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The expected pattern of children’s development is as follows.
The development of children should be viewed in a holistic way each child is unique and will develop in their own way.
0 -3 years. This is a time of fast physical development . New born baby’s have little control of their bodies at first it is reflex movements eg. Sucking , grasping. In the first year they gradually learn to have more control over their bodies and most babies have stated to crawl or roll as they continue they will begin to walk and control their bodies, also they may climb and begin to feed and dress themselves. By about 3 most children will page turn and colour and explore toys like tricycles and cars. They will have developed their gross motor skills ,but have no sense of danger they require close monitoring. Also their vocabulary may be around 200 words but consistency in behaviour
3 -7 years. At this stage children will be more co-ordinated and will gain confidence as a result. Their fine motor skills will have developed and they can cut write and draw. Also their gross motor skills are developed running , kicking a ball and using large equipment are easier.
7 – 12 years. Children will continue to grow and develop, and refine many skills. They may start to have hobbies and interest which help their fine and gross motor skill for example dance, football, ,music or sewing. Girls may star to show signs of puberty from 10 or 11. In boys this is usually later.
12 – 16 years. At this stage young people will be growing stronger. Boys will begin puberty and many girls will have completed the process. Between these ages height and strength will vary most boys will be taller than girls on average.
16 – 19 years. This is the stage at which young people are adults, although most girls may have reached physical maturity, boys continue to grow into their mid -20s
Intellectual and Cognitive development.
It is important to know that children develop in a variety of ways depending on their own experiences and opportunities given from an early age. Children have their own strengths and abilities. Good point.
0 -3 years. Babies will start looking at the world around them and enjoy repetitive games. They begin to understand that when objects are hidden they are still they also they may point to objects.
3 – 7 years. At this stage children will be starting to learn to read and developing skills of number and writing. They will be looking for adult approval and learning about their world
7 – 11 years Children will start to decide what activities or subjects they enjoy. They will still be influenced by adults. They will transfer information and think In a more abstract way. They will be becoming fluent in reading and writing.
12 – 16 years. Young people by now will have a clear idea of subjects they like and be motivated in these areas. They will be choosing their learning pathways. They may lack confidence and avoid less popular subjects. It is very important that they feel good and want to belong.
16 – 19 years. School leavers will now be thinking about career or university choices. They will focus on their areas of strength and look forward to continuing development.
Communication and language development.
0 -3 years. From birth onwards adults will talk to their baby even though they do not understand what is being said yet this is important for babies to be stimulated and have an interest shown in them if this does not happen they may struggle to communicate later in life. After early babbling babbies at about 12 months they will try to speak single words but not very clear. Between 1 and 2 they will start to put words together by about 2 years old they will have about 200 words .Between 2 and 3 they will start using plurals and negatives I their speech but may still make errors like “I drawed it.
3 – 7 years. Communication is very important at this age for friendships to develop they are very sociable and enjoy jokes and stories. They will also ask a lot of questions and be able to talk about things past and present with confidence.
7 – 12 years and upwards. By this stage most children will be fluent in their language. They will develop in reading and writing and be able to think and discuss their ideas in more abstract terms. Many young children will now use phones and technology to communicate with their friends.
Social, emotional, and moral development.
This area of development concerns how children and young people feel about themselves and relate to others. They need to learn how to grow in confidence and how to become independent adults.
0-3 years. Very young children will be finding out about themselves. They need strong attachments to parents/carers. In nursery children are usually given a key worker who will be the main contact. They may begin to have tantrums at this stage through frustration when wanting to do things for themselves. They will also begin to smile and show enjoyment and recognise certain routines or familiar sounds that make them smile.
3 – 7 years. Children In this age group will be more independent and make their own choices. They will start to play alongside their peers and socialise in imaginative play. It is now important for children to recognise boundaries . Friendships are important at this stage and many children will have close friends. Even though children are becoming independent they still need parents/carers to meet their emotional needs. They will respond well to responsibility for example class helpers, but still need adult approval.
7 – 12 years . Children’s friendships will be more settled and they may have best friends. They will now need the chance to solve problems and carry out activities which require independence. At around 12 years old children may be moving schools this transition may cause anxiety if they are to be separated from their friends. They will still need encouragement and praise, and will be very aware of what others may think of them.
12 -16 years . At this stage young people self-esteem can be very vulnerable, as their bodies look grown up they still need guidance. They will spend more time with their own friends, but may display some childish ways because they may be unsure how to behave in some situations. Children are more aware of actions and consequences and are thinking about other children’s feelings.
16 -19 years. Children now enter adulthood but will sometimes still need advice and guidance from adults. Some will still will lack emotional maturity and vary in interaction with others. Young people have a very good understanding of right and wrong.
