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The John Lewis Partnership acquired the business in 1937, opening the first Waitrose supermarket in 1955. Today there are 185 branches, dedicated to offering quality, value and customer service. In 2010, in a poll of 6,000 shoppers, conducted by Verdict research, Waitrose were voted top food and grocery retailer. Waitrose received top marks for our relentless focus on quality, service and value and the introduction of their hugely successful essential Waitrose range also received special mention. There are Waitrose shops throughout England, Scotland and Wales. The John Lewis Partnership as a whole employs nearly 68,000 Partners and has a turnover in excess of £6 billion. As well as Waitrose, it runs 26 John Lewis department stores throughout the UK, several manufacturing concerns and a farm (www.waitrose.com).
Waitrose stores offer opportunities at almost every entry level, including a range of shift patterns from full-time (five days per week) to part-time (flexible to fit in with lifestyle) (www.waitrose.com).
Having staff of the right competencies would obviously be needed to make sure in all organizations, to be able to achieve the required level of innovation. It may be, these people are already employed by inner. If not, the company would use a recruitment strategy and policies designed to enable them to carry out their recruitment in a purposeful manner. Since the HR is so crucial to the achievement of the strategic aim, it will also be necessary to adopt a sophisticated approach to the selection of employees.
Assuming the company authorizes to fill a position, the next step is to develop an applicant pool. It is hard to overemphasize the importance of effectiveness recruiting. In today's world, effective recruiting is seen significantly important.
Foot and Hook (1999) identified the aims of recruitment are:
To obtain a pool of suitable candidates for vacant posts
To use and be seen to use a fair process
To ensure that all recruitment activities contribute to company goals and a desirable company image
To conduct recruitment activities in an efficient and cost-effective manner
The most effective recruitment method is one that produces the best result in term of able candidates for least cost. A wide variety of methods can be chosen, including the use of (Breardwell and Claydon, 2007, pp 202):
Informal personal contacts such as existing employees, informal grapevine (word of mouth), and speculative applications
Formal personal contact such as careers fairs, open days, and leaflet drops
Notice boards- accessible by current staff or general public
Advertising including local and national press, specialist publications, radio and TV, and the Internet.
External assistance including job centre, careers service, employment agencies.
Waitrose's Recruitment Agents
Waitrose get a lot of interest and many calls from recruitment. In contrast, they cannot possibly keep in touch with all. Waitrose usually prefer applicants apply directly and believe in promotion from inner whenever possible.
Selecting capable employees is one of management's top priorities, In order to make sound selection decision; managers must be able to evaluate reliable data from candidates. This has become increasingly difficult in recent years and the basic problem is that credential fraud has become more prevalent. Some applicants may exaggerate their skills, education, and experience when given opportunity. Other are not even who they say they are.
The ultimate goal of selection is usually expressed as to choose the best person for the job. Selectors attempt to predict performance on the job, but they also need to ensure the suitability of candidates is such that the job is acceptable to them and they are not likely to leave within a short period of time.
The selection process
The preliminary interview - The basic purpose of this initial screening of applicants is to eliminate those who obviously do not meet the position's requirements. At this stage, the interviewer asks a few straightforward questions. If the interview determines that the candidate is not so certified, any further discussion regarding this particular position wastes time for both the firm and applicant.
Virtual Job Interview
Review of applicants - A well designed and properly used application form can be helpful since essential information is included and presented in a standardized format. Applications may not be required for many management and professional positions.
Review of Resumes - Manager and HR representatives reviewed resumes manually, a time consuming process. However, this practice has evolved into a more advanced procedure in many companies, with resumes automatically evaluated in terms of typos, spelling error, and job-hopping. Some systems allow employers to flag resumes that appear to misrepresent the truth, present misleading information, or are in other ways suspicious.
Administration of selection test - Recognizing the shortcomings of other selection tools, an increasing number of firms have added pre-employment tests to their hiring process. These test rate the personality, abilities, and motivation of potential employee, allowing managers to choose candidates according to how they will fit into the open positions and corporate culture.
Training and Development
A strategy of innovation implies change which will have to managed, and requirements for new skills as new products, services or processes are developed. All of these call for skills training, as do some of other policies outlined in this discussion, such as embarking on partnership agreement or promoting diversity in the work force. Training in new skills and multi-skilling can also contribute to the sense of security that Herriot and Pemberton listed as a requirement for innovation. This is because employees develop a higher level of employability through the acquisition of a wider range of skills.
Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs.
Employee compensation refers to all forms of pay or rewards going to employee and arising from their employment (Desseler, 2005). But implies that the employee somehow has to be compensated for a loss or injury caused through work, rather than that they are actually being paid to work (Foot and Hook,1999).
It has two main components:
Direct financial payments (wages, salaries, incentives, commissions, and bonuses)
Indirect payments (financial benefits like employer-paid insurance and vacations).
In order, there are mainly two ways to make direct financial payments to employees: can base them on increments of time or on performance (Desseler, 2005).
Time-based pay is still foundation of most employers' pay plans. Blue-collar workers get hourly or daily wages, for example, managers or web designers, trend to be salaried and pay by the week, month, or year.
Performance-based such as piecework, or sales commissions, it tries compensation to the amount of production or number of "piece" the worker run out.
Safety and Health
Nowadays, employee health and safety in the workplace are very important in the management of people. For this reason, all organizations need a working knowledge of OSHA-the Occupational Safety and Health Act.
