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In 1896, Edward Cadbury appointed Mary Wood to be the first welfare officer and it is here where the history of personnel management starts. Few years later, in 1982, the IBM former president said all the value of this company is in its people â€¦
Nowadays, the Human resource department is one of the most important departments in an organization. The Human resource management emphasis on achieving competitive advantages through a high committed and, most important, a skilled workforce using an integrated array of cultural and individual technique (Storey, 2001). It also pointed out the recruitment of a management providing direction for the persons who work in the all company. It can be performed by the line manager who deals with issue related to person such as hiring, safety, compensation, employee motivation, etc. Human resource management considers the workforce as an asset and not as a cost.
I will say that, it is a good idea to introduce a human resources professional in the organization. It will improve the employment situation and the employee welfare will be better. In fact, the human resource has many objectives and rules that will help in yours problem of workforce.
Personnel Management is the process by which an organization finds, consumes and maintains the gratified workforce. It's concerned the employee and their relationship with organization. This sort of management is mostly administrative. Generally, the personnel management deals with employees, their payrolls and employment law. The personnel manager prefers bureaucratic, mechanistic, centralized and formal defined role structures. The roles are specialized and professional. The evaluation criteria of this management are administrative efficiency, standard performance and cost minimization. The time and planning perspective of the personnel management is reactive (not proactive) and in short term. In addition, this management style prefers the external control than the internal control (such as self-control) and the employee relation perspective are pluralist, collective and makes a low trust relationship between us.
To sum up, generally, the Personnel management has certain objectives and goal to reach such as:
Creating an healthy environment for the employees workers to work effectively
Creating a better inter-personal relations, develop a sense of responsibility and responsiveness
Implementing best techniques and methods to have the best possible development of workers on work.
Choosing and place the right quantity of people and ensuring good distribution of duties and responsibilities upon them.
Increasing the sense of initiative amongst employees.
In contrast, the human resource management tries to combine the human aspiration of people and the strategic and financial needs of the business. It can be defined as an strategic approach to supervise employment relations which emphasizes on fact that leveraging person's abilities is critical to reach sustainable competitive advantage, this being achieved through a typical set of integrated work policies, programs and practices (Bratton and Gold 2003). HRM put attentions on recruitment, management and providing directions to people who works in an organization. In addition it can be achieved by line managers. In fact, it mostly works with:
Employees Motivation (Reward management)
Communication and relationship (trade union and staff association)
Welfare (offering services such as recreational facilities)
Recruitment of new employee
Training of new or existing employees
Health and Safety of the employee ( ensure that workers are protected from health hazard)
An effective human resource management increase employee's motivation and show to the employee that he is contributing effectively and productively to the all organization. In over word it is a planned approach of the workforce that makes the goal of the company his goal and objective. The main characteristic of the HRM is the treatment of persons as assets not as costs and the valorization of the last to make competitive profit at the end.
Nowadays human recourse professional are more important than in the past. Today they are considering as a critical factor to assure the success of an organization. Actually they are responsible of planning, pension, staff development and training. As I say earlier, the human recourse management can be performed by the "line managers". In our case, if the company takes on a human recourse professional the most important change will be the implementation of lines managers in the organization. As a result of that, the company will be less centralized than in the past.
These managers are those to whom employees report and who have the duty to manage the team. They are in charge of many responsibilities that include, the day to day people management, the management of operational costs, the technical expertise, the organization of work allocation and roster, the monitoring of the work process, the quality, dealing with customers and clients and finally they have to measure the operational performance of the workforce. To sum up, we can say that line managers have a critical role because they implement the human resource policies and practices. Because of that employees feel better and have a superior level of job satisfaction, commitment, and in addition, loyalty. The result of that is an increase of performance. The implication of the human resource is the implementation of lines managers. And the implications of line management are multiple:
Performance evaluation (the line managers evaluate the performance of their team. For example give salary augmentation after the evaluation)
Training coaching and guidance ( its bring extension, diversification and settlement plans)
Employee engagement (the line managers create an organizational culture of their group. To do that they have to encourages and have opens discussion with theirs employee to boost up theirs performance. After that the Hr. department measures this performance by surveys).
Openness (communication between employee and line manager)
So, we can conclude by saying that take on a human resource professional will change the organization structure by decentralize it with the line managers and departments. But the effect of this change will be the improvement of employee and workers engagement, loyalty and performance.
The line management is simply an intermediate between the HRM and employees. But it is crucial in a number of respects:
Enabling the HR Policies and Practices, or create them.
Guidance from HR
"Controlling the Work Flow by Directing and Guiding the Work of Others"
In this case study we can see that the colleague of Mr. Smith don't respect the UK legal and regulatory framework in his way of recruiting new employee. In fact, we know that this organization recruits single male workers with no family attachment. But the equality act 2010 provides sex equality and it punishes sex discrimination in the recruitment. It also bans the following discrimination:
Marriage and civil partnership
Pregnancy and partnership
Pregnancy and maternity
So in our case the organization doesn't respect the "sex" and "marriage and civil partnership" parts of the equality act 2010. To ensure that he operates within the UK legal and regulatory framework he will have to change his way of recruiting people. He will have to stop employing just single man workers with no family and stop doing discrimination in his way of recruitment.
It exist a variety of recruitment approaches and the majority of organization will use a combination of two or more of these recruitment approaches.
