Meeting Child Nutritional Requirements

3099 words (12 pages) Essay in Childcare

17/10/17 Childcare Reference this

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Unit 4 Health promotion and development.

1. Construct a table to indentify the main government guidelines on food and nutrition, and evaluate the ways in which they can be incorporated into child care settings.

Food Group

Foods included

Recommended Serving

Average Size serving a 1-5 year old

Main Nutrients

Evaluation

Group 1

Bread, rice,

potatoes,

pasta and

other

starchy

foods

All types of bread.

Chapattis, tortilla wraps,

rolls, bagels,

breadsticks, crackers

and oatcake, plain

baked naan bread;

potatoes; pasta; rice;

crackers; oatcakes and

breakfast cereals

Four servings per

day

½–1 large slice of bread

½–1 bread roll, English muffin or pitta.

2–4 mini breadsticks, 1–2 crackers or

1–2 oatcakes.

1–2 small potatoes

3–4 tablespoons cooked pasta or rice

Vitamins B,

iron and

fibre.

Vitamins B is important for your child’s overall health. For example, Vitamin B12 will help children to form red blood cells and will help develop the Childs brain. Whereas, Vitamin B6 is essential for keeping your child’s immune and nervous systems in good working order as well as developing hemoglobin, which ensures that all of the tissues in your child’s body get enough oxygen.

Iron is a nutrient that’s essential to your child’s growth and development. Iron helps move oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and helps muscles store and use oxygen. If your child’s diet lacks iron, he or she might develop a condition called iron deficiency. this can be prevented by ensuring that your child is getting the iron intake.

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Fibre plays an important role in supporting a healthy digestive system, and it helps keep the body’s system clean and running smoothly. Foods that are high in fibre also have the added benefit of being filling, which can help discourage overeating. Plus, when combined with ample fluid intake, fibre helps move food through the digestive system and might reduce the risk of certain cancers, diabetes, heart disease, and digestive disorders.

Group 2

Fruits and

vegetables

Fruit and vegetables in

all forms, whether fresh,

frozen, canned or dried.

Diluted pure fruit juices

and pulses (e.g. baked

beans and lentils) can

be counted as a serving

but only once in a day.

Five servings per

day

Serving sizes are smaller than adults.

A rule of thumb is what a young child

can hold in their hand. Examples

include – 1–2 tablespoons cooked

vegetables; small bowl vegetable soup;

½ large fruit or one small fruit.

Vitamins

A and C,

zinc, iron

and fibre.

Fruits and vegetable plays a big part in a Childs development it ensures that the child receives a balance diet with the right vitamins it support their growth. For example, Vitamin A plays an important role in vision and bone growth and helps protect the body from infections. Vitamin A also promotes the health and growth of cells and tissues in the body, particularly those in the hair, nails, and skin. Whereas Vitamin C will help the child to Prevent anaemia and helps to maintain eye, skin and variety of internal organs. It will also facilitate Iron absorption and wound healing and support development of bones and teeth.

Zinc is crucial for good health and development More than 70 enzymes depend on zinc to perform their roles in digestion and metabolism. And children who don’t get enough zinc risk having stunted growth.

Group 3

Meat, fish, eggs,

beans and

other non-dairy

sources of

protein

Meat and fish (fresh,

frozen or canned), eggs, nuts, pulses and beans

e.g. kidney beans,

baked beans and

including soya and soya

products.

Oily fish includes fresh,

canned or frozen

salmon, mackerel, trout,

herring, sardines, or

pilchards and fresh or

frozen tuna.

Two servings per

day

1 slice of meat or chicken, 1–2

tablespoons or 2–3 tablespoons with a sauce

½–1 fillet of fish or 1–2 tablespoons

1–2 tablespoons of pulses or meat

alternatives

Protein;

iron; zinc; vitamins

A and D

Oily fish

are

important

as they

contain

beneficial

fats

called

long chain

omega-3

fatty

acids.

Vitamin D is crucial for children’s good health and development. Vitamin D helps the body absorb minerals like calcium and builds strong teeth and bones. Vitamin D also functions as a hormone with many other jobs in the body, including regulation of the immune system, insulin production and cell growth. Vitamin D could be found from a lot of food sources and also sunlight. The recommended amount of sunlight to receive Vitamin D is 15 minutes per day.