Influences on Development.
How development is influenced by personal and external factors’.
A child’s development begins at conception ,the genetic information for that child is determined .A healthy embryo is 46 chromosomes 23 form the egg and 23 from the sperm if any are missing and the baby survives this will have a dramatic effect on the development of the child. For example most children with Down syndrome have 47 chromosomes the additional one is 21,also the older a mother is the risk is higher.
A baby can also be affected due to smoking, taking drugs and alcohol consumption. According to the NHS choices your health your choice. The alcohol a mother drinks passes from her blood to the placenta and to the baby. A baby’s liver is the last organ to develop and does not mature until the last half of pregnancy .Too much exposure to alcohol can really affect the baby’s development. If you drink too much during pregnancy your baby may develop (FAS) foetal alcohol syndrome which presents as restricted growth, facial abnormalities and learning and behaviour disorders. Good.
Illegal drugs use during in pregnancy including cannabis, ecstasy, cocaine and heroin) can have serious effects on your unborn baby. However people who take drugs daily need to seek medical advice due to withdrawal problems when stopping any drugs. Also not all “natural” remedies are safe always seek medical advice.
A child’s birth experience will have an influence on their development if a baby is premature or does not breathe straight away their brain may be starved of oxygen which can affect learning in later life.
A child’s health can be determined by genetic factors for example NHS choices states the blood disorder Sickle cell anaemia can cause a wide range of symptoms though not all people will experience all symptoms which are ,episodes of pain which is the most common and upsetting symptom. A crisis is triggered when the abnormal blood cells block the small blood vessels that supply the bodies tissues, this causes swelling and damage younger children may have swelling of the hands and feet. As a child gets older the most common areas of pain are ribs, spine, pelvis, abdomen, breastbone, long bones in the legs and arms A crisis can occur for no apparent reason but certain triggers are, changes in body temperature due to illness or environment, dehydration or a sudden lack of oxygen due to sudden exertion or stress. In older children potential triggers are alcohol , cigarettes and illegal drugs. Children with sickle cell anaemia are prone to infections under the age of 3 because of the abnormal blood cells which disrupt the function of the spleen which filters harmful bacteria and viruses from the blood so these children are vulnerable to pneumonia, osteomyelitis a bone infection and meningitis .Jaundice is another common symptom as are lower leg ulcers, delayed growth and priapism in teenage boys.
Due to the life threatening conditions it is important to seek medical advice straight away if your child’s develops any of the above symptoms.
Coeliac disease is a common digestive condition where the person has an adverse reaction to gluten eating foods that contain gluten can trigger a range of symptoms such as : diarrhoea, bloating and wind, abdominal pain, weight loss, and feeling tired all the time .This disease is known as an autoimmune condition, this is where the body’s defence system against infection mistakenly attacks healthy tissue due to substances found inside gluton. This damages the small bowel disrupting the body’s ability to absorb nutrients from food .Why this happens is not clear although a combination of genetic make- up and the environment play a part. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley and rye, which is in pasta, cakes, breakfast cereal, most breads, certain sauces and some ready meals .There is no cure for coeliac disease but a gluten free diet may help control the symptoms and prevent long term consequences. Complications may occur if you continue to eat gluten which are osteoporosis and anaemia.
The symptoms of Tuner syndrome vary upon the age of the girl or woman affected .Baby’s born with Turner syndrome often have swollen hands and feet which is caused by excess fluid around the tissues. Other symptoms that may develop before birth are thick neck tissue .swelling of the neck and being a small baby. The 2 most common symptoms are short height and ovaries that do not work properly. Baby’s with Tuner syndrome usually grow normally until the age of 3yrs, after this they will grow at a slower rate. At puberty there is not the normal growth spurt and on average a woman with this symptom is about 20cm smaller than other women .Ovaries may not function properly which may result in infertility. The appearance is also affected causing, a short wide neck, a broad chest and wide nipples, arms that turn slightly at the elbows, a low hairline ,mouth and teeth problems, a lot of moles, spoon shaped nails, a short fourth finger or toe. Eye symptoms are eyes that slant down, droopy eyelids, a squint, lazy eye, cataracts, short sightedness. Ear symptoms are low set ears, reoccurring middle ear infections, hearing loss which may occur in later life .Turner syndrome is associated with other conditions some are heart murmur , underactive thyroid, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, scoliosis, diabetes, lymphoedema, gastrointestinal bleeding, other digestive conditions, kidney and urinary tract problems.
