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Captain Chittarath Poovakkatt Krishnan Nair was born in 1922 into a poor family in north Kerala, one of the eight children of a government bill collector. He joined the army and because of his sense of initiative, seemed set to go far. In 1950, he married Leela, the daughter of a prosperous handloom owner from Kannur. He ended up joining her father's business, took it over and then developed export markets, becoming one of the pioneers of the Bleeding Madras fabric that was a craze in the US in the 1960s. By the early 1980s, Captain Nair was already a rich man. The textile business (called Leela Lace after his wife) had boomed, he had a large bungalow in North Bombay and a textile factory near it. When he heard that the new international airport terminal was being built a few minutes from his property, he had the idea of turning the land at the back of his factory into a hotel. In those days, Bombay did not have so many hotels. The new Taj had opened in 1972, the Oberoi in 1973 and the President shortly after that. There were a few hotels in Juhu (Sun and Sand, the Holiday Inn etc.) and the Centaur, run by Air India, near the domestic airport. Nothing new had opened for a decade and Nair thought that a hotel near the new airport would do well.
The Leela opened in 1986 and began recording high occupancies on the basis of airline traffic because of its location. But Captain Nair was determined to move into the luxury business, away from airport sites. In 1991, he opened one of the first resorts in South Goa and made plans to build hotels in Bangalore, Delhi and Udaipur.
In 1999, Krishnan Nair and his wife Leela accepted the award from Japanese emperor Akihitho. Capt. C.P. Krishnan Nair,Chairman, The Leela Palaces, Hotels & Resorts was conferred The GIANT INTERNATIONAL AWARDfor Excellence in"Business and Industry".
According to koontz and O'donnell "it is the art of including the subordinate to accomplish their assignment with zeal and confidence. Zeal reflects ardour, earnestness and intensity in executive of works; confidence reflects experience and technical ability. (cutelittle45, 2009)
According to Keith Davis, "Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. The human factor that holds a group together and motivate them towards their goals." (Asiahotelier, 2010)
Leadership is an Interpersonal process in which the request workers and lead to the achievement of objectives. It is located a few qualities to be present in person, including information, maturity and personality. These are two or more people who interact with each other. Leader is involved in defining and molding the behavior of the group towards the achievement of organizational goals. Leading the State is bound. There is no best leadership style. It all depends on addressing cases.
Leadership is a process whereby a manager can direct, guide and transport to influence others and work toward achieving specific objectives in a particular case. Leadership talent to inspire subordinates to work with confidence and passion. The main function of the organization is to helps improve efficiency and achieve business goals.
There are some main points that justify the importance of leadership in concern. Initiates action- A leader is a person who starts the work by strategies and plans for subordinates, where the real work begins.
Motivation- A leader creates incentive to play a role in anxiety at work. It encourages those who have economic and non-economic rewards and thus gets work from the subordinates.
Providing guidance- Is not only a leader but also oversee the lead role for the subordinates. Guide future teaching means the subordinates the way they have to do their work successfully and professionally.
Building morale- Moral denotes the voluntary cooperation of employees towards their work and the increased confidence and wins their trust. A leader can achieve full cooperation morale booster in order to make the best of their abilities that work to achieve the objectives.
(Ravi Kumar Tiwary, 2012)
Leaders challenge the existing system, take risks by making changes. Develops and innovation leader. Leaders always ask questions like what? And why not? They always do whatever writes things they like.
Managers always accept system; they eliminate risks by preserving the system. Managers maintain administer, creates orders. Managers ask question like how? And when? They do things write what so ever.
Leaders focuses on people, inspire trust among the people gives empower. Leader also inspires and motivates people, copes with the changes. Leaders always direct creating vision and strategy by keeping an eye on horizon. They also provides the tools and trainings, then allows employees to do it by let it go. A leader facilitates employees in resolving problems and influences them the way people think at the core is trust.