Because of our case study we will divide these approaches in two. The first will focuses on the recruitment of very high and specialized skills and rare person who match with the recruiter expectations. The second one will put emphasis on the recruitment of ordinary people with no specialized skills such as trainees.
We have two general methods of recruitment. The first one is the internal methods (Internal recruitment is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from within its existing workforce). And the second one is the external methods (is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from any suitable applicant outside the business). For the first case study I will advise to go through the external methods of recruitment.
So for the first one, the specialized and skill person, we can use employment agencies. Employment agencies provide services as a commercial private sector operation. In this approaches we can find niche agencies that are specialize in a particular industrial sector or professional group (for example a nuclear physicist with very rare specialized skills in nanotechnology). Generally, niche recruiter researches staff with narrow specialty. They find person with specific abilities and skills. So if I have to search employee with specialized skills and abilities I will start my research with niche agencies.
Secondly we have the "headhunter"; it is the third-party. The headhunters seek out candidates when normal and niche agencies efforts have failed. In fact, the headhunter is known to be more aggressive than normal recruiters. In addition, they practice "social recruiting. It is the fact of using social media to find out candidates.
We can also use internet to recruits high skills person. The advantage of the internet is to make possible the search of a specific candidate all around the world but it is not the best way to find out these candidates.
For the second case (research of unskilled trainees) I will also use the external method of recruitment because trainee cannot be found in the organization. So, we can also use employment agencies who find permanent, temporary or casual workers. So in our case, we have to search trainees (unskilled) that are temporary employee. We can found in agencies that are specialized on the search of unskilled workers. Traditional agency has a physical location. They are formed by a person who visits a local branch for a short interview before being in the agency book. When an organization is looking for new employee and contact the agency, this agency will look up in his list of candidates and propose a list of persons who match with the job description.
We also can use internet as a recruitment tools:
Recruitment website, such as "myjob.com" (it also can be used for high skills candidates recruitment)
Job search engine
Social recruiting (Facebook, etcâ€¦)
We can also do "job advertising", it is a common type of external recruitment. It's regroups local and national newspapers, notice boards, recruitment fairs and should contain important information relating to the job such as job title, pay package, etc.
In small enterprise, generally recruitment will be left to individual managers who will find the candidate and decide if he fit the job at the end of the recruitment process.
After that, we will have a list of candidates what match to the job description. We will have to select the best one. To do that, we will use the process of selecting candidates. That involves two main processes, the shortlisting and assessing applicants to decide who should be made a job offer.
For the accounting firm, I will advise to do an interview. The interview will inform the employers about the motivation and the involvement of the trainees.
For the second case, because of the domain and the risk of the work, I will advise to do an interview, a psychological and a psychometric test. These tests will inform the employers about the:
Aptitude (skills and abilities)
Intelligence (is useful for problem resolutions)
Personality (some research as prove that personality is on a the factor of success at work)
Finally I will recommend searching the reference of the candidate to obtain information such as:
Employment history (and length of employment)
Suitability for the post in question
And reason for living (fired, etc.)
To conclude I will say that the recruitment of a nuclear physicist with very rare specialized skills in nanotechnology will be more rigorous than trainee in the second organization. Finally, Organizations need to be aware of the danger of unfair discrimination in the process which has both legal implications and consequences for the diversity of the organization.
The human resource planning (HRP) is the process of planning to reach the ideal use of organization human resources. In other word, it is the process by which the human resource department identifies the current and future employee needs for a business to reach its goals. It deals with retention (company loyalty, to retain key staff in the organization), recruitment, downsizing (reducing the number of staff) and the most important of them, training to insure quality.
"To construct a house you have to plan how many bricks you will use". This quote can well define the Human Resources Planning.
So in our case we will study the example of a regional airline and see why it is primordial to do Human Resource Planning.
So first a small overview of the organization, Air Austral:
Air Austral is a growing airline based in St Denis on the island of Reunion and serves 18 local, regional and long haul destination around the world.
As I said, the main objective of the HRP is to identify the current and future employee needs for a business to reach its goals.
So, to do that the HRP have three key which are:
The forecast of labor demand
The analyze of current labor supply
And match the two before
The last one is the key of the all process. In addition, it is very important for an airline company to forecast on the supply of their services. Let's take an example: imagine that today the organization see that suddenly the demand is superior on the supply. It will take 6 years for an airline company to purchase a new airplane. In this case the organization wouldn't take advantage of the situation and will lose the opportunities to increase their profit. If the organization practices the HRP, this HRP will plan the increase of the demand.
Human Resource Planning is important for any organization such as Air Austral to provide quality workforce in order to achieve the organization requirements and give the company competitive advantage by reducing cost of work and service ( with a balance of the number of employee and the demand of tickets).
Human resource Planning can also increase the motivation by promoting and valorizing (rise of salary) the employees. In addition it can also, improve the productivity of the employees by providing the health and safety or in general the welfare.
In addition, to design its Human resource requirements, there are three stages that constitute the process of planning in human resource.
The first one is called "requirements forecast". Air Austral (or other organization) has to measure how many employees and what skill and ability will be needed to reach the organization goals.
Secondly, the business has to estimates if he will be able to engage all the employees needed.
The last one is the result of the two before. The result of this estimation will determines what action the organization will take.