Most girls have good language and reading skills, however some social and behaviour difficulties are over looked by doctors and this can cause great anxiety for the family, they are problems with social intelligence, lack of spatial awareness problems with numeracy, attention and hyperactivity problems. About a third of girls will have social relationship problems due to the way the brain develops. More than 8 out of 10 females will have spatial awareness problems which may cause problems when driving of using a map. A similar number struggle with maths this is known as dyscalculia and if teachers are not aware of this it may cause problems. ADHD may be present in toddlers which may reduce about 12 years old. In some cases medical treatments may not work because of Turner syndrome.
Any child who has any learning difficulties should be encouraged to develop to the best of their ability in all areas of learning and development. When working with SEN children you will have advice from other professionals regarding this.
Pupils will come from a range of different background, family, culture, circumstances. Many families will go through a lot of changes in a child’s school years some of which the school may not be aware of. These may be divorce, bereavement, illness or moving house or country . Good overview of the external factors that may influence development. Any one of these may affect children’s emotion or intellectual development you may notice a change in the pupil.
Poverty and deprivation will have a significant effect on pupil development. Statistics show that children who come from deprived background s are less likely to thrive in school. This could be relative poverty which is comparison of income compared to the average.. It is concerned with material possessions that society deems relevant to daily life. Absolute poverty is the lack of basic human needs such as food, shelter, warmth, sanitation, education and health care. This is quite rare in the UK. Poverty can have an effect on diet, housing and play opportunities
A balanced diet Is important for children growth. Families on a low income have to buy cheaper foods which are mostly fast food or highly processed, these types of food contain little nutrition value. Eating this food can lead to becoming over weight and malnutrition in children which means they may become lethargic unsettled and hyperactive. Diets that lack certain vitamins may cause health conditions for example lack of Vitamin C may cause scurvy-easy bruising spontaneous bleeding, joint and muscle pain lack of Vitamin D may cause rickets –tiredness aches and pains as will lack of calcium, lack of Iron may cause anemia delays in infant motor functions and if present in pregnancy small or early births and fatigue.
Poor housing conditions resulting in damp and crowded houses may results in child on set of asthma and no room to play or develop due to lack of exercise. These children need other clubs or groups but due to low income they cannot be provided, this may lead to obesity and delay in physical development. A child’s development is strongly influenced by the family around them and parents are the most important educators and source of information in the childcare setting. Most parents will do their best to stimulate and help their children to thrive and grow. But some parents are unable to do this because of ill health or drug abuse or depression .Also stress with in the family through bereavement or divorce can cause anxiety within a child and lead to a major change in their behaviour.
.As children grow older they will often decide for themselves which club to join and which friends to have. They will be in situations which require their own decisions to be made, they may find themselves under pressure to experiment with drugs or alcohol and the decisions they make will affect their behaviour if they choose to abuse drugs such as cannabis as this can affect brain development. Also they now decide what they eat and the wrong choice may result in obesity. A good quality of education from home and school is extremely important to a child’s overall development both social and moral.
The reasons why children’s development may not follow the expected pattern are personal and external factors as stated above. There are also many other factors which are as follows
Emotional, Children grow and learn when their emotional needs are fully met and their development will benefit.
Physical reasons are if a child has difficulties with their growth their fine motor skills and hand eye co-ordination may be affected.
Environmental factors are an external factor as stated above.
Cultural reasons these are the different values and beliefs according to their country of origin and their religion in some cases boys are treated different from girls ,girls are often viewed as the homemaker and it is not essential for them to complete their education. This can affect their development as they do not receive their statutory education as recommended in the UK. Good point.
Social influences and family structure as stated above family structure and lifestyle has an influence on children’s development, divorce or bereavement will cause a child to stress resulting In the child becoming anxious and withdrawn. If parents struggle with a particular area of learning this area may become delayed.
Disability may affect development in many ways. Depending on the child’s need it may cause a delay in a certain aspect of their development for example a physical disability may affect their social skills and if they become withdrawn this may lead to becoming frustrated also the attitudes and expectation of others affect the child- if we assume that it is not possible for a disabled person to do something we restrict their opportunity to take part so we restrict their development in all areas. It is important that we look at the needs of the child no on the disability. In my role as TA2 in special needs school we always have to be realistic about the expectations of our children as all our children require extra support but are 100% encouraged to be as independent as is possible. There are no labels in our school only children and their needs.
Early intervention is important when delays are suspected so a child may receive the help they require as soon as possible, as this may help the child live a full and successful life as adults. Early years settings play a crucial part in early identification of SEN in young children. When a young child attends an early years setting they will be assigned a key worker who will observe and assess the child’s development and can quickly identify any possible delays. For example if a child has a language delay which is crucial to learning, as it is linked to our thoughts, which enables us to store information an organised way, they will be at a disadvantage straight away as their thought process will be less able and they may struggle to express themselves .The earlier any delay is detected the sooner other professionals can be sought and advice and plans for support are given. This is important for the child as early years are a time of rapid growth and development.
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