Whereas a manager focuses on system, rely on control. Mangers keep a control on their employees and also they help in solving their problems, copes with complicities. Managers always plan and budget by keeping an eye on the bottom line. They closely supervise the doings, solve problems. Managers always say one thing people do because they are told to do. The same applies with the employees when mangers say something to do; the employees have to do in any situation.
(Gill Robinson Hickman, 1998)
To understand the importance of leadership you should know the difference between leadership and management. Management is concerned with the dynamics of interpersonal behavior and appearance of the manager job change, concentrated in the planning, organization and control aspects of the administration. Leadership deals with change, inspiration, motivation and influence. Management is more concerned about equibrillium and status. Managers concentrated on the bottom line to stabilize the system within the hierarchy, while leaders look to the horizon to bring the necessary changes in the organization.
The main difference between manager and a leader is vision and power. Leaders always take your vision and create a corrosive power.
Leadership begins where management ends when the system of reward, punishment and control leads to innovation, character and individual empowerment.
Managers are the people who been given assignment to lead others, but lacks the skill of motivation to do so whereas leadership is an honoured granted to a person by his or her subordinate. (Saxena & Awasthi, 2010)
Leadership is a role that is important at every levels of management. It is also important at the top level which gives work plan and policies. In the middle and lower levels, it is necessary for the interpretation and implementation of plans and programs on leadership. Leadership can be exercised by the leadership and guidance of subordinates at the time plans.
A leader that is, being a representative of the manager of the company. He, with the interests of seminars, conferences, meetings, etc. Its function is to provide the business is not publicly communicating. He is also a representative of his own department, which he heads.
Leader helps solve through management / employees integrate personal goals with organizational goals. He tries the efforts of people to take them toward the common goal, and thus the purpose of coordinating. This can only be done if they can influence and obtain willing cooperation and ensure that the objectives.
As a friend, philosopher and guide - A leader should have the three-most important features in it. Leader should share the feelings, thoughts and wishes with the staff. Leader is a philosopher by his intelligence and experience. How and when time requires it can be a guide to plans and strategies of top management through monitoring and communication among employees, and secure their cooperation in order to achieve the goals of care. (MSG, 2008)
'Autocratic leadership style' is a great form of transactional leadership, where a leader in power by its employees or team members. The styles describe in decision making solely by the leadership with little or no flexibility of employees involvement. Captain Nair is an excellent problem solver and handles challenges and be able to help subordinates find solutions to problems and alternative approaches to situations. So Captain Nair possesses an autocratic leadership style. This style is preferable when the employees are not educated or competent enough to make decisions and the decision has serious impact on organization survival. Majority of managers in the co-operate world use this style because they do not trust their employees competence with the result they make their employee passive followers.
(Lawrence J. Gitman, 2008)
'Bureaucratic leaders' are working on the book to ensure that employees follow the procedures. This is very suitable for working with serious safety risks or if large amounts are involved. Bureaucratic leadership is where the leader manages books. Everything must be done in accordance with the rules or policies. In other cases, it may demoralize rigidity and a high level of control exerted by employees and reduces the ability of organizations to respond to changing external circumstances. (Jack E. MillerÂ - 2009)
'Democratic Leadership or Participative Leadership style' is characterized by the leader involving the subordinates in the decision making process. Captain Nair follows this style because Nair don't believes on no involvement and no commitments. when a decision has to take Nair always discus with his employee or a manager, and accordingly he takes that decision. This not only increases job satisfaction, but also by the involvement of employees or team members in what happened. It can also help people to develop their skills. Employees and team members feel in control of their own destiny, and they motivated to work hard. (Carl McDaniel, 2008)
'Free Rim style' is characterizing by the leader encouragement to individual or group to function independently. The leader either sets limit and followers work out their own problems or individual sets their own goals. The participate and the free rim leadership style required lots of ground work in terms of aliening people with the organization DNA (Mission, Vision and Values) with the organization teaching them to understand environment complicity and to develop conceptual skills needed for making good decision making process managers who do not have time and patients to do this ground work falls back an autocratic leadership style or use participate style in autocratic manner.
