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In this paper I will begin to anayse motivation and the main key theories that explain motivation. I will focus my assignment on an online article written by Tony who is also the author of the whole article. The article is called 'motivation in the workplace'; Tony gives an insight of what is motivation and how importance motivation is in a work placement. He outlines a great deal of investigation on motivations and refers to theories and ideas of motivation. Furthermore, Tony looks into deeper analyses of motivation and looks at the psychological factors of motivation and the behavior that links with in motivation. In addition to this I will also look at motivation from a business point of view and how employees in business have motives to succeed.
The key is to be timely, creative, and authentic and that the motivation or reward matches the interests and goals of the employee, whenever possible.
There are two kinds of motivation which are:
Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant.
Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).
In addition to this self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by many intelligence tests), yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks.
These are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behavior. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food; whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others.
Furthermore, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process.
There has many outdated and up to date theories about motivation; it has been known that a reward is presented after the occurrence of an action with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect would be greater, and decreases as duration lengthens, therefore this basically means that the greater the motive the better of reward.
We want to learn a particular skill and weather we want o perfect it. External factors often come in the form of rewards such as medals, money and prizes. The pressures from other people can also be extrinsic motivators; some young people participate in a sporting event just to please their parents. Intrinsic motivation intrinsic motivation is a term used for the internal drives to participate or perform well. Such drives or emotional feelings include fun, enjoyment in participating and the satisfaction that can be felt that can be felt in playing a particular game. Personal accomplishment and a sense of pride are also intrinsic factors Maslow's Hierarchy of needs Proposes that individuals have various levels of motivational needs, both physiological and psychological, that must be fulfilled in a specific order. People continue to attempt to satisfy those needs lower down the hierarchy before progressing to the next level.
There is the Drive Reduction Theory which grows out of the concept that we have certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a drive the drive's strength is reduced. The theory is based on diverse ideas from the theories of Sigmund Freud to the ideas of feedback control systems, such as a thermostat.
In addition, it is clear that drive reduction theory cannot be a complete theory of behavior, or a hungry human could not prepare a meal without eating the food before they finished cooking it. The ability of drive theory to cope with all kinds of behavior, from not satisfying a drive (by adding on other traits such as restraint), or adding additional drives for "tasty" food, which combine with drives for "food" in order to explain cooking render it hard to test.
Furthermore there is the Cognitive dissonance theory which is suggested by Leon Festinger, this happens when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an incompatibility between two cognitions. For example, a consumer may seek to reassure himself regarding a purchase, feeling, in retrospect, that another decision may have been preferable.
Another theory is Abraham Maslow's theory which is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation. Maslow's theory suggests that human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior, satisfied needs do not. Since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex. Also the person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is Physiology, Safety, Belongingness, Self-esteem, Self actualization.
Another theorist that explains motivation is Frederick Herzberg's which explains that there are the two-factor theory which are intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, lead to dissatisfaction.
Finally tony, expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, created the existence, relatedness and growth. Physiological and safety, the lower order needs, are placed in the existence category, while love and self esteem needs are placed in the relatedness category. The growth category contains our self-actualization and self-esteem needs.
Models of behavior change
Social-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of motivation and volition. Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioral intentions. Volition is seen as a process that leads from intention to actual behavior. In other words, motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit, respectively. Both processes require self-regulatory efforts. Several self-regulatory constructs are needed to operate in orchestration to attain goals. An example of such a motivational and volitional construct is perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitate the forming of behavioral intentions, the development of action plans, and the initiation of action. It can support the translation of intentions into action.
Some psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behavior is energized and directed by unconscious motives. According to Maslow, "Psychoanalysis has often demonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate unconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct. In other words, stated motives do not always match those inferred by skilled observers. For example, it is possible that a person can be accident-prone because he has an unconscious desire to hurt himself and not because he is careless or ignorant of the safety rules. Similarly, some overweight people are not hungry at all for food but for fighting and kissing. Eating is merely a defensive reaction to lack of attention. Some workers damage more equipment than others do because they harbor unconscious feelings of aggression toward authority figures.
Psychotherapists point out that some behavior is so automatic that the reasons for it are not available in the individual's conscious mind. Compulsive cigarette smoking is an example. Sometimes maintaining self-esteem is so important and the motive for an activity is so threatening that it is simply not recognized and, in fact, may be disguised or repressed. Rationalization, or "explaining away", is one such disguise, or defense mechanism, as it is called. Another is projecting or attributing one's own faults to others. "I feel I am to blame", becomes "It is her fault; she is selfish". Repression of powerful but socially unacceptable motives may result in outward behavior that is the opposite of the repressed tendencies. An example of this would be the employee who hates his boss but overworks himself on the job to show that he holds him in high regard.
Unconscious motives add to the hazards of interpreting human behavior and, to the extent that they are present, complicate the life of the administrator. On the other hand, knowledge that unconscious motives exist can lead to a more careful assessment of behavioral problems. Although few contemporary psychologists deny the existence of unconscious factors, many do believe that these are activated only in times of anxiety and stress, and that in the ordinary course of events, human behavior - from the subject's point of view - is rationally purposeful.
The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different approaches of motivation training, but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation.
