Organizational culture - ideas, interests and values â€‹â€‹shared by the group. This includes the experience skills, traditions, processes, communication and decision-making, myths, fears, hopes, aspirations and expectations, actually experienced by you or your staff. Organizational culture - this is how people relate to the work well done, as well as what equipment and personnel can work together in harmony.
Organizational structure of the enterprise management is the list of departments, services and units in the device management system of the organization, the nature of subordination and accountability to each other and senior agency management firms, as well as a set of coordination and information links, the allocation of management functions on different levels and units of management hierarchy.
Management theory identifies four main types of organizational structures, namely:
linear - a simple hierarchical structure, which consists of the head and multiple levels of hierarchy. As a rule, the larger the organization, the more levels;
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divisional - the organization is divided into separate elements (divisions), each of which represents a particular business area. Some divisions have sufficient autonomy;
project - a temporary structure created to implement a complex project within the allotted time, financial and labor resources;
Matrix - the basis for the construction company is based on two directions guide:
- Vertical (management of structural units of the organization)
- Horizontal (management of individual projects, programs)
Relationship between management structure and culture
Culture Civil society creates an organizational structure and culture of the organization.
2. Every organization, whether consciously or unconsciously, set their own value system, which is the organizational culture and ethos of the organization. Like the larger society organization is seeking to have their own morals, customs and taboos, which ultimately forms the characteristic of the organization the individual ways of doing things. Accordingly, a certain type of organizational structure creates its own type of organizational culture.
3. As the organizational structure should ensure the implementation of goals (mission) organizations, and in times of crisis, and even the survival of the organization, changes in organizational structure will inevitably cause changes in the existing type of organizational culture. Consequently, adverse environmental factors have a direct impact on the adaptive mechanisms of change (adjust) the organizational structure, which entails a qualitative change in the pre-crisis organizational culture.
Accordingly, a qualitative change in organizational culture as an important element of the internal environment of the organization is the survival of the organization in times of crisis.
4. The study of interrelated processes of adaptive changes in organizational structure and culture in times of crisis is an important, creative and promising area of â€‹â€‹science management.
Performance - human behavior in the workplace. Performance - this is what people do, and what can be assessed. It includes only those actions or the behavior that correspond to the tasks of organization and that can be measured as the experience and knowledge of each employee (or the level of their contribution to overall profits). The tasks - that is what should make the employee and do well. Performance - this is not a consequence or result of the action is the action itself. Performance is consistent with the objectives of the company's operations that are performed by man, no matter what they are'' (Campbell, 1990)
The main factors that influence individual behavior and the success of people are:
ability (both congenital and acquired, developed);
predisposition (as a potential person in respect of a particular job);
gifts (like a talent that opens in a certain area);
requirements (such as the internal state of psychological or physiological sensations lack of something);
Stand-by (as the formation of prediction on the outcome of their prediction based on past experience and assessment of the current situation);
perception (as an intellectual awareness of the incentives received from the senses);
ratio (as affecting the behavior of the biased perception of the environment);
point of view (as formed and well-established view of things);
values â€‹â€‹(such as shared beliefs, a belief about what is good or bad, or indifferent to that in real life). All internal variables are interrelated. Taken together, they are regarded as socio-technical subsystem (people - the social component, the goals, objectives, structure and technology - the technical components). Change one of them, to some extent affects all the others. At the same time improving one variable may not necessarily lead to improved functioning of the organization, if these changes impact negatively on the other (other) variables.
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The second section is
Approaches to Management in the Workplace
This section must
Examine one organisational theory and relate it to management in practice
Compare and contrast two approaches to management by different tourism organisations
The classical theory of organization involved almost exclusively with the structure of formal organizations.
It is built on four key principles: division of labor, and the linear functional processes, structure and span of control (volume control). Of the major elements and is formed almost all the classical theory of organization.
1. The division of labor is, without doubt, the cornerstone of these four elements. All other elements are derived from it as corollaries. For example, a linear function and the growth staffing * requires specialization and division of labor. Organization structure naturally depends on the direction in which there is specialization in the development process of the firm. Finally, the problem of span of control followed by the number of specialized functions within the competence of the manager *.
