Analysis Of Managing People Commerce Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Human resource management is the utilization of human resources to achieve organizational objectives. Human resource management is a relatively new approach to managing people in any organisation. People are considered the key resource in this approach and it concerned with the people dimension in management of an organisation. Human resource management is responsible for maintaining good human relations in the organisation and also concerned with development of individuals and achieving integration of goals of the organisation and those of the individuals. Consequently, managers at all levels must concern themselves with human resource management. Basically, through the efforts of others, managers get things done which require effective human resource management.

The objective of Human Resources Management:

People Centred:

Human Resource Management is people centred and is relevant in all types of organisations. It is concerned with all categories of personnel from top to the bottom of the organisation.

Basic to all Functional Areas:

Human Resource Management permeates all the functional area of management such as production management, financial management, and marketing management. That is every manager from top to bottom, working in any department has to perform the personnel functions.

Based on Human Relations:

Human Resource Management is concerned with the motivation of human resources in the organisation. The human beings can't be deal with like physical factors of production. Every person has different needs, perceptions and expectations, besides that, the mangers should give due attention to these factors. They require human relations skills to deal with the people at work. Human relations skills are also required in training performance appraisal, transfer and promotion of subordinates.

Staff and Training:

Human resource planning and staff projections and requirements are analyzed. Employee acquisition through strategic recruiting and selection are explored in detail. Class participants engage in exercises designed to introduce behaviour based interviewing and other common interviewing and selection practices and techniques. Orientation and staff training and development programs are reviewed.

Human Resources Law:

Comprehensive overview of key human resource related laws and legal considerations. Historical overview of the evolution of equal employment opportunity and affirmative action programs and women's set aside programs.

Managing Health, Safety and Workplace Stress:

Introduction to basic approaches to developing and maintaining a safe and healthy workplace. Review of some of the current health and safety problems facing by employees and employers and the discussion of the strategic choices available to managers. Overview of the legal framework for health and safety including the role of the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) and other related agencies and programs.

The objective of HRM is to establish and maintain an adequate organisational structure of relationship among all the members of an organisation by dividing of organisation tasks into functions, positions and jobs, and by defining clearly the responsibility, accountability, authority for each job and its relation with other jobs in the organisation. Next, it also generates maximum development of human resources within the organisation by offering opportunities for advancement to employees through training and education. Besides that, it also ensures the reconciliation of individual or group goals with those of the organisation in such a manner that the personnel feel a sense of commitment and loyalty towards it. Human Resource Management also ensures that all other organisational resources will be effective and efficiently utilised by the human resources.

The importance of Human Resources Management:

The Challenge of Sustainability:

There are many different type of companies or organization that operate in the world and also competed with each and others to gain competitive advantage and also sustainable so that M&S need to implement many strategic for develop their Human Resources. Besides that, sustainability is the main part that can be influence and encourage reaching the organizational or common goals. Next, M&S also take action immediately to introduce, orientate, prepare and provide high quality products and services and especially use the right person in the right position and on job training for many time to gain staff capacity. Besides that, M&S also can gain contact among the customers by providing high quality products and services to them.

The Global Challenge:

Organizations are finding that to survive they must cooperate with organizations around the world. M&S must both defends their domestic markets from foreign competitor and broaden their scope to encompass global markets. In order to reach the goal of M&S, HRM play an important role to run the business and make the good business environment to create smoothly work and also compete with the other to gain competitive advantage by expansion to the global area or broaden, integration of cultures and values, got and received the feedback from the consumers to develop the product and service, training staff many time and encourage getting high competencies.

Task 2

Flatter Organizations instead of traditional pyramid-shaped organizations with seven or more management layers, flat organizations with just three or four levels are becoming more prevalent. Many firms (including AT&T, and General Electric) have already cut their management layers from a dozen to six or fewer. As the remaining managers are left with more people reporting to them, they can supervise them less, so the jobs of subordinates end up bigger in terms of both breadth and depth of responsibilities.

Flexibility is a way to define how and when work gets done and how careers are organized. It is a critical ingredient to overall workplace effectiveness. Companies use it as a tool for improving recruitment and retention, for managing workload and the respond to the employee diversity. Besides that, flexibility can also improve employee engagement and job satisfaction and reduce stress.

The model of flexibility on the workplace that M&S can practice:

Flex-Time is a system of working hours where the employees' starting and stopping times are decided by the individual workers, although limitations and rules may be set by the employer.

Traditional flexitime:

It can allow employees to select their starting and quitting times within a range of hours surrounding core-operating hours.

