Child labour.

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The National e-Governance Plan of Indian Government seeks to lay the foundation and provide the impetus for long-term growth of e-Governance within the country.

2. Disaster Risk Management

The project highlights the steps being taken by the government of India in tackling the issues pertaining to natural clematis.

3. Programme for Elimination of Child Labour in Pakistan

A project initiated by International Labour Organization (ILO) to eliminate child labour in Pakistan by engagement of different stakeholders in the programme.

4. The Unique Identification Authority of India

This project is attached to office under the Planning Commission. Its role is to develop and implement the necessary institutional, technical and legal infrastructure to issue unique identity numbers to Indian residents.

5. National AIDS Control Programme

This programme aims to create a place in India where every person living with HIV is treated with dignity and has access to quality care.

6. Global Warming

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Kyoto Protocol, the treaty signed among various nations towards producing fewer carbon dioxide emissions and using energy more efficiently.

7. E Seva

eSeva is the project in the state of Andhra Pradesh initiated by state govt. located in the urban twin cities of Hyderabad-Secunderabad. It was an attempt to have a centralized location for the payment of utility bills for citizens.

8. Bhoomi Origin

The Bhoomi project originated in the mid-nineties in Karnataka; at the behest of the central government of India that was demanding reforms in land administration.

9. SARI Origin

The Sari (Sustainable Access in Rural India) project in the Madurai district of the state of Tamil Nadu was started in the year 2000 to link up village kiosks using a wireless technology.

10. Lokvani Origin

This project was initiated in 2004 in the Sitapur district of Uttar Pradesh (India). The idea was to use existing computer kiosks to provide additional e-government facilities by entering an agreement with the district government.

Task 2: Selection of Three Projects

1. Disaster Risk Management

India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geo-climatic conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been recurrent phenomena. This comprehensive programme has been taken up for earthquake risk mitigation.

A National Core Group for Earthquake Risk Mitigation has been constituted consisting of experts in earthquake engineering and administrators. The Group has been assigned the responsibility of drawing up a strategy and plan of action for mitigating the impact of earthquakes; providing advice and guidance to the States on various aspects of earthquake mitigation; working out systems for assisting the States in the seismically vulnerable zones.

2. Programme for Elimination of Child Labour in Pakistan

(Population Census Organization, 2008)In Pakistan, a country where almost half of the population lives below the poverty line, child labor is deeply entrenched and pressing phenomenon. Child labor in Pakistan is prevalent in all sectors of the economy, thought it primarily exists in the informal sector of employment and home-based industry.

With the matter of child labor in Pakistan gaining international attention, ILO has launched several programs as the part of a project for elimination of child labor in Pakistan. The primary objective of the project is to make a community engagement where all the stakeholders can work for the common cause.

3. The Unique Identification Authority of India

The Prime Minister's Council of UID Authority of India was set up on 30th July, 2009. The aim of the Council is to advise the UIDAI on Programme, methodology and implementation to ensure co-ordination between Ministries/Departments, stakeholders and partners. The role that the Authority envisions is to issue a unique identification number (UID) that can be verified and authenticated in an online, cost-effective manner, and that is robust enough to eliminate duplicate and fake identities. The first UID numbers will be issued over the next 12-18 months counted from August 2009. The first number will be issued between Aug-10 and Feb-11. Over five years, the Authority plans to issue 600 million UIDs.

3. Task Three: Programme for Elimination of Child Labour in Pakistan

Overview

In Pakistan, a country where almost half of the population lives below the poverty line, child labor is deeply entrenched and pressing phenomenon. Child labor in Pakistan is prevalent in all sectors of the economy, thought it primarily exists in the informal sector of employment and home-based industry. (Population Census Organization, 2008)Pakistan's high population growth of around 1.6% poses multiple challenges and threatens to constrain limited resources and social and economic development of the country. In Pakistan, children aged 5-14 are around 40 million. The survey conducted by UNISEF in 2003, estimated that 8 million children under the age of 14 are engaged as labors. Most of them are engaged as labors in brick kiln factories, carpet weaving centers, agriculture, small industries and domestic services. The survey also indicated that rural and urban ratio of child labors was 7:1. The province with most number of cases of child labor was Punjab with nearly 60% of the total child labor population.

Scope

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With the matter of child labor in Pakistan gaining international attention, ILO has fastened its steps to address the issues. ILO does timely surveys within various industries in Pakistan suspecting large amount of child labor. Based on the survey they come out with survey reports addressing the issue and recommending ways to deal with the situations. (Programme for elimination of child labor, 2005)Some of the latest surveys conducted by ILO in Pakistan are:

Survey on Child Labor in Kasur Tanneries in 2004

Survey on Child Labor in Glass Bangles industry in Hyderabad-2004

Survey on child labor in surgical instruments manufacturing industry in Sialkot

Survey on child labor in coal mine industries in Chakwal, Noshera and Shangla

(Programme for elimination of child labor, 2005) ILO has also been working with the government of Pakistan guiding them from time to time on this issue. It is also acting as a watch dog, inspecting the ways in which the government is addressing the issue. The scope of the program launched by ILO for the elimination of child labor in Pakistan involves community engagement of major stakeholders in the issue like Government of Pakistan, UNICEF, NGO's, Media and Society. It identifies various stakeholders in the issue and based on certain strategies and programs, intends to bring an effective social change. The program also addresses potential challenges in the way of eradicating the child labor in Pakistan and ways for addressing the issue.