Proteins are the building blocks of life. The body needs protein to repair and maintain itself. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development during childhood and pregnancy. Oily fish is also a good source of protein and also plays a big part of a child development and growth. Oily Fish will help with brain development and also contains omega 3 which is good source of fatty acids.

Group 4

Milk and

dairy foods

Milk, cheese, yogurt,

fromage frais, milk

puddings

Three servings

per day

Milk – ½–1 cup (100–150 ml); 1–2

tablespoons grated cheese; small pot

(60 g) or ½ large pot of yogurt.

3–4 tablespoons milk pudding.

Protein,

calcium

and

vitamin A

Most dairy products contain protein, Vitamin and calcium. Calcium is vital for building strong bones and teeth, promoting nerve and muscle function, helping blood clot, and activating the enzymes that convert food into energy. About 99 percent of the body’s calcium is stored in the teeth and bones. And because children are growing new bone all the time, they need a steady supply of calcium to support healthy growth.

2. Identify and describe the type of food that are unsuitable for babies and young children. You should specify the reason why these foods are unsuitable.

There are many different food groups which should be avoided for babies from 0 to 24 months such as:

  • Salt (Babies shouldn’t eat much salt as it isn’t good for their kidneys.Don’t add salt to your baby’s foodanddon’t usestock cubes or gravy as they’re often high in salt. Remember this when you’re cooking for the family if you plan to give the same food to your baby.)
  • Sugar (Your baby doesn’t need sugar.By avoiding sugary snacks and drinks, you’ll help to prevent tooth decay. Use mashed banana, breast milkor formula milk to sweeten food if necessary.)
  • Honey (Occasionally, honey contains bacteria which can produce toxins in a baby’s intestines, leading to infant botulism, which is a very serious illness. It’s best not to give your child honey until they’re one year old. Honey is a sugar, so avoiding it will alsohelp to prevent tooth decay.)
  • Nut (Whole nuts, including peanuts, shouldn’t be given to children under five as they can choke on them. As long as there’s no history of food allergies or other allergies in your family you can giveyour baby peanuts once they’re six months old as long as they’re crushed or ground into peanut butter)
  • Low Fat (Fat is an important source of calories and some vitamins for babies and young children. It’s better for babies and young children under two tohave full-fat milk, yoghurt and cheese rather than low-fat varieties. SeeUnderstanding food groupsfor more information.)
  • Saturated Fat (Fat is an important source of calories and some vitamins for babies and young children. It’s better for babies and young children under two tohave full-fat milk, yoghurt and cheese rather than low-fat varieties. SeeUnderstanding food groupsfor more information.)
  • Saturated (Don’t give your child too many foods that are high in saturated or’bad’ fat, such as crisps, chips, cheap burgers and cakes.)
  • Shark, Swordfish and Marlin (Don’t give your baby shark, swordfish or marlin.The amount of mercury in these fish can affect a baby’s growing nervous system.)
  • Raw Shellfish (Raw shellfish can increase the risk of food poisoning so it’s best not to give it to babies.)
  • Raw Eggs (Raw shellfish can increase the risk of food poisoning so it’s best not to give it to babies)

It is equally as important to ensure that certain food groups are avoided for children between 3 to 5 year olds these foods could include:

  • Salt (high salt intake may mean high blood pressure, osteoporosis, kidney stones, heart disease and strokes. Osteoporosis and kidney stones have even been detected in children – proving salt intake is a problem for their present as well as future health.)
  • Fat ( Not all fats should be avoided as there are good fats and bad fats. Bad fats can lead to weight gain and obesity and later life could cause heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure.
  • Sugar (The ugly truth is that added sugar means empty calories that put kids at risk of obesity and health problems that can show up as early as adolescence.)
  • Processed foods (Processed foods made with trans fats, saturated fats, and large amounts of sodium and sugar aren’t good for you. They’re low in vitamins and minerals and eating too much of them is bad for your waistline — and your health)

3.Design a child record form for a new child joining a home child setting with a specific dietary requirement. Describe the dietary requirements, and why it should be documented accurately

Child record form

Child Name:… Record number:….

Address………. Post code…….

Emergency Contact1

Relation: Parent/Guardian……. Contact Number……

Work………..

Other………………

Emergency Contact2

Relation: Parent/Guardian……. Contact Number……

Work………….

Other………………

Doctors Address…….. Doctors Number……..

Doctors Name…………..