2. Linear and functional processes dealing respectively with the vertical and horizontal growth of the organization. Linear process is related to an increase in the chain of command (hierarchy levels), delegation of authority and responsibility, the unity of command and a mandatory feedback.
Separation of the organization to specialized parts and regrouping of parts to compatible units - these are issues related to the functional process. This process focuses on the development of a horizontal linear-functional organization.
3. Structure - is the logical connections of functions in the organization to effectively achieve the objectives of the firm. The structure includes a system and model. The classical theory of organization usually works with two main structures, linear and functional. However, activities such as the implementation of functions and their relationship, it is very easy to fall into the area of â€‹â€‹structural considerations. Conversely, the structure - a means to represent the logical and consistent relationship between the various functions that represent the organization.
4. The concept of span of control (volume control) refers to the number of subordinates that a manager can effectively manage and control. The first work on the numerical restrictions of subordinates, which can handle a man credited (VA Graicunas). Regardless of the interpretation of the span of control is important, particularly for the form of an organization that develops during growth. A wide range (greater span of control) shows the horizontal structure, a short volume leads to a vertical structure. In addition, the concept of volume focuses on the complexity of human and functional relationships within the organization.
the algebraic theory of organizations involved almost exclusively with the structure of formal organizations.
To date, four major approaches are known to have made a significant contribution to the development of management theory and practice.
Process approach considers governance as a continuous series of related administrative functions.
In a systems approach emphasizes that managers should consider the organization as a set of interdependent elements, such as people, structure, goals and technology that are targeted to achieve various goals in a changing environment.
The situational approach focuses on the fact that the suitability of various methods of control is determined by the situation. Since there is such an abundance of factors in the organization and the environment, there is no single "best" way to manage the organization. The most effective method in a given situation is the method that best suits the situation.
Approaches based on the selection of different schools.
For instance, travel agencies as well as the hotel is often used a situational approach to managing the organization as it tries to link the specific techniques and concepts with certain specific situations in order to achieve organizational goals more effectively.
The value of the systems approach is that managers can easily coordinate its work with that particular organization as a whole, if they understand the system and their role in it. This is especially important for the general director, because it promotes a systematic approach to support necessary balance between the needs of individual departments and objectives throughout the organization. Therefore, it is used in the management of large tourism organizations.
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The third section is
Relationship between Two Motivational Theories
This section must:
Explain the different motivational theories and their application in the workplace
Analyse the relationship between motivational theories and performance in the workplace
Maslow, American psychologist, one of the leaders of the so-called humanistic psychology, his theory in the 40s of last century. The basis of the theory is the selection in the human motivation system of primary and secondary needs. These requirements are presented in a hierarchical pyramid, according to priorities. Primary needs: physiological and security needs. Secondary: to belong, worship and expression (cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualization). People experiencing the primary needs, always seeking to insure themselves against adverse events and changes. This is connected with education, the acquisition of an insurance policy, the desire to find a good solid job with good views of the pension. To effectively manage the people of this type, you must create a clear and reliable system of social insurance to pay for their work with dignity, should not attract such people to carry out risky assignments that lead to change and instability. People with secondary needs, as a rule, tend to win the leadership position of authority. By controlling these people, do not forget to use different forms of expression recognition of their services, the needs of self-expression and the growth and development as a person. People experiencing these needs, it is very creative, so the management should give them genuine jobs that require original approaches.C:\Users\Ð¥Ð¾Ð·ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð°\Desktop\450px-Maslow's_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg.png
The technique of using the model for the organization of the motivation is as follows: based on the study of the psychological portrait of the employee to identify his dominant need and put it in the office, where she will be satisfied with the greatest benefit to the organization. The needs of the lower levels to meet demand and, therefore, affect the behavior of a person before the motivation will affect the needs of higher levels. At any given time a person will strive to meet that need, which for him is more important or powerful.
Two-factor (motivation - hygiene) F.Gertsberg's theory
The low level of satisfaction - high degree of satisfaction (motivators).
The low level of dissatisfaction - High level of dissatisfaction (hygiene factors).
