WHAT IS AD/HD?
Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is one of the most communal childhood disorders and can carry on during adolescence and maturity. The ADHD is one of the mental disorders, usually diagnosed for the first time in the nursery, children or teens. People with AD/HD have hardships in significant elevations of their life times, like, at school, work, with their family or with personal relationships. Generally, they cannot control their behavior and hyperactivity, plus, they cannot stay concentrat and pay attention. ADHD is a behavior disorder that influences children about 8% to 10%. According to statistics, boys are three times more than girls to be diagnosed with itfig1. The diagnose normally became around the period of seven, but symptoms carry on throughout adolescence and adulthood. About 50%-70% of children with AD/HD keep symptoms during adulthood, with prominent features the impulsivity, deficit and hyperactivity (Barkley, 1998).The most common disorders are attendant disruptions language, communication, learning disabilities, conduct disorders, andanxiety disorders. The evaluation and treatment ofthe commondisturbances are often as important as the assessment and treatment of ADHD. (Cantwell, 1996) One ofthe etiologist of AD/DH is because of the heredity, but alsofor neurobiological factors.And thus several studies have attempted to link the disorder with features of temperament and personality of individuals.
ADHD has three components:
- Sustaining attention and concentration
- Controlling impulses
- Controlling motor activity.
How looks like a child with ADHD?(The most common symptons of a child with ADHD) The diagnosis and medical opinion.
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There are some misapprehensions when a child has ADHD and when not. A child with ADHD usually in the classroom gets up from his chair very often, is aggressive towardshis classmates, being unconscious and daydreaming, losing and also forgetting equipments. Sometimes, the kid does not make the homeworks or even though handing them too late, handing in unfinished or sloppy work (Based on Taylor 1994). Also, the kid does not pay attention to the teacher's instructions, for instance, for one minute a child with ADHD could be listening to the teacher and then not. A child with ADHD, often feel confused about what must do. So, the self-esteem of the child could be descended and then the child may become argumentativeness, non-compliance and lack of mood control or the child may become a defeated adolescent with behavior disorder. According to research studies of children with ADHD, these children having difficulties in language development (Cantwell, 1996, Hill, 2000, Redmond, 2004) in hearing the teacher or their parents and understanding speech. Also, having problems in organisation and monitoring the language narrative (Zentall, 1998), in communication, social use of language and in written expression (spelling errors, punctuation) (De La Paz, 2001, Mathers, 2006).The school may be a problem for these children because is probably the first place need to exercise self-control and adapt to a structured environment. It is very likely that parents may not realize that their child has ADHD, before going school. They might consider this behavior as part of development of their child. These students require the immediate attention of the teacher. About the diagnosis, should be collected some indication from the school. Specifically, school ought to report some measures about the child and this report has to beco-occurrence with a history from the parents or careers. The diagnosis of ADHD not needs a medical diagnosis. Nonetheless, in order to be label must get a diagnosis by a clinician. Forsome people, the label is good but for some others is not. Nevertheless, it is significant to motivatethe symptomsbecause it can be misunderstanding with some neurological damage like head traumas, or meningitis, encephalitis and some kinds ofepilepsy. The majority is ateacher not to force parents to go for medical recommendation, but they have to decide by their own. The school ought to support the child if the parents decide to have arecommendation or not.
Examples of children's behaviour with ADHD
- The student tries to draw attention: Speaking all the time, shouting, whistling, and making pointless noises, raising hands.
- A wandering rejects, hitting, verbal and physical attack on people and property, slacking,does not accept recommendations, has not developed the self-control, lack of attention and cannot sit quiet.
- The child could stayawake and be like baby.
- In the breaks,these children arevery lively, they are dangerous to other students or threatening, andthey areoften aggressive, not part of the team andare notaccepted by team.
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To sum up,we would say that behavioural problems are divided into three categories. In reactive environmental or behavioural problemswere responsiblyis the environment and therefore, the child has problems in a particular area while inanother environment thebehaviour of the childis good. Then we have the behavioural problems of organic type, which classified the hyperactive syndrome, the discount perceptual, the impulsivity and disturbances in attention, in memory, inlearning and inthinking. Finally there is the type of antisocial behaviour problems, which occur with mendacity, theft, aggression, anddestruction.
Educational interventions and the teacher role
The position of the child should beassessed by evaluating the educational, social and psychological needs of the child. The child needs anadditional support and attention from the teacher, and alsothe definition of learning objectives may be enough to keep the child attends toschool. The social activities should also be monitored, respectively.A child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) probably, has a variety of difficulties in the classroom than in other conditions. A child may have a difficulty in the classroom because of a high frequency of specific learning defects (Cantwell & Satterfield, 1978) and also, half and more of children with ADHD have consequential problems of an oppositional nature (Hinshaw, 1987). However, teachers must become more beneficial in a child interaction and not a negative one. A teacher must be lovingness, give extra attention and instruction the child because in these ways the teacher helps the child to overcome it.