Work Breakdown Structure

The work breakdown structure for the project of elimination of child labor in Pakistan is as follows:

The work breakdown structure represents the workflow of the project by International Labor Organization. Firstly, Research planning for the project is undertaken. Since the project is a community engagement project, therefore its two major steps would be laying foundations and Gathering and Analyzing Information. The next level of laying foundation includes, identifying stakeholders in the issue and based on that building a community engagement initiative. The next level of gathering and analyzing information includes conducting surveys and based on that analyzing root cause of the issue.

Integration through Community Engagement

Different Stakeholders that are involved in this program of community engagement are:

Government of Pakistan

International Labor Organization (ILO)

United Nation International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

Society, especially parents of the children

UN Department for Assistance Framework (UNDAF)

Non Government Organizations (NGOs)

Schools and their staffs, especially teachers

Employers

Labor Union

Media in all forms

Children Themselves

In order to eradicate child labor in Pakistan both preventive and corrective strategies are proposed. Successful intervention models are also founded so that the change in knowledge would be easier to bring about, attitude change requires relatively longer time frame and finally the change in total mind set and behavioral change requires the longest time. Interventions are to be phased out in the time bound manner and change strategies are age specific and gender equitable.

GENERAL AND POSITIVE ACTION STRATEGIES: (Programme for elimination of child labor, 2005) The following general and positive action strategies are requires to be taken to address the issue of child labor in Pakistan:

Change in attitude of stakeholders: Awareness campaigns, counseling sessions and advocacy workshops are carried out by ILO towards parents for gaining their confidence and for raising their awareness about the ill-effects of child labor concerning their children. The campaigns and counseling highlight the alternatives of child labor, including non-formal and formal education and apprenticeship. Similar services for gaining employers confidence would be arranged for building support for struggle in eliminating child labor. Carefully designed educational and informative conferences and/or seminars would be arranged to restore the self esteem and dignity of labor.

Poverty Alleviation: Numerous are aimed at family's alternative income generation and poverty. Poverty alleviation is addressed very seriously at different levels with the involvement of international organizations, various non-government agencies and Provincial, federal and district governments. The problem of child labor in Pakistan can be managed effectively only if the problem of poverty is worked out effectively, through income generation projects for society and parents and through equitable and fair access to safety nets such as zakat funds and other benevolent programs. Poverty alleviation efforts of provincial and state governments PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper) would coincide well with time-bound program endeavors targeted at phasing out child labor from the country.

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The survey carried out by ILO in 2004 in coal mine industries in Chakwal, Noshera and Shangla revealed following figures:

Chakwal:

Category

Sample Plan

Actual Interview conducted

Working Children

450

126

Parents

12

16

Employers

60

27

Total

522

169

Chirat/ Noshera:

Category

Sample Plan

Actual Interview conducted

Working Children

400

48

Parents

5

4

Employers

10

13

Total

415

65

Drop-out Survey:

Category

Sample Plan

Actual Interview conducted

School-going

150

250

Drop-outs

15

27

Parents

27

22

Teachers

40

38

Total

212

337

Occupational health hazards and safety measures: According to the ILO, till the child labor is eliminated totally, the culture of occupational safety would be promoted in all industries by raising awareness through advocacy seminars. These awareness-related advocacy seminars should be arranged at the worksites and at community level, would also be used for educating children about the ill effects of child labor and raising awareness about the value of education and its other positive alternatives. The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) study undertaken by ILO in 2004 also yielded detailed insights on the same issue.

Improved Legislative Measures: Steps are taken for enforcement of existing labor laws. Till the child labor is completely eliminated, increased protection to child workers would be provided upon the consent of the government against the violation of their rights and against unsafe industrial practices including child labor. High powered mystery clients would be requested to monitor adherence in safety standards along with labor departments and ILO monitors.

PARTNERSHIPS AND CAPACITY BUILDING: ILO with the engagement of other stakeholders builds strategic alliances with Non Governmental Organization in Pakistan. ILO also considers alliances with consultation agencies working on child labor issues to use them as catalyst-facilitators, monitors and trainers in working towards the common goal of eradicating child labor and reducing its ill-effects. To rectify the problem of child labor, cross agency partnerships in Pakistan is prompted till the operations are self sustained and fully streamlined. These partnerships are supported by ILO and jointly partnered with government agencies in Pakistan and with relevant international agencies such as UNICEF, UN department for Assistance Framework (UNDAF) and other stakeholders like NGOs, Media etc. cost effective innovative transformations would be geared towards effective building of District level labor departments, Provincial planning, district governments and NGO's. The aim of training would be to inculcate learning about a proactive work culture along with a missionary zeal in addressing the issue of child labor in Pakistan.

MEDIA SUPPORT: Various media like T.V, Press, and Internet media are also involved in the broad-based awareness regarding the child labor issues, including vocational and formal education. Effective information, education and communication materials are created and disseminated to press and other media in order to win their support and create awareness.

Potential challenges and road ahead

Weak Political and Economic Scenario in Pakistan

Poverty

Attitudes of Employers, Parents and Children

Though poverty levels in Pakistan appear to be a necessitate reason that children work in order to allow the families to reach their target take-home pay, effective community engagement can help raise awareness against the issue. The lack of economic opportunity for adult employment in Pakistan needs to be studied and taken under consideration; the government also needs strict to inspect the strict implementation of laws made by it.