In 1959, under the leadership of F.Gertsberg studies were conducted to establish differences in the factors that lead to satisfaction or dissatisfaction - the two poles between which there are spirits and the human condition. Depending on the motivation of a person's mood changes, approaching one of the poles. The researcher concluded that the needs does not increase the motivation to work. The requirements are divided into sanitary (health) factors and motivation (satisfy). In order to effectively motivate subordinates, the manager must himself grasp the essence of the work. This theory is in many ways similar to Maslow's theory, but Maslow considered hygiene factors as the forces that influence the behavior of a person seeking to satisfy their physiological needs. Herzberg believed that hygiene factors do not exert a significant influence on human behavior, especially when they are satisfied. The employee begins to pay attention to them, if they deviate from the familiar to the worker level.
The final section of the article is
Working with others, Team Work and Group Dynamics
This section must
Examine the practice of teamwork in the industry and the factors that may impede its success
Analyse the impact of technology on a tourism organisation you have studied
Teams are groups of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose and hold themselves mutually accountable for its achievement. Ideally, they develop a distinct identity and work together in a co-ordinated and mutually supportive way to fulfil their goal or purpose. Task effectiveness is the extent to which the team is successful in achieving its task-related objectives. Shared goals are most likely to be achieved through working together and pooling experience and expertise. Successful teams are characterised by a team spirit based around trust, mutual respect, helpfulness and - at best - friendliness. Simply bringing people together does not necessarily ensure they will function effectively as a team or make appropriate decisions. Teams are composed of people who have a variety of emotional and social needs which the team can either frustrate or help to meet. Teamwork indifference - failing to take action to promote good teamwork - is a strategy likely to result in mediocre performance.
Effective teamwork results from:
a team whose membership, size and resources
match the task
good leadership and attention to team-building
commitment by team members to understand
and identify with one another's goals
the development of team goals - a shared vision
a sense of common ownership of the task at
hand and joint responsibility for its achievement
co-ordinated effort and planned sharing of tasks
evenly across the team
For teams to work together successful they often need to overcome a number of barriers.Â The basic benefit of team is many minds and bodies working together to accomplish a common goal.Â Truly successful teams take advantage of the unique strengths and perspectives of the individuals that make up the group.Â However, often the differences themselves preclude effective communication and connection to get to the very advantage that is sought.Â The following is a quick list of barriers that teams must overcome to function together successful and some notes how to overcome the barrier:
1.Â Â Â Can't take in what others are saying because they say it differently.
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Have team members practice actively listening, where they repeat back what they heard.Â The individual who is communicating the original idea can correct the understanding and both members and those observing can see where the differences originate and have a deeper understanding of how to communicate more effectively.
2.Â Â Â Individuals approach things differently so they don't know where their team mates are coming from so they don't develop trust.
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Have team members work through a simple problem and document the steps they would take to solve the problem.Â Then have each member review with the group how and why the approached it in their unique way.Â The group should see there are many ways to work through things and gain an appreciation for different approaches.
3.Â Â Â Â The process by which they make decisions is different so they can't make consensus decision.
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Decisions shouldn't always be made through consensus but there are times when all team members need to have a say to buy in and carry the decision through.Â So if the team is having trouble making decisions look into why that is, challenge the team to identify why they are having trouble and brain storm on suggestions on how to improve.
4.Â Â Â The group is highly interdependent but they don't understand what the rest of the teams roles are, they just know they need something from them to do their role.
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â If time and skills permits , allowing the group to swap roles for a day or an hour.Â Often we think we know what someone else does until we are actually challenged with doing it ourselves.Â If time or skills don't permit, take time out of each team meeting to have individuals give a little review of their role and how they go about it.
5.Â Â Â The common goal is not clearly defined or bought into by all team members.
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Some people enjoy the social interaction of team so naturally adjust well to working in a team, others however would prefer to be individual contributors.Â If individuals do not understand the common goal they are less likely to stretch themselves to work together as a team to accomplish.Â Ensure the group understand the goal they are trying to achieve as a team and the benefits of working together as a team.
Travel agents and tour operators actively use technologies - without their computer reservation systems, video systems, impossible to imagine the daily planning and management of the operations. Travel company, which was the subject of my study also makes extensive use of technology in their work. This is the printers, scanners, computers, surveillance camera. All this allows to increase the efficient operation as a whole enterprise as a whole and its separate divisions. Without the use of computer technology and the Internet is not possible to present the work of tourist enterprises, the latest software and search booking tours allow managers to do their work quickly and effectiveness.