and internship, grants and service learning.

Opportunities-Includes the public service projects outside the campus such as:

Service Fair -It's a great opportunity to find out about community service that matches your interests.

Civic Engagement-Interaction among communities and government including participate in political rally and voting registration.

Yunus Challenge-New waste exploitation such as medical equipment waste and waste management.

Davis Project For Peace-For MIT undergraduate students, this program provide $10 000 fellowship for project that promotes peace, to be implemented during a summer.

Support the PSC with donation-Special programs for MIT alumni association who want to keep supporting the program by give a donation.


Buzzbnk is an online crowd funding platform that promoting social ventures to all walks of life and gaining fund for the needs of the community to make the ideas become reality. The community can spend their money and time, and also bring the social message among their friends.Buzzbnk charges 5 percent fee on fund raised for each venture.According to, the features were included are:

Explore Projects contains the lists of project have done and upcoming projects.Examples of projects are Provide Sustainable Homes for Women, Pants to Poverty and Our No Spray Potato Can Feed the World.

Searching which specified on the social entrepreneurship elements such as search for highest funding project, highest funding amount, most popular project and just started project.Users also can search based on the categories such as animals, art, education and environment.

Make a Loan-The details on how to be the fundraiser.

Submit Project- Allow their community to bring the idea to make funding become reality.


Was founded in 2005, Kiva is a non-profit organization with a mission to engage

people through their activities in reducing the poverty rate.Kiva lets individuals lend

from $25 to help people in need.Social entrepreneurship features included in Kiva

website, are:

How Kiva works-Describe the processes to involve in Kiva activities.

Kiva Social Performance-Identify individual social performance strength such as Anti-Poverty, Vulnerable Group and Family and Community Empowerment.

Community-contains list of members which have lend their money according to the specific social group such as alumni, business, religious, youth and sports.

Start some good

According to Ueland (2011),Start Some Good is a site for social entrepreneurs to

gather a community and raise the funds needed to create change. Its goal is to be the

best platform for social entrepreneurs to launch and grow the innovative ventures

needed to improve communities and the world. Anyone including for- profit and

nonprofit organization can involves in fundraising campaigns. It charges 5 percent of

the amount raised.Features included in are:

Support good-Promoting and supporting the social activities organized by the other party.

Discover good-Contains lists of discover ventures such as Do Good Bus, Real Good Food and LearnToLive.

Start good-The community can start and suggest their ideas on social ventures and the Start some good committe will provide the resources to start the activities.This is to enable their community to create the future they want for their communities.

Community-Start some good community registration and engagement.

From a research based on the literature review, a functionalities that serves in social entrepreneurship websites should have features as shows in the next table.





Start some good

How it works?




Allow community to start any new project




Lists of projects





Searching based on social service interests





Alumni social services programs.




Table 2.4.4 Social Entrepreneurship websites features.

The review on the common features of social entrepreneurship websites also help researcher to understand its concept.From the literature review of the common websites features of social entrepreneurship concept, researcher can conclude the important features to be included are how does the portal work for the social entrepreneurs to involved and express their ideas towards the activities to be conducted, the different social entrepreneurship projects categories such as about environment, humanity, animals and education.Other than that, the portal users should able to find the social programs according to their interests and the ISEC alumni should get involved in the programs by conducting the special social mission programs for them.

2.4 Summary.

In this section, the discussion of related literature review has been made to support this project. From the analysis of the Table 2.4, researcher has agreed with Hibbert, Hogg and Quinn review. Basically all of the authors shared the same idea, but the idea from these authors more relevant to be applied in ICE-Port.From the Table 2.4.4, researcher has choose to combine the all 4 common features from the social entrepreneurship websites, which are the description of the procedure to be involved in the program conducted, it will allow their community to start any new project, ICE-Port also will included the list of the projects with the details, provide search function based on social entrepreneurs interest and will allow ISEC alumni to get involved with the programs.



This chapter describes about project methodology, phases, activities and its deliverables.

3.1 Methodology.

This project uses the methodology as described in Figure 3.1 as a guideline to achieve the aim of the project. It consists of three phases. This methodology is important to ensure the objectives of this project can be achieved. Figure 3.1 illustrates the overview of the project approach and methodology that will be used in designing the ICE-Port.




Problem Identification

-Discuss current problem with ISEC committee.

-Collect the journal and articles and analyze on social entrepreneurship concept.

-Review the literatures on the common features of student portal.

-Review the literatures on the common features of social entrepreneurship websites

-Description of problem statement, aim, acope, objectives and the significance of project.

-The concept of social entrepreneurship identified.

-The common features of student portal identified.

-The common features of student portal identified.

1st objective-Project proposal.

Requirement and Analysis

-Analysis and selecting functionalities for ICE-Port.

-Analysis and selecting the functionalities of ICE-Port with the social entrepreneurship concept.

