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April 2004, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust became one of the first Foundation Trusts. After a year they became a teaching hospital to train the next generation of doctors. They made their hospitals some of the safest in the country.
Mainly individual distinguish the Foundation Trust through the two hospitals - Bradford Royal Infirmary and St Luke's Hospital, where they think about for the majority of local people. The hospital provides many services by a scope of health professionals in the area, such as doctors, nurses, midwives and physiotherapists. And also they provide these services in different locations such as GP practices, community hospitals and other neighbouring hospitals in Airedale, Halifax and Huddersfield.
April 1, 2011 a range of community and intermediate care services were integrated into Bradford Teaching Hospitals. Services which transferred included those delivered from the local community hospitals (Westwood Park and Eccleshill), a scope of services delivered by GPs with Special Interest in gynecology and urology, and services for stroke, TIA, sexual health, heart failure, cardiac rehabilitation, diabetes, Parkinson's and hemoglobinopathy.
Bradford hospital are well known for the specialist services like treating many different types of cancer, using specialist scanners for better investigations, treating children with metabolic problems, people with heart and circulation of blood problems and delivering the only cochlear implant service in Yorkshire for deaf people.
This organization has historically provided treatment very quickly compared to other hospitals in the country. They have significantly reduced the risk of infection through better facilities such as new wards, ensuring all of the staff is trained and making sure everywhere is thoroughly cleaned.
"Bradford hospital mission is to provide the best quality safe healthcare to the people of Bradford and West Yorkshire. We will secure major advances to future generations through innovation, education and research. In partnership with others we will work to improve the health of local people." (Bradfordhospitals.nhs.uk)
In this task you will need to analyze the impact of motivational theory and evaluate leadership styles and theory
Evaluate leadership theories within an organization of your choice
Theories of Leadership
Traits theory- this leadership theory is based on the personality of many leaders of the organization and used to predict the effectiveness of the leadership. This approach classify the physiological, demographic, personality, intellective, task related, and social characteristics with leader appearance and leader effectiveness. (managementstudyguide.com)
Behavioral theory- present a new viewpoint, one focuses on the behavior of the leaders as different to their mental, physical or social characteristics. This theory are separated the leaders in two categories one is concerned with the tasks and other is concerned with the people. (leadership_central.com)
Contingency Theories- leadership as being more flexible-different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance.
States that leadership effectiveness depends on degree of fit between a styles and qualities of leaders specific context or situation
Transformational theories- the process by which an individual engages with others and is able to create a connection that results in increased motivation and morality in both leaders and followers.
It describes that how leaders can begin, improve and implement the important changes in organization
Leaders motivate followers by communicating a long term vision that is explained in clear objectives of the organization.
Invitational theories- this theory of leadership consider the notion of shared leadership and authority that is based on cooperation. Invitational theory scope is to gain a more harmonious team and a sense of belonging
Transactional theories: focuses on the interactions that take place between leaders and followers. This theory is often likened to the concept of and practice of management. (managementhelp.org)
Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust the organization which I choose the leadership theory I think they used transformational theory because they focus in the widespread changes in the organization. The leaders try to improve and implement the important changes in organization. They have a clear objective and the leaders motivate workers by communicating a long term vision. And leaders are motivated and adopting different important changes to fulfill the long term visions of the organization.
For example they have clear and equality objective for each organization
1. Improve EDS grades year on year:
2. Improve EDS process, year on year
3. Ensure that services better meet the needs of trans people
4. Make information more accessible - to better meet needs of visually impaired people, Deaf people and people with language / literacy issues
5. Improve the access and experience of BME patients and service users
6. Reduce inequality experienced by BME staff and applicants
7. Increase the diversity of Trust / CCG boards / boards of governors and their understanding of equality issues:
8. Determine whether people from protected groups are disadvantaged by the Complaints process: (Bradford teaching Hospital.com)
Evaluate the impact of managerial styles on organizational effectiveness
Types of leadership styles
Autocratic style- leaders inform the staff what they want done and how they want to complete without getting the advice of the group. Some used when they have all the information to solve the difficulty, some are short on time and the employees are well-motivated.
Democratic style- the leader involves one or more member of staff in decision making process (what to do and how to do it). Still in the leader's authority the final decision making. This style used when the leaders have part of the information and the employees have other parts.
Laissez faire (free reign) - the leader of this leadership give the authority to the employee for decision making. However, the leader is in charge still for the decisions that are made. They used when the leader fully trusts and confidence in the people inferior to them. (nwlink.com)
Paternalistic style- Leader acts as a 'father figure'
Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult
Believes in the need to support staff
The leadership style of Bradford hospital I think they used democratic leadership because the leader are looking for consultation on all major issues and decisions. The leader welcomes feedback on the result. They include the followers for the decision making process but still the leader have the control for final decision. Through this leadership style they assist the employees to widen their skills.