Unfortunately, the school is very uncomfortablefor a child with ADHD. That is why, an educator ought to know and comprehend the situation. Some experts argue that in order to help a child with ADHD must manage two positive factors: a) The organization of the class and b) the behaviour of the teacher. a) The organization of the class:For instance, the class should becomfortable, spacious and secure. The child should be sitting close to the teacher also, away from windows and sockets and in a small class. b) The behaviour of the teacher: First, the school teacher should not label the child, or to have a critical and negative attitude towards the child. The teachers have to find out some priorities of what a child can do or not, for example ' deal of these leaflets'. Also, must reward the efforts of the child so as to have self-esteem and self-confidence. Constantly must giveto the youngster concise and understandable instructions. As well as,a teacherhas to meet regularly the parents of the child. Teachers needs to know what they are dealing with, they have to be instructed about the disorder. Teachers ought to hold a positive consideration. Like a smile, pat on the back so as the child with ADHD to feel comfortable in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers have to teach with pleasure, stimulus, imaginative, without a label and stimulating the child with ADHD. Teaching is obliged to have a sense of humour, patience, supporting in order the child to succeed.
Practical guidance to educators to deal with ADHD.
- Development of an interpersonal relationship: a child behaves better when feel that the teacher cares personally for him.
- Contact with clear conditions. The instructions should be clear and simple as possible.
- Resumption of directives. Especially at the beginning, whenever the child appears not to care and do not fully understand the instructions.
- Individualized instruction. Depending on the circumstances, abilities and needs of the child.
- Stability in relation to the child, but in a way pleasant. E.g. when we say <
> we have to help calm the children so as to understand what we mean.
- The child should sit near the teacher and away from disruptive sources likedoor andwindow.
- Frequent support a childnot onlywhen the childsuccesses but inevery effort and inevery minor improvement. However,strengthening need and the other children in theclass, especiallywhen they do not enhance withthe disruptive behaviour.
- Awardto thechild someproject. Although,depending on the capabilities of the child and not work or tasks that cannot run successfully.
- Granting of additional individual teaching whenever it isnecessary.
- Live but not disruptive way of teaching, and alsonot anunexpected change in the program, because that would causea strong deficit.
- Breaks so as the childto release the energy. Frequent and regular opportunities for releasethe energylike to stand up andto clean thewhite drop, water the flowers and bring something from another room.
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Also a good teacher ought to:
- To inform the child about what they would do or when it is his turn :
- The teacher must make the occupations in the classroom interesting:
- The teacher should rewards the child for good behaviour:
The teacher should use simple, clear and direct instructions and only one directive at a time. The schoolteacher should avoid long and complex commands, like to ask the child to do manythings at the same time.And not the childtobe confused. The teacher should go to the next activity when the child has completed the previous one.
The child must have firm rules and objectives must not be changed in the process. Otherwise it will lose theinterestabout the work thatwill never be complete.
The rewards should be meaningful to the child and should be agreed in advance with him. The teacher should reward the child so as to feel responsibly.
When a teacher wants to communicate with an ADHD child ought not to use critical language and ongoing observations. Also, if the teacher wants to intervene in it is better to do it with an on-verbal way. So, if a teacher wants to calm down an ADHD child the best way is to follow the following steps:
- Teacher ought to put his hand on student shoulders so as the child to feel comfortable with the teacher.
- To develop a code of communication through symbols and winks, like the symbol of silence or small cards with the symbol STOP.
- Furthermore, the teacher must provide an opportunity to an ADHD child to discharge, otherwise, the child will disrupt the whole class.
Working with parents and work with the school
Parents, teachers should understand the nature of the problems and then tocreate a consistent approach at home and at school. Otherwise the child may be "confused" even more. A detailed educational - psychological assessment is a good start so as all concerned tounderstand what the child can do and what not, for example, to understand its ability to collect, record new information and understand abstract concepts. Meetings should be madebetween the family, teachers / professors and doctors. These can help to monitor progress, to clear up questions to help the child understand, solve problems before they grow and ensure that everyone works with a common goal. Prevention should be aimed at preventing the development problems in children with ADHD, such as being disappointed and display,aggressive reactions, feel unsuccessful, lose their hope, find difficulty to make friends and blown into trouble. Also, there is a risk that parents are frustrated and lose heart, gradually rejecting the child.
Should also avoid minor problems during the life of the child:
- Encourage social activities and friendships, first with caution and structured way, and gradually encourage more spontaneity and experimentation. This will allow the child to experience success before proceeding to more complex social contacts.
- Promoting and forces the child in enjoyable pursuits, extracurricular interests, and for adolescents,in future education and career prospects. Also, toavoid work and activities that can lead to feelings of failure and frustration.
- Along with the school, should be used and appropriate instructional strategies and learning objectives so that the child continues to learn and progress.
You must provide a stable and continuous response to the familyhouse. In order thechild with ADHDtogrowing up in a safe environment. All family members should adopt similar approaches of the child, including grandparents and relatives.