globalization and pakistan christina koenig

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Globalization and Pakistan

Globalization has seemed to have affected every country on the face of the map. It not always results in a positive aspect for each country. Globalization has left countries very different than they appear to be now, wither that is positive or negative. One example of globalization on a country is Pakistan. Overall, globalization has been good for the people of Pakistan.

The formal name for Pakistan is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The capital of Pakistan is Islamabad. Pakistan is an enormous piece of land with a total land area of 796,095 square kilometers. It is split up into three different regions; Northern highlands, Indus river plains and the Balochistan Plateau. There are currently 129 million people living in Pakistan with a 3.1 % annual growth rate (World Fact Book 2010).

Pakistan has been dated for as many as 5,000 years ago. It was part of the Indus Valley which was home to many Indo- Aryan people migrating to this land. There were many different evasions that occurred during these 5,000 years. These evasions were done by the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs, Afghans and the Turks. During the 16th and 17th century, the Mughal Empire was flourishing. By the 18th century, the English East India came into power. East India let Ranjit Singh have domination from the land of Kabul all the way to Lahore, which extended much of the northern part of Pakistan. In time the British rule replaced Ranjit Singh but allowed the Hindu Maharaja of Kashmir to control the land. After many years of external control of the land, Pakistan emerged their national identity free from Britain in 1906. In 1930 there was a separate Muslim state in British India. This allowed for freedom of the Muslim religion. As of June 1947, the British government gave independence to India and Pakistan. The battle was not over, as for three wars were fought between India and Pakistan. The first two wars extended from 1947-1948 and again in 1965. The third and final war resulted in East Pakistan becoming separate nation of Bangladesh. By August 1947, Pakistan had taken control of the country and divided the land into the East and West. Each side has providences. The west had Punjab, Baluchistan and the east had Bengal. This allowed for separate ‘cities' to prosper (World Fact Book 2010)

With Pakistan being the 9th largest country in Asia it has plenty of room for growth (Yasmeen 2007). The population throughout the country is not evenly distributed. There is a rapid movement of people out of the rural area into the cities. This is simply because the rural areas of the country have limited opportunity and no advancement. The migration from rural to city is often done by a male. Usually this is done because a debt needs to be paid off. This would be considered a temporary migration because the male worker would come back to the rural land and work the peak agricultural season. For this period of time, the male worker has to leave his family behind and look for the opportunity to make money (Country Studies 2010).

An example of this was done during the 1980's in the Persian Gulf countries. Pakistan had to pay off a certain amount of balance of payments and also wanted to gain ties with the Middle Eastern countries. Under the government leadership of Zulfigar Ali Bhutto, skilled and unskilled men went to work in the Persian Gulf. Over two million men went on this journey and remitted an estimated $3 billion a year. The men who usually embark on this journey often travel alone and sacrifice everything for their family. This was the only chance at the time to escape poverty and advance in their country (Country Studies 2010).

Not only does the environment hurt the people who live off the land, it also contributes to the poverty problem in Pakistan. Poverty is a central problem to the government. Pakistan's government is hosting an Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper to find ways to reduce this problem. This paper includes a reduction strategy and a way to improve access to social services. For years, the poverty rate has been calculated based on household income. Studies have split the years into periods. The first period 1964- 1988 the poverty in urban areas decreased whereas the rural poverty increased, which left the overall population at a high poverty rate. The second period includes 1988-2000. There was a vast decline in poverty for many reasons. These include; the green revolution, boom in the housing and construction market, rapid expansion of the public sector, and increase numbers in the inflow of Middle Eastern workers. Unfortunately, 35 million out of the 47 million people who like in Pakistan live in poverty. Most of the poverty is condensed in the rural areas of the country (Khan 2008).

Pakistan, like all other nations have their natural resources. These resources are the intangibles that set them apart from other countries. These include but are not limited to; land, natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, coal, iron, copper, salt and limestone. With the impact of globalization, the natural environment has started to deteriorate. The land is starting to degrade because of such problems as erosion, water lodging and agro-chemicals. Nearly 39% of the country's population has access to sanitation facilities. Globalization is also shrinking the forests of Pakistan. Pakistan has the highest rate of forest shrinking in the entire world (Khan 2008).

Pakistan is currently in the middle of an epidemiological transition with their health care system. In this country, 40% of the total burden of disease is because of infectious and communicable disease. These include but are not limited to; diarrhea, respiratory disease, malaria and hepatitis. The life expectancy for the average Pakistani person is 62 years. Pakistan has come up with The Medium Term Development Framework. This is a strategy to enhance their health care system between the years of 2005 - 2010. This framework deals with the guideline necessary to have reasonable enhancement. Involved would be both primary and secondary health care. The primary health care would deal with “out-door” patients. These patients would include rural health, dispersants, first aid posts and mother/child centers. Secondary health care would cover both “in-door” and “out-door” patients. These would be the hospitals and health centers. Both of these health care systems would be available 24hrs daily. Currently, Pakistan's health care system is inadequate, inefficient and expensive. Not every citizen can afford to keep themselves healthy. With the help of other countries, Pakistan is taking a step forward to enhance their wellbeing of their country (Muhammad 2007).