Besides the very direct approaches to motivation, beginning in early life, there are solutions which are more abstract but perhaps nevertheless more practical for self-motivation. Virtually every motivation guidebook includes at least one chapter about the proper organization of one's tasks and goals. It is usually suggested that it is critical to maintain a list of tasks, with a distinction between those which are completed and those which are not, thereby moving some of the required motivation for their completion from the tasks themselves into a "meta-task", namely the processing of the tasks in the task list, which can become a routine. The viewing of the list of completed tasks may also be considered motivating, as it can create a satisfying sense of accomplishment. "It's all because clearly the number one motivator of people is feedback on results."
Most electronic to-do lists have this basic functionality, although the distinction between completed and non-completed tasks is not always clear (completed tasks are sometimes simply deleted, instead of kept in a separate list).
Other forms of information organization may also be motivational, such as the use of mind maps to organize one's ideas, and thereby "train" the neural network that is the human brain to focus on the given task. Simpler forms of idea notation such as simple bullet-point style lists may also be sufficient, or even more useful to less visually oriented persons.
Workers in any organization need something to keep them working. Most times the salary of the employee is enough to keep him or her working for an organization. However, sometimes just working for salary is not enough for employees to stay at an organization. An employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization. If no motivation is present in an employee, then that employee's quality of work or all work in general will deteriorate.
Keeping an employee working at full potential is the ultimate goal of employee motivation. There are many methods to help keep employees motivated. Some traditional ways of motivating workers are placing them in competition with each other. Friendly competition is a great way to generate motivation among employees. This gives a chance for employees to flex their working skills in a competition against their peers. This not only will motivate employees with a result of greater production, but the competition with\Z\\\\ recorded results will give the employer an
Motivation is of particular interest to Educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields.
Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter. It can:
Direct behavior toward particular goals
Lead to increased effort and energy
Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities
Enhance cognitive processing
Determine what consequences are reinforcing
Lead to improved performance.
Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situated motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates.
Note also that there is already questioning and expansion about this dichotomy on motivation, e.g., Self-Determination Theory.
Motivation has been found to be a pivotal area in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders, as in Pivotal Response Therapy.
Motivation is also an important element in the concept of what motivates the adult learner.
At lower levels of MaslowHYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs"'HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs"s hierarchy of needs, such as Physiological needs, money is a motivator; however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation). At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor's Theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate.
Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are better motivators to staff. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poor motivator. Praise and recognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are considered stronger motivators than money.
Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job.
Motivated employees are more quality oriented.
Motivated workers are more productive.
Overall from looking at Tony's article of motivation in a workplace has given me a understanding motivation and the performance which begins with understanding that individuals in a workplace are not necessarily to be blamed if their performance or motivation is not what the supervisor envisions. Instead of assuming that the workers in question are lazy or unskilled or unwilling to perform the task at hand, the wise manager seeks to understand why the workers are not performing to the companies expectations. While it may be that the workers do not possess the requisite skills (which can be remedied through training), there may be other factors involved which are more complicated and which reach to the heart of effective management. Also the theories that the article presented such as Herzberg identified elements which cause job dissatisfaction and classified them as hygiene factors. I noticed that job satisfaction he classified them as motivator factors and therefore Herzberg believed that they should be called hygiene factors basically because they are essentially preventive i.e. they prevent or minimize dissatisfaction, but do not give satisfaction.
The style of leadership practiced by an individual is, in effect, the managerial behavior of that individual, and managerial behavior can have profound effects on the performance of the organization. In addition, the organization, particularly its structure and its mission, may affect the leadership styles adopted by its leaders and managers.
Through my research, I have found out that in the midâ€‘1950s, two theories of motivation which have received wide attention and acceptance are those of Maslow and Herzberg which,neither of these theories has proven valid in all organizational environments and situations, each has made major contributions to the development of a variety of techniques for the motivation of individuals within organizations. I have learned through my research that aims, purpose and values between staff, teams and organization is the most fundamental aspect of motivation. The better the position and personal association with organizational aims, the better the platform for motivation. Where people find it difficult to align and associate with the organizational aims, then most motivational ideas and activities will have a reduced level of success.
On a personnel level I believe that Maslow's theory is an important model for achieving your goals and motives. Motivation is driven by the existence of unsatisfied needs, and then it is worthwhile for a manager to understand which needs are the more important for individual employees. In this regard, Maslow developed a model in which basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfillment are pursued. In this hierarchical model, when a need is mostly satisfied it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place. Even though Maslow's hierarchy lacks scientific support, it is quite well-known and is the first theory of motivation to which many people they are exposed.
There are several points that go with motivation which are:
Setting a major goal, but follow a path. The path has mini goals that go in many directions. When you learn to succeed at mini goals, you will be motivated to challenge grand goals.
Finish what you start. A half finished project is of no use to anyone. Quitting is a habit. Develop the habit of finishing self-motivated projects.
Learn how to learn. Dependency on others for knowledge supports the habit of procrastination. Man has the ability to learn without instructors. In fact, when we learn the art of self-education we will find, if not create, opportunity to find success beyond our wildest dreams.
Harmonize natural talent with interest that motivates. Natural talent creates motivation, motivation creates persistence and persistence gets the job done.
Increase knowledge of subjects that inspires. The more we know about a subject, the more we want to learn about it. A self-propelled upward spiral develops.
Take risk. Failure and bouncing back are elements of motivation. Failure is a learning tool. No one has ever succeeded at anything worthwhile without a string of failures.
All these seven pints are all important in achieving your goals, especially in an organization to make the business a success; therefore in achieving these motives a reward would also be achieved later on.