Safety involves protecting employees from injuries caused by work related accidents. Health refers to employee' freedom from physical or emotional illness. Problem in these areas seriously affect the productivity and quality of work life. They can dramatically lower a firm's effectiveness and employee morale. In fact, job related injuries and illness are more common than most people realize.
Although line managers are primarily responsible for maintaining a safe and healthy at work environment, HR professional provide staff expertise to help them deal with this issue. In addition, the HR manager is frequently responsible for coordinating and monitoring safety and health programs.
Due to competitive pressures, organizations are continually looking to increase the 'added value' of their employees by encouraging them to increase their effort and performance beyond that which is at a minimally acceptable standard, or by reducing labour costs to a minimum. Thus the study of employee behavior and motivation has remained a constant managerial concern (Beardwell and Holden, 2001, pp 507)
There are two different approaches to a strategic perspective on reward (Mabey and Salaman, 1995)
An open approach - argues that the content of an HR strategy is contingent on the internal and external context and the type of business strategy. Thus the emphasis is on 'match' and 'fit' rather than on ideal type of HR strategy (e.g. Hendry and Pettigrew, 1990). It is argue that there should be a strategic fit between reward strategy and business strategy, to ensure that who or what delivers the critical skills, performance and behavior with respect to business Strategy And objectives is rewarded. Moreover, the design of a reward strategy should be 'appropriate' or 'integrated' with internal aspects of the organization that affect employee behavior such as organizational culture, structure and personnel, and the external environment in which the organization exists (Mabey and Salaman, 1995).
The close approach - argue that HR strategies should contain the same elements regardless of context and business strategy (e.g. Guest, 1987). For example, a reward strategy based on 'new pay' or 'contingent pay' is often believed to be a key component of strategic HRM ((Beardwell and Holden, 2001:510). However, a particular reward strategy cannot operate as a single lever in creating and maintaining organizational change and long-term effective and harmonious HRM. Although 'new pay' schemes are often assumed to lead to increase level of employee commitment (Beardwell and Holden, 2001:511)
(www.suite101.com, Sadarrudin , Aug 8, 2001) explained that the motivation function is one of the most important, yet probably the least understood, aspects of the HRM process. Because human behavior is complex and difficult to understand. Trying to figure out what motivates various employees has long been a concern of behavioral scientists. However, research has given some important insights into employee motivation.
First of all, one must begin to think of motivation as a multifaceted process - one that has individual, managerial, and organizational implications. Motivation is not just what the employee exhibits, but also a compilation of environmental issues surrounding the job. It has been proposed that one's performance in an organization is a function of two factors: ability and willingness to do the job. Thus, from a performance perspective, employees need to have the appropriate skills and abilities to adequately do the job. This should have been accomplished in the first two phases of HRM, by correctly defining the requirements of the job, matching applicants to those requirements, and training the new employee on how to do the job. But there is also another concern, which is the job design itself. If jobs are poorly designed, poorly laid out, or improperly described, employees will perform below their capability.
Consequently, HRM must look at the job. Has the latest technology being provided in order to permit maximum efficiency? Is the office setting appropriate (properly lit and adequately ventilated, for example) for the job? Are the necessary tools readily available for the employee use? For example, if an employee prints on a laser printer throughout the day, and the printer is networked to a station two floors up, that employee is going to be less productive that one who has a printer on his desk. While not trying to belittle the problem with such an example, the point should be clear. Office automation and Industrial engineering techniques must be incorporated into the job design. Without such planning, the best intention of managers to motivate employees may be lost or significantly reduced.
Once the measures have been taken to ensure that jobs have been properly designed, the next step in the motivation process is to understand the implications of motivational theories. Some motivational theories are well known by practicing managers, but recent motivation research has given us new and more valid theories for understanding what motivates people at work. Performance standards for each employee must also be set. While no easy task, managers must be sure that the performance evaluation system is designed to provide feedback to employees regarding their past performance, while simultaneously, addressing any performance weakness the employee may have.
Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties of these positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for them (Clifford, Summer 1994: 321-340)
(Desseler, 2005, pp 112) indentified types of information which are collected one or more via the job analysis by supervisor or HR specialist:
Work activities - First, supervisor collects information about the job's actual work activities, such as cleaning, selling, or teaching.
Human behaviors - The specialist may also collect information about human behaviors like sensing, communicating, deciding, and writing. Included here would be information regarding job demand such as lifting weights or walking long distances.
Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids - This category includes information regarding tools used, materials processed, knowledge deal with applied (such as finance or law), and services rendered (such as counseling or repairing).
Performance standards - The employer may also want information about the job's performance standards (in terms of quantity or quality level for each job duty, for instance). Management will use these standards to appraise employees.
Job context - Included information about such matters as physical working conditions, work schedule, and the organizational social context. Information regarding incentives might also be included here.
Human requirements - such as job-related knowledge or skills (education, training, work experience) and required personal attributes (aptitite, physicsl characteristics, personality, interest).
Steps in job Analysis
There are six steps in doing a job analysis (Desseler, 2005, pp 113-114):
Step 1: Decide how you'll use the information.
Step 2: Review relevant background information.
Step 3: Select representative positions.
Step 4: Actually analyze the job.
Step 5: Verify the job analysis information.
Step 6: Develop a job description and job specification.