Daily flexitime:

It can allow employees to select their starting and quitting times within a range of hours surrounding core-operating hours on a daily basis. A compressed week that enables employees to work their allotted hours over fewer days, such as 9 hours per day over 2 days, or 80 hours over 9 days, rather than 8 hours per day over 5 days.

Part-time work:

Many employers are happy to offer part-time employment for which the employees pay minimum wages and usually lesser benefits than those given to full-time workers. Part-time workers are particularly useful in industries which have peak periods whereby more employees are needed at a particular time of the day or week. For example, fast-food outlets may need more staff at happy hours.

Overtime:

Employment laws allow workers to work beyond the normal working hours as agreed to in their contacts of employment, in limited circumstances. The maximum hours of overtime that an employee may work per month are currently 104 hours. Overtime work is defined as work carried out beyond the normal hours of work as stated in the employees' contact of employment.

Teleworking and homeworking:

By using computers and telecommunications, many jobs can now be done at home or at some place other than the employer's premises. There is nothing new about working from home but many people have had an office in their home, but they were mostly consultants and freelancers, not employees of an organization. Many simple assembly and packing jobs in the manufacturing industry are done at home. However, a wider variety of jobs, which were traditionally done on-site, can be done elsewhere.

The advantages of implementing the flexibility of workplace:

It can save office space and parking requirements, which reduces overhead costs of the company. Besides that, it also can increase the labour productivity, which means that higher profit can be gain by the company. Telecommuting also reduces business disruptions due to emergencies, snow, storms, floods, illnesses and others.

Flexible workforce arrangements are also used to preserve employee positions while employees are on leave. It may not be appropriate to permanently replace employees who are on leave for an extended period. Replacement costs are high and the experience and institutional knowledge are hard to replace, particularly in a competitive labour market; and many forms of leave are legally protected, whereby the position must be preserved for the employee's return. By using the flexible workers to fill gaps in the company workforce is therefore practical, efficient, and necessary to meet the legally imposed requirements.

The Disadvantages of implementing the flexibility of workplace:

These include the loss of creativity as employees are not interacting with one another on a regular basis, the difficulty of developing appropriate performance standards and evaluation systems for telecommuters, and the need to formulate an appropriate technology strategy for allocating the necessary equipment. Additionally, managers may believe that telecommuting negatively affects employee-supervisor relationships through loss of knowledge or information, trust, and a sense of connectedness.

Flexitime, it is not suited to some jobs. It is not feasible, for example, where specific workstations must be staffed at all times. Second, it can create problems for managers in communicating with and instructing employees. Flexitime schedules may also force these managers to extend their workweek if they are to exercise control over their subordinates.

Job sharing does have several problems, however, employers may not want to employ two people to do the work of one because the time required to orient and train a second employee constitutes an added burden. They may also want to avoid prorating employee benefits between two part-time employees. This problem may be reduced, however, by permitting the employees to contribute the difference between the health insurance premiums for a full-time employee and the pro rata amount the employer would otherwise contribute for a part-time employee.

The Employees Social Security Act 1969 (SOCSO):

The objective of the employees social security act is to provide employees with compensation and financial benefits should they be involved in an accident at work, contract an occupational disease or become an invalid. The scheme is administered by the social security organization (SOCSO) which is responsible to ensure employers register with the organization and pay contributions as required by the Act. SOCSO also pays out benefits to eligible claimants. All employers are required to register with the organization and the contribution is paid monthly on behalf of all employees who earn less than RM 3,000 per month. The principle can apply once an employee becomes a member of the organization, he or his employer are liable to continue contributing even if his wages increase above the RM 3,000 level.

The employees of M&S will get free or fully medical treatment with SOCSO, when an accident is happen among the employees itself.

The Employees Provident Fund Act (EPF):

EPF is to ensure that every worker has sufficient funds to sustain him once he has retired. Malaysia had no statutory retirement age, but a common practice in the private sector is to require employees to retire at 55 or 56 years of age. This is because at the age of 55 employees are permitted to withdraw their savings from the fund. The Employees Provident Fund was established as a form of compulsory savings system for the workers so that they and their families would not be impoverished and dependent on the state once they retire from the workplace.