Pakistan is a country close to many different boarders. People are constantly migrating in and out of the country; it's hard to keep track of the numbers. Pakistan revenue department is the ones who are in charge of information such as the number of new bourns, school-aged children and men who left for work. In 1998, the first population census was taken place in seventeen years. These stats included; family size, literacy rates and the types of jobs people occupied. Although the government had received numbers, they did not know how reliable these numbers would be because of the indigenous population from other countries. Countries such as Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran and Iraq all migrate to Pakistan both legally and illegally. The Indigenous population rate in Pakistan is just about 3% although this number cannot be quoted. Many Pakistan people were afraid of the population census because they feared a high population in cities would cause more urban constituencies. The government was concerned that if there was less people than expected, they would lose their grants. This was a dangerous task for the officials to undergo. Each official had to bring an armed soldier with them to prevent any violent acts (Bokhari 1998).

Globalization has raised many concerns for many countries. One example of Pakistan protesting was over McDonalds. It was said that Pakistani people were showing their outrage towards the United States retaliatory actions against terrorism which was directed towards the Taliban. People were ruining and tearing down the golden arches of McDonalds in the cities of Islamabad and Karachi. American symbolized companies said they will not withdraw out of any of these violent countries no matter how many protests they receive, they will simply change this name or symbol. If anything was to happen, the consumer would benefit from these protests. The prices of the products would decrease leaving a cheaper product for consumers to purchase (Lingle 2002).

Another example of a protest against globalization was in Pakistan. Not only does this country protest against the globalization of the United States and western countries, but they do of their own area. The Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) was up for sale in 2005. Initially the company was owned by the Pakistan government and union workers helped run and build it. The winner of the highest bid on PTCl was Etisalat of United Arab Emirates with a bid of $1.96 U.S. money. The workers did not like their company was being sold out of the hands on their government. The biggest thing that the workers were upset about was the price that it was sold for. They believed that it was worth more than two times the price that was paid. Over 65,000 workers threatened to cut off the countries telecommunication because they had a problem with the new management. During these protests there were 400 workers arrested and the military had to oversee the initializations so there were no violent acts. The new management offered the workers a package of incentives to encourage them to continue their work with no hassles. This package included a 30% pay increase, a 20% increase in special allowances, 500% increase in their children's education grants and eight out of the nine workers unions declined the offer. They were not ready to settle with a new owner no matter the benefits (Muddassir Rizvi 2005).

Pakistan is just one example of a country that is adjusting to the new globalization process. It seems as though their country is prospering from the changes that are being made. The government has a forward looking approach to the upcoming events which is a good sign. Their Real Gross National Product (GNP) which measures the annual income of citizens has increased by over $3,000 since 1947, the day of their independence. Not only is the annual income increased but the purchasing power of Pakistan has increased by three times what it was years ago. The poverty situation is something that still needs help addressing but the poverty rate has declined from 20% to 17.3% which shows great progress. The urgency of education has even increased in Pakistan (Hizful 1999). Female education was once unheard of in Pakistan and is now rising in popularity. With much hard work and cooperation, Pakistan can fulfill their countries expectations of being prosperous within themselves and with other countries in the world.


Akram, Muhammad; Jehang, K Faheem. Health Care and Services and Government Spending in Pakistan. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics 2007. April 16, 2010.

Bokhari, Farhan. (1998,March18). Pakistan to take the estimate out of population statistics: The country's first national census in 18 years ends today after two weeks of door-to-door counting, writes Farhan Bokhari::[USA edition].Financial Times,p.06. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID:27430240).

Christopher Lingle. (2002,April). Why are golden arches lightning rods?Ideas on Liberty,52(4),8-9. Retrieved April 16, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID:114461711).

Hizful Siddique. (1999,May). Pakistan consumption rises.PPI,41(5),28. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID:42373191).

Khan,H..(2008). Poverty, environment and economic growth: exploring the links among three complex issues with specific focus on the Pakistan's case.Environment, Development and Sustainability,10(6),913-929. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID:1582875851).

Mohammad N Akhter,&Gregory Pappas.(2001). Health, Pakistan, and globalization.American Journal of Public Health,91(1),13-4. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID:66761358).

Muddassir Rizvi. (22 June). PAKISTAN: UNIONS ANGRY AT SALE OF PHONE COMPANY TO FOREIGN FIRMS.Global Information Network,1. Retrieved April 16, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID:857317051).

"Pakistan: Country Studies - Federal Research Division, Library of Congress." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. Web. 01 Apr. 2010. <>.

The World Fact Book. (2010). Retrieved April 05, 2010 from CIA:​library/​ publications/​the-world-factbook/​geos/​pk.html

Yasmeen, N. (2007). Pakistan: A Gloabl Studies Handbook. Santa Barbard, CA: ABC-CILO.

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