- Requirement verification

Develop prototype of ICE Port on selected SE functionalities.

Create verification check template.

-Verify functionalities of a SE in ICE-Port through prototype demonstration with the user.

-Description of functionalities of ICE-Port as according to SE concept.

-SE functionalities for ICE-Port are identified.

-The prototype for ICE-Port is demonstrated and verified.

-Checklist of verification on prototype.


2nd objective


-Designing model

Identify suitable application framework

Customized the design of selected application framework according to SE functionalities

-ICE-Port prototype designed.


-Project demonstration by applying SE prototype.

3rd objective

Figure 3.1 Project Methodology.

3.2 Methodology Description

3.2.1 Problem Identification Phase.

In this phase, a preliminary interview session is prepared to assist the researcher to

conduct an interview.The aim of conducting the interview is to identify the problem of the

project. For this project, researcher has done informal discussion with ISEC committee.

Problem statement, the aim, scope, objectives and significance of the project has been

identified.To gain the understanding on the social entrepreneurship concept, researcher

has collect and analyze the journals and articles on social entrepreneurship.Researcher

also has review on the common features of portal and social entrepreneurship websites.

The deliverables of this phase are the description of problem statement, project aim,

objectives, scope and significance of project, social entrepreneurship concept

identification, the common features of student portal and social entrepreneurship

websites, project schedule and the project proposal.

3.2.2 Requirement and Analysis.

In this phase, the activities to be conducted are analysis the functionalities of ICE-

Port according to the social entrepreneurship concept and the identified functionalities

will be selected for the design of ICE-Port. The requirement verification will be conducted

through the prototype demonstration with the user. The deliverables of this phase are

the description of functionalities of ICE-Port as according to social entrepreneurship

concept, the checklist on the verification of prototype and SRS will also be produced.

3.2.3 Design.

In the design phase, researcher will find and identify the suitable application

framework for the development of portal and model will be designed. The selected

application framework will be customized according to social entrepreneurship

functionalities. The deliverables of this phase are SDD, and designing the final prototype

for ICE-Port.

3.3 Summary.

This chapter discussed on the methodology to be used for the project.Project methodology is important for the researcher as a guideline and ensure the researcher to not deviate from the project scope.Currently, this project has done the first phase that is problem identification.





This section will describe the project plan and work breakdown structure for this project.

5.1 Project Timeline

The planned schedule of this project as described in Table 5.1 below.



Duration (Days)




Semester 5 - Project Formulation


10 Sep 2012

27 Dis 2012


Problem Identification


10 Sep 2012

17 Sep 2012


Identify Research Area


Identify Supervisor





Individual Assessment


21 Sep 2012

27 Dis 2012


Project Topic


21 Sep 2012

23 Sep 2012


Preliminary Investigation


24 Sep 2012

8 Oct 2012


Research Background


15 Oct 2012

19 Oct 2012


Project Aim, Scope, Objective and Problem Statement Submission


4 Nov 2012

6 Nov 2012


Literature Review Submission


3 Nov 2012

4 Nov 2012


Develop Research Methodology


5 Nov 2012

13 Nov 2012


Mock Up Presentation


17 Nov 2012

18 Nov 2012


Proposal Presentation


 26 Nov 2012

 13 Dis 2012


Proposal Submission


10 Dis 2012

27 Dis 2012



Duration (Weeks)

Start (Month)


Semester 6 - Project Formulation



Requirement Analysis


Analysis and selecting the functionalities of ICE-Port with the social entrepreneurship concept.


Feb 2013


Preparing SRS and prototype




Requirement Verification and Validation







Find suitable application architecture framework.


Identify design of selected application framework


April 2013



SDD and Prototype


Customized the design of selected framework according to SE functionalities


May 2013

Table 5.1

The project timeline is important to estimate the duration of your project, and identify order in which activities should be performed.Currently this project has done with Semester 5 project formulation timeline.The next stages will be started on February 2003.The project estimation by using Gantt Chart is attached in the Appendix section.



This chapter discusses the description of the expected result of proposed project and the conclusion.

6.1 Anticipated Result

The anticipated result from this project is to design an ICE-Port based on the analysis of the identified social entrepreneurship concept.The design will be represented in a prototype and SDD.This project is expected to be completed in two semesters (refer to the project schedule in Appendix).

6.2 Conclusion

The implementation of this project tends to address the less of the participation in the entrepreneurship activities problems among UiTM students. Since ISEC committee facing a problem on promoting their activities to the community, ISEC was chosen to reflect for this project.Social entrepreneurship concept was chosen because it is more suitable in the students environment.With the anticipated result explained above, it is expectantly that this project will give benefits for the ISEC community and the announcement or promotion for the entrepreneurship activities can be more effective and attractive.


Academic study plan which entrepreneurship course has been highlighted as one of the compulsory subject in some faculities.