They draws on people's knowledge and skills, and creates a group obligation to the resulting goals
For example the directors and members work together to define key aspect of a future strategy for the foundation and they get opinion from the follower on this strategy before they lunch the revise version.
Analyze how motivational theory can inform employee motivation
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 - 1917) put forward the thought that workers are motivated mostly by pay. His Theory of Scientific Management argued the following:
Workers do not obviously enjoy job and so need close command and control. Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks
Workers should then be given proper training and tools so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task.
Workers are then paid according to the number of items they make in a set period of time- piece-rate pay.
As an effect workers are confident to work hard and make the most of their productivity.
Taylor's approach has close links with the theory of an autocratic management style (managers take all the decisions and simply give orders to those below them) and Macgregor's Theory X approach to labour (workers are viewed as lazy and wish to avoid responsibility).
However workers soon came to dislike Taylor's approach as they were only given boring, monotonous tasks to carry out and were being treated little better than human machines. Firms could also give to lay off workers as productivity levels increased. This led to an increase in strikes and other forms of industrial action by dis-satisfied workers.
Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949) believed that employees are not just worried about the money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor ignored). He introduced the Human Relation School of thought, which determined on managers taking more of an interest in the workers, treating them as individuals who have worthwhile opinions and realising that workers enjoy interacting together.
From Mayo theory concluded that employees are best motivated by: Better communication, Greater manager involvement, and working in groups or teams.
In practice therefore businesses should re-organise production to promote greater use of team working and initiate personnel departments to support greater manager involvement in looking after employees' welfare. Mayo theory most closely fits in with a paternalistic style of management. (Jim Riley, 2012)
Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) together with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950's, which focused on the psychological needs of staff. Maslow theory put forward that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at job.
All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy and only once a lower level of need has been fully met, would a member of staff be motivated by the possibility of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. For instance, someone who is dying of hunger will be motivated to attain a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about having a secure job agreement or the respect of others.
A business should therefore recommend different incentives to staff in order to help them accomplish each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy. Managers should also recognise that employees are not all motivated in the similar way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may hence have to propose a slightly different set of incentives from worker to worker.
Frederick Herzberg (1923-) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were definite factors that a business could establish that would directly motivate people to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not there but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygienefactors)
Herzberg understood that businesses should motivate workers by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are: Job enlargement, Job enrichment and Empowerment (Jim Riley, 2012)
Several theories about motivation of the worker have developed from Leaders and management, particularly from HR managers. Motivation is best explained as the reason that cause and sustain behavior.
Motivational theory explains how the employee should be motivated and what it impacts on organization.
Motivational theories assist to inform managers about how they should care for
their staff in order to attain the highest levels of employee motivation.
Similar to other management theories, motivational theory has evolved from early approaches, which required the one "correct" model for motivating staff, to
more modern approaches, which understand that motivation arises from the interaction
of both individual and environmental factors. Motivational theories will help the worker to turn into a successful leader or manager.
The motivational Theories are significant and are still well
regarded, the focus is mainly on worker needs and how those needs will motivate
behaviour. More existing approaches to motivational theory consider
not only worker needs but also such factors as the employees' abilities
as well as how employees perceive their roles in the workplace. The last two
theories that we will regard as are sometimes called process theories of motivation
because they consider the thought process that helps workers choose
how to act. Two key process theories are the expectancy approach and the equity
Analyze theories relating to work relationships and interaction
Working relationships and interaction
Power- "is a critical concept for those interested in organisational analysis. Theorists (Kahn, 1964; Jackson & Carter, 1991) suggest that the concept of organisation might not exist if it were not for relations of power; indeed that social life in general always features unequal power".
Power is definitely the most central feature of organizational life. Without it workers would whatever they wanted with no cost. In regards to a business authority stands out as the most common shape of power purely due to the fact of the way a business is structured i.e.: Hierarchy. There are many various perspectives that all have between similarities and differences.
Behavioural theories- A behavioural theory is comparatively easy to develop, as you merely assess both leadership achievement and the actions of leaders. With a large adequate study, you can then associate statistically important behaviours with success. You can also recognize behaviours which contribute to breakdown, thus adding a second layer of understanding.
For behavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best analyst of his leadership influences and as a outcome, is the best determinant of his or her leadership achievement.
You have been engaged as a consultant and have been asked to review the organization's management in order to improve its structure and culture.
2.1 Analyze the characteristics of different organizational structure
Characteristic of Organizational structure
There are three types of bureaucratic structures:
This kind of organizations lacks the standards. Usually this kind of structures can be observed in small scale, start-up companies and the structure is centralized and there is just one key decision maker.
The communication is ended in one-on-one conversations. This structure is quite useful for small organizations due to the reality that the founder has the full control over all the decisions and operations.
These structures have a definite degree of standardization and are quite suitable for tall organizations. Once the organizations develop complex and large, bureaucratic structures are essential for management.