'Charismatic Leadership' are being attribute with extra ordinarily personal characteristic likes self confidence, persistence, flexibility, risk taking ability, confidence in other capability, strong conventions of the rightness of their belief. They do not demand attain the command it. The provide vision and a sense of mission in sit pride gain respect and trust. They are capable of the importance of vision in relation to understand others to be clarified. They set high expectation and consistence model behavior.
'Situational leadership' concept is based on the assumption that there may not be universal leadership trained on single leadership behavior and style applicable in all situations. The behavior effective in same circumstances may be in effective under different condition. Thus the effectiveness of leader's behavior is dependent upon organizational situational. The contingence approaches looks for describing characteristic of situation and follows us examine the leadership style that can be used effectively in different situation. The three dimension (leader, follower and situation)
defines to generate different situation. (Ashim Gupta, 2009)
'Transactional leadership' emphasize on the close relationship between leader and followers. It helps in mutual benefit from an exchange based relationship with the leader offering certain things, such as follower's commitment on acceptance of the leader authority. Captain nair has a Transactional leadership style because he guide and motivate his followers in the direction of fulfilling the goals set by clarifying roles and responsibilities. The transformational leader are those who stay ahead of the change curve constantly ratifying their industry, creating new markets, blessing new trials, reverting the comparative rules. They achieve this task through looking forward, scanning and watching the competition, spotting the immerging trends and new opportunity and avoiding future prices.
'Transformational leader' pay attention to each individual needs for growth and development. After reading this essay we come to know that captain Nair has a transformational leadership style, because Nair as we see always motivate and inspire his employee, recognize their performance, give rewards and celebrate their small wins. this whatever leader has to do so that employee this instigate them to do more then what expected and help the organizational to go extra mile. (Kendra Cherry, 2009)
In 1998 it all started to go wrong. The deal was falling Four Seasons. Both sides are still bitter memories of the incident. Sharp autobiography says that he diddled Captain Nair. Of course, this proposal is not well written with Nair, Sharp letter to protest the publication of the autobiography. According to the Captain Nair, there had two problems. The first was that the Four Seasons was predicted that the room was not good to invest that much for Goa property. The barrier was the second and more important branding. Nair want to be named captain of the Four Seasons Hotel Leela. Sharp shares declined branding. The drop reflects the beginning of the transaction end of the Captain first golden Nair stage. He spent crores on the rehabilitation of the hotel in Goa, and it would be a while before he could recover his investment. In addition, it suddenly opened before competing in their own backyard as a new hotel near the Leela Bombay. Worse, he found that the land was purchased in Udaipur waste - were allowed to build at this point. And lost Rs 200 crore he had paid for land in Hudco Delhi, a government agency, as well as any hotel could be taken at this location. Worst of all, Hudco seemed reluctant to get his money back.
As it turned out, the skeptics were wrong. Captain Nair pulled an amazing comeback, thanks primarily to its Bangalore hotel. As of 2000, Bangalore began to win thousands of foreign visitors because of its software industry. Fortunately for Captain Nair, he was ready. Leela with a new property that is not adjacent to the airport, but is also conveniently close to the software company Foreigners could fly, do their business and fly back without ever bothering with the insane traffic and pollution of the city of Bangalore. As shown the Oberoi Vilas properties group that Indian hotels could as much as those in word, calculate Europe, proved the Bangalore Leela that our city hotels could raise as much as real estate in America.
As profits from Bangalore began streaming in, Captain Nair's luck changed. Finally, he got his money back from Hudco, he signed a property in Gurgaon, administer the Goa Hotel finally made gains and the Bombay Leela held its own despite competition. The streak of luck has continued. He runs a property in Kovalam has built a world-class hotel in Udaipur and is on the verge of opening a luxury hotel in Delhi Chanakyapuri. More significantly, he believes that an outsider in the hotel went to one of their elder statesmen. He sold the textile business for a few hundred crores a few years ago. When we spoke of the three major chains now increasingly, we speak of four. Despite so much smaller than the other, the Leela is now regarded as one of the big boys.