All employees are liable to pay monthly contributions to the fund currently at the rate of 11 percent of their wages. Employers must or need to deduct this amount from their employees' wages and pay it on their behalf to the fund, along with the employer's contribution of 12 per cent of the worker' monthly wages. The only employees who are not required to become members of the fund are domestic servants, foreign workers and government servants on a pension scheme. However, there is provision for self-employed people, partners in a business, sole proprietors, pensionable employees in the public sector and foreign workers to contribute, he or she must pay a minimum or RM 50.00 per month. The person can choose to pay any amount above this up to RM 5,000per month as they wish. Foreigners can also choose to contribute, in which case their contribution is the same as that of Malaysians, that is a minimum of 11 per cent of their wages, but their employer only has to contribute RM 5.00 per foreign employee.

Employees can withdraw all funds in their accounts once they retire, or for certain limited purposes such as house purchase, payment of medical bills, payment towards tertiary education fees and investment in approved trust funds, the employees of M&S may take out some of their money earlier.

Fair Labour Standards Act:

Employees are categorized as exempt or non-exempt, and job analysis is basic to this determination. Non-exempt workers must be paid time and a half when they work more than forty hours per week. Overtime pay is not required for exempt employees.

Equal Pay Act:

In the past, men were often paid higher salaries than women even though they performed essentially the same job. If jobs are not substantially different, similar pay must be provided. When pay differences exist, job descriptions can be used to show whether jobs are substantially equal in terms of skill, effort, responsibility, or working conditions.

Task3 Q2

The Employees Provident Fund Act (EPF):

Every employer is required to register with the Employees Provident Fund (EPF) Board on setting up a business. Any employer who fails to register is liable to imprisonment of up to three years or a fine of up to RM 10,000 or both. The employer is further required to keep a register of all payment to workers. Inspectors of the EPF will periodically check this register to ensure the act is being complied with.

There have been instances of collusion between employers and employees whereby the two parties agree not to pay any contributions to the fund, irrespective that it is compulsory to do so. The employer pays a little higher in wages to the employee who receives more money to spend now but will suffer when the employees is retired and has no money in his EPF account.

The Employees Social Security Act 1969 (SOCSO):

All employers are required to register with the organization and the contribution is paid monthly on behalf of all employees who earn less than RM 3,000 per month. The principle can apply once an employee becomes a member of the organization, he or his employer are liable to continue contributing even if his wages increase above the RM 3,000 level.

The advantage of the employer to ensure he registers his eligible employees under the social security scheme because once a worker is insured with SOCSO he loses the right to sue the employer for damages for any work-related injury or disease that he may contract.

Task 4 Q1

Based on the scenario of M&S, the Human Resources Management can practice the flexibility of workplace and the employee empowerment. Employee empowerment is a technique of involving employees in their work through the process of inclusion and granting employees' power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do. Flexibility is a way to define how and when work gets done and how careers are organized. It is a critical ingredient to overall workplace effectiveness.

Empowerment encourages employees to become innovators and managers of their own work, and it involves them in their jobs in ways that give them more control and autonomous decision-making capabilities.

The ways to achieve employee empowerment in the organisation:

Participation:

Employees must be encouraged to take control of their work tasks. Employees, in turn, must care about improving their work process and interpersonal work relationship.

Innovation:

The environment must be receptive to people with innovative ideas and encourage people to explore new paths and take reasonable risks at reasonable costs. An empowered environment is created when curiosity is as highly regarded as is technique expertise.

Access to information:

Employees must have access to a wide range of information. Involved individuals decide what kind of information they need for performing their jobs.

Accountability:

Empowerment does not involve being able to do whatever you want. Empowered employees should be held accountable for their behaviour toward others, producing agreed-on results, achieving credibility, and operating with a positive approach.

Flexibility workplace can also improve employee engagement and job satisfaction and reduce stress. There had few type of flexibility of workplace; it is overtime, part-time, flex-time and teleworking.

Q2

Last time, the organisation without the empowerment and everything must be approved by the managers of the company and the document will be passing from one departments to another until the document is being see by managers and approved it, but now if the organisation used the empowerment among the employees, it means that the employees can make or approved any document without passing through the document to the managers and wasting a lot of time to approve the document. By using empowerment among the employees, it means that the employees are given fully authority to do something else.

Flexible workforce arrangements are also used to preserve employee positions while employees are on leave. It may not be appropriate to permanently replace employees who are on leave for an extended period. Replacement costs are high and the experience and institutional knowledge are hard to replace, particularly in a competitive labour market; and many forms of leave are legally protected, whereby the position must be preserved for the employee's return. By using the flexible workers to fill gaps in the company workforce is therefore practical, efficient, and necessary to meet the legally imposed requirements.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.