————————————————————————————————————————————

Declaration

I Declare that the information provided on this form about my child is a true and accurate reflection of the best of my knowledge.

Parent/Guardian PRINT:……

Parent/Guardian Signature……..

Date:…….

Child care Provider PRINT………..

Child Care Provider Signature…….

Date…….

—————————————————————————————————————————————

Medical Condition and allergies Form

Medical Condition and allergies

Tick box

Comments/ Special Requirements

Allergies/Sensitivities• List allergies:

   

Special Diet/Vitamin/Mineral Supplements/ Emergency Instruction

• List dietary specifications:

   

Limitations to Physical Activity

• List limitations/special considerations

   

Medications/Treatments

• List medications/treatments

   

Behavioural Issues/Mental Health Diagnosis

• List behavioural/mental health issues/concerns:

   

Learning Difficulties

   

Sight impairments

   

Hearing Impairments

   

Muscular Paralysis

   

Epilepsy

   

Autism

   

Scoliosis

   

TB

   

Emergency Plans

• List emergency plan that might be needed and

the sign/symptoms to watch for:

   

Medication………………………………….Dosage Requirements………Daily Intake…………..

—————————————————————————————————————————————

Declaration

I Declare that the information provided on this form about my child is a true and accurate reflection of the best of my knowledge.

Parent/Guardian PRINT:……

Parent/Guardian Signature……..

Date:…….

Child care Provider PRINT………..

Child Care Provider Signature…….

Date……..

—————————————————————————————————————————————

It is always important to understand and document a child’s dietary needs carefully and accurately. This is important to ensure that children are receiving care and safety to meet their individual requirements for example, if a child is to have a allergy towards nuts the care coordinator must ensure that they are meeting a nut free dietary requirement and ensuring that epi-pen and medication are correctly labelled. It is almost if not more important for all the care coordinators to understand how and when to administer medication when needed in case of emergencies. It is not just allergies that a care provider needs to be aware about but also about religious needs and beliefs. For example Adventis do not eat seafood and pork whereas a Muslim would require a Halal a meat. Depending on the type of child care setting the child attends, it may be necessary to share information on dietary and culture requirements with kitchen staff and additional member of child care staff.

4.Define the 4 chronic diseases identified in the course manual, and discuss the ways in which development can be affected.

The 4 main childhood chronic diseases, asthma, diabetes, cystic fibrosis and cerebral palsy. A definition of asthma is: A respiratory condition marked by attacks of spasm in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing. It is usually connected to allergic reaction or other forms of hypersensitivity. Asthma can be a very serious and debilitating condition. It can restrict the air flow into your lungs thus causing asthma attack. It is a very common childhood condition as every 1 out of 10 children will have this. Asthma does not usually affect development of a child however, may hinder emotional and intellectual development. Serious asthmatic conditions could result in children in being away from school and missing a huge part of early education in order to control the asthmatic disease. a common factor of asthma is it is allergy relegated and is also linked with eczema. for young children this condition can be very emotional as asthma attacks could be frightening therefore children and can lead to undue anxiety and distress.

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Diabetes is another chronic childhood disease Throughout the world, incidences of diabetes are on the rise, and consequently so is diabetes amongst children. Diabetes is a condition where the amount of glucose in your blood is too high because the body cannot use it properly.Most children are affected by type 1 diabetes in childhood. However, the number of children and young adults affected by type 2 diabetes is beginning to rise, particularly in America. Approximately 90% of young people with diabetes suffer from type 1 and the number of patients who are children varies from place to place. A figure of 17 per 100,000 children developing diabetes each year has been reported. As metabolic syndrome, obesity and bad diets spread, so too have the first incidences of type 2 diabetes, previously incredibly rare. Diabetes can affect retinopathy which can cause blindness and nephropathy which affects the nerves which can cause physical impairments.

Cystic fibrosis also known as mucoviscidosis, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects most critically the lungs, and also the pancreas, liver, and intestine. It is characterized by abnormal transport of chloride and sodium across an epithelium, leading to thick, viscous secretions. Approximately 1 in 25 population have this faulty gene. This condition can be very physically debilitating for a child.

Cerebral palsy is a condition that affects muscle control and movement. It is usually caused by an injury to the brain before, during or after birth. Children with cerebral palsy have difficulties in controlling muscles and movements as they grow and develop.

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