(HT Brunch, 2011)
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(Ashim Gupta, 2009). leadership development. [Online Book].
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Task 2: Role of Crisis Leadership
Critical event or a decision point is that, if not handled properly and timely it a mess or damage.
According to business dictionary crisis is an unstable situation of extreme danger or difficulty or a crucial stage or turning point in the course of something.
The crisis can strike any company at any time. Microsoft, Value Jet, Chrysler, Pepsi, and the tobacco industry are some of the young companies that can attest to this, but they are not alone. The crisis is not about the size of a company or notoriety discriminate, and can beat, if a company is expected of them, at least. Crisis can come in many forms like strikes, layoffs, recalls or allegations of violence, but some of the crisis may seem small, crisis have the potential to damage the reputation of a company. (Jennifer Hogue, 2001)
Regardless of the type of business you run, there are many types of crises that have the potential to affect them. However, this is not always a bad thing. In fact, the crisis may actually lead to positive results, and offer good opportunities for learning and improvement. In Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, the symbol of the crisis is interpreted as a "dangerous opportunity." By their nature, crises are serious and dangerous moments of the life cycle of a company, but still with the possibility of crisis, with the possibility to leave the organization in a way stronger than it was before the crisis.
Crisis management is the management and coordination of responses your businesses to an incident that threatens to hurt or damaged, you must serve your employees, facilities, skills, valuables and / or reputation. Forecasting potential crisis management should be the most important priority for the proactive crisis management team, for example, to recover as if the computer system is completely destroyed. On the other hand, involves the reactive crisis management to identify, engage the true nature of the current crisis, to minimize the damage and recover from the crisis. Also a strong focus on public relations to repair the damage to the public image and assure stakeholders that recovery is in progress.
The crisis management plan is made the responsibility of the contractor and / or managers to follow when a disaster or a non-physical crisis has hit the business. It is a well-documented planning, detailing the measures to be taken and is designed to reduce confusion, panic and restore order. (Ibid, 2007).
Natural Crisis, environment and nature can lead to natural crisis. They are generally beyond the control of individual.
Tornadoes, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunamis, floods, brought all into tragedy. Crisis technological occurs as a result of a fault in the technology. Problems during the crisis technological systems causes rupture of the machine, software corruption, because of all this there is a technological crisis. Crises occur when people fight confrontation between them. Individuals cannot be reconciled with each other and ultimately unproductive works from boycotts, strikes and as such indefinitely. In this type of crisis, people disobey superior's ultimatums and force them to accept their demands. Internal disputes, lead effective communication and a lack of coordination of crisis confrontation.( MSG, 2008)
The pre-crisis stage
If a person in the organization identifies critical situation, they usually give them to their supervisor / manager. Either pre-crisis or are warned predecessor. At this time the critical situations is only known within the organization and have not yet seen by the public.
In the critical state leader tells that their task is to analyze them and to determine that the serious problem is potential. Then, when managers are comfortable and I think we will solve without outside help, and then take any action. When viewed on the other side, that the critical situation as a serious intervention, they will take measures to mitigate
If managers are aware of this, it is your responsibility to manage and to prevent it from moving. During the acute phase of the crisis that's all. Because of the single opportunity negative situation can be transferred into a positive situation.
The first problem is the situation what it is and what it might be. You have to decide if the situation is serious, or if you think that it will be resolved. Is there anything that could damage the bottom line, or endanger positive public image, or cause close media or government control? If they find that there is damage to the organization, they must take action.
The acute-crisis stage
A crisis moves from pre-crisis to the acute crisis, when it is visible outside the organization. At this point in time, managers have no choice but to address it. It is too late for preventive measures, like any measure more now can be considered as "damage control".