The organizations that pursue post- bureaucratic structures still inherit the strict hierarchies, but open to more modern ideas and methodologies. They follow techniques such as total quality management (TQM), culture management etc.
The organization is divided into segments based on the functions when managing. This allows the organization to enhance the efficiencies of these functional groups. As an example, take a software company.
Functional structures show to be successful in large organization that produces high volumes of products at low costs. The low cost can be achieved by such companies due to the efficiencies within functional groups..
These kinds of organizations divide the functional areas of the organization to divisions. Every division is equipped among its own resources in order to function independently. There can be various bases to define divisions.
Divisional structure defined based on the geographical source, products / services basis, or some other measurement.
The organization places the workers based on the function and the product when it comes to matrix structure.
This structure gives the best of the both worlds of functional and divisional structures.
The company uses teams to complete tasks in this kind of an organization .The teams are created based on the functions they belong to and product they involved in.
Each organization needs a structure in order to operate systematically. The organizational structures can be used by every organization if the structure fits into the nature and the maturity of the business.
In mainly cases, organizations develop through structures when they progress through and enhance their processes and manpower. One business may begin as a pre-bureaucratic company and may change up to a matrix organization.
2.2 Evaluate the importance of organizational culture theory in developing organizational effectiveness
Organizational Culture Theory is important to comprehend because it gives people insight to how a business functions because of the culture within.
In an organization the culture that exists is bound to differ from organization to organization. Nevertheless, to be a strong business, it should meet the criteria of a culture.
For instance, the organization should have shared values. The individuals within the organization must believe in, to a certain extent, the same things. The teams should have shared goals, ideas, values, and purposes. Similarly, the group must have shared norms. Those within the group must pursue the same moral code and stand for by the same set of rules whilst in the business - whether such policy be written or unwritten.
Mainly leaders, however, are unacquainted of the culture that exists within the company, even without accepting the different formal theories that go along with running a firm. Every organization, even with no formal, set-in-stone organizational culture, contains some kind of culture within. A manager tends to run a association or group with the way that he or she is most contented leading in, and although different person lead groups in different ways, these methods may not constantly work as well as one would expect, so it is essential to be not only an knowledgeable leader, but also a flexible leader.
Therefore the significance of organizational culture, hence, is understandable: to give an organization with shared beliefs, values, and cultural norms. If a company has shared beliefs, it will promote teamwork so that the people concerned with the business organization are working towards the same goals, rather than running towards individual goals and thus causing every one other unnecessary and unintentional for setbacks, and therefore will include what we can definitely call a solid organizational culture. (baruch,Y.2007)
2.3 Analyse the culture and structure of one organisation and evaluate how they impact on its effectiveness
Organizational Structure - is the formal system of employment roles and authority relationship that rule how associate and managers interrelate with one another.
Organizational Culture- involves the values, belief and norms shared by the managers and associates that influence behaviour. It is a very influence full force in an organization.
Organizational culture is more of a big picture, a more common word that refers to a large umbrella of smaller topics and issues within an organization. The structure refers to the infrastructure, and the various methods and practices within that infrastructure, that helps an organizational culture run with the efficiency and consistency that must be the trademark of some healthy organizational structure, whether it is in a corporation, sports team, or any other set up that is large enough to make its own organizational culture.
This makes the structure a vital part of each organizational culture, but also narrows out a very accurate segment of the culture as its own responsibility. Organizational structure will deal primarily with the set up of the culture. How organization works, which detailed responsibilities supervisors include, how a complaint is passed throughout the ranks-these are all issues within the organizational culture that are directly tied to how an organizational structure works. The structure is not limited to those three examples, but it would definitely include all of them.
Another general way to illustrate how structure works is to state that organizational structure is the way in which the consistent groups within an organization are set up to let them to function easily from a larger standpoint. The two main purposes of a successful organizational structure are to make sure effective communication between various parts of the company, as well as to increase coordination between different departments.
Some theorists have even broken down the perception of organizational structure into some categories to illustrate the phases which businesses go through as they develop in size and scope. The pre-bureaucratic structure is the first, which is mostly known for deficient a structure that standardizes responsibilities. For small businesses this set up is great, and ones that don't have many repeat scenarios, and as a result have to be adaptive.
Next is bureaucratic, which is where there is larger organization which requires a degree of consistency in paperwork, processes, etc. whereas bureaucracy has a negative connotation, it can be a good thing in small doses, particularly in tackling issues that will turn into recurring themes in larger businesses. And also the post bureaucratic, which has a more nebulous meaning and is seen as more of a theoretical term, but may be referred to more current, cultural based models of leading.
As the above discussion it is concluded that, the relationship between organizational culture and organizational structure can be hard to tell apart, but in a completely healthy culture that is exactly what have to be expected when all is functioning generally.