When the problem moves to the "acute" stage, the crisis management team should be in action. In general, the crisis team is a group of people who specialize in crisis management. However, in the situation of a small company, could assume this role, the owner, and perhaps some of your most important employees.
The post-crisis stage
A crisis moves from the acute stage after stage of crisis after they contain. This is when the organization is trying to recoup their losses.
Managers need to show the customers, the shareholders, and the community that the organization of the problems the crisis has caused them care. Points to keep in mind during the post-crisis stage. Change the organization's schedule during the crisis. And also make the changes that were seen during the crisis
(Devlin. E, 2007).
Responsibilities of the leader during the crisis
Take charge quickly
This includes the activation of the crisis team establishing crisis management communications inform checks identify the person who will manage the crisis, your employees, which is the crisis manager in charge quickly, before your business weakens.
Establish the facts
This includes the reconstruction of the information available to decipher the facts. However, it should be noted that the facts are not always by the time a crisis moves to acute stage should be known. Often there are many versions of the story circulating around the workplace, many of them either as hearsay or exaggeration. It's up to you to determine fact from fiction.
Tell your story
During a crisis, you should communicate with your employees before their loyalties begin to crumble. You may find that many of them feel embarrassed with the club have touched it with your company and some may even feel that they are accused. It's up to you to calm her and set things straight.
Your customers are also concerned, so it is important that you. They know as soon as possible and let them assure you that you have to control the situation For example, if you. A large customer base, one of the easiest ways to communicate with them to an e-mail alerting them to send over the situation Alternatively, if your business relates only to work with a few select customers by talking to them on the phone with them directly and be more appropriate. Regardless of which option you choose, the objective remains the same, that is, tell them to insure your side of the story and tell them that you are working to get things under control.
Fix the problem
The final step to the management of a crisis is to fix the problem. While trying to recoup losses and make changes that were identified as being needed.
One of the best ways to make up for losses to consumers that you show about what did the crisis to show your company and that is to give them what you can do to prevent it happening again.
There is no one magic solution for the management of all crises. The best thing you can do is prepare as much as possible and have taken steps to deal with crises, as soon as possible, if they can occur.
Crisis Leadership Moment #1
Imagine finally hit! Bird flu has been confirmed to be infectious. One of their employees traveling just been diagnosed with this terrible disease after returning. His staff is terrible already exposed, and most are not prepared personally at home during an outbreak. However, it is necessary to carry out the company's plan of business continuity. Employees of the crowd wants to take time. What do you do?
Crisis Leadership Moment #2
They learn that one of your facilities has emitted low-level toxic substances indefinitely. However, the Company is delaying the debt on the basis of a previous decision replacement of a faulty system in your plant. But it is quickly resolved. Perhaps employees, visitors and others have exposed all to a small degree. Most likely, the exposure was minimal with no damage.
Unfortunately, there was a similar situation in the same facility in the past year. They reported it to the authorities and the media, in learning about them, exaggerated the story, blaming the company for the implementation of people at risk.
If knowledge of the present toxic emissions have been presented to the public, it would cause serious reputational and legal damage to your organization likely now that it's happening again. But it would be even worse when she discovers that she tries to cover up later. Only you and a few trusted subordinates are aware of the issues now. They proactively go public and try the feared risk of personal, legal and reputational damage or to solve the situation calmly with (hopefully) no public harm?
Crisis Leadership Moment #3
Two bombs hit your facilities simultaneously in different locations with a note from an activist group taking credit. Do you close all your facilities throughout the enterprise as a safety precaution? If so, for how long? If not, what are alternative responses?
(Bruce T. Blythe, 2006)
Each of these situations requires a decision definition. Initial information is usually wrong. Rumors abound. Measures should be taken without enough time for. The speed of the input data is impressive. The emphasis is impressive. Well, can these decisions about life and death consequences. Act in a way that it will be discussed later.