Perception Of Chemistry Of Secondary Students Chemistry Essay

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The purpose of this research was to examine the perception in chemistry of third year high school students. This paper discussed the perceptions in chemistry, chemists, chemistry jobs, chemistry experiments, chemicals and chemical industries; assessed whether the perceptions of students were related to gender and ethnicity; elicited the common words associated with 'chemistry'; and identified the sources of perceptions of students. The results of the study have implications on chemistry education as well as posing challenges to chemistry teachers.

Descriptive statistics (e.g. frequency, percentage) was used. Non-parametric analysis using Chi-Square test (OpenStat by W.G. Miller, 2010) was also used for the quantitative aspect of the study with level of significance P ≤ 0.05.

Results show that majority of the 354 students surveyed have positive perception towards chemistry and it had been shown that some of these views were affected by gender and ethnicity of the students. With regards to the words associated with 'chemistry', chemical(s), matter, and experiment(s) or laboratory experiment(s) topped the list. While the most common sources of information regarding chemistry were the teachers, books, the internet, national/local TV reports, and magazines/periodicals.

INTRODUCTION

These coming years, countries will have to confront several global concerns. The Canadian National Research Council Renewal Futures Team (2005) identified these three major concerns which include energy, the environment, and health and wellness. The role of science and technology in providing remedial solutions to these concerns, therefore, has never been as pressingly sought in the 21st century. Scientists are constantly searching alternative sustainable energy and accepting once more the power of nuclear technology; devising techniques and equipment that can reduce green house gas emissions; and designing drugs that can cure diseases and other measures to increase food production. Other than these, much more is expected from science and technology. With mankind's dependence on science and technology, ordinary people are also tasked to keep up.

"…increasingly the 21st century democracy will demand scientific literacy. Ordinary people will increasingly be asked to make judgments about matters underpinned by science knowledge or technological capability."

(PMSEIC, 1999)

For a country to gain edge and benefits from science and technology, its scientific pool must be harnessed. This however, becomes a dilemma for many countries because of the significant decrease in number of scientist, especially chemist, involved in scientific research. Australia, for example, faces a dilemma on how to achieve the 'knowledge nation' status when the means of having sufficient number of professionally trained scientists are in crisis (Price & Hill, 2004). This alarming scenario has also been seen in the UK, US, Japan (Price & Hill, 2004) and across Europe (Gavaghan, 2000; and Price & Hill, 2004). According to the United Nations, four scientists per 10,000 are needed to maintain adequate standards (Pertierra, 2006). In the Philippines however, the ratio of scientists per individuals is less than two scientists per 10,000.

The paper of Price and Hill (2004) mentioned that one of the reasons in the decline of chemistry in Australia is due to lack of general public recognition which results to two serious consequences. One is loss of relevance of chemistry in the eyes of the general public and late realization of the importance of chemistry education among students. The other is lack of information regarding the existence of several career opportunities in chemistry. Their paper then elaborated several solutions that can be used inside the university setting.

A survey of public attitudes towards chemistry and chemists was commissioned in 2000 by the American Chemical Society (ACS) (Science and Engineering Indicators, 2002). Their findings show that 11% of the respondents associate the word 'science' to chemistry and those with higher levels of education and income were more likely to mention chemistry. When asked about the perception of the chemical industry, one-third of the respondents had negative opinion about chemical companies and ranked last among 10 industries. Respondents who expressed positive attitudes toward the chemical industry were those who had college degrees and/or household incomes exceeding $60,000, Caucasians, those who are not concerned about the effects of chemicals on human health and safety, and those who thought chemicals had made their lives better. Three out of five respondents felt that chemicals make their lives better and the remaining is a split between those who were neutral and those who felt that chemical make their lives worse. As a career, the public responded positively toward chemistry as a profession.

Wells (2003) developed a valid and reliable instrument to assess chemistry perceptions. He used the word perception as a more general term, thus, defining perception as an attitude, view, belief, or opinion, which was also the context used in this current study. One of the factors Wells considered in the development of his instrument was ethnicity based on the fact that the number of Blacks and Hispanics involved in the physical sciences are low. A common perception that exists is that Whites and Asians have special ability advantage in the sciences over Blacks and Hispanics. Gender was also considered because it is well accepted that women are underrepresented in chemistry, men were four times as likely to major in chemistry and physics, than were women.

The work of Andersen and Nielsen (2003) revealed that the attitudes between Danish boys and girls with regards to chemistry and physics vary. Girls like chemistry better than physics, while boys like both subjects. In addition, girls see more reasons for learning chemistry and find chemistry essential for their higher education than boys. However, their study showed that the achievement of girls in chemistry is only a little better compared to physics, thus, the positive attitude of girls toward chemistry cannot be attributed to achievement. They suggested that the differences lie in classroom culture and the teacher's attitude, teaching style and gender.

In the Philippines, Talisayon et al. (2006) showed that more than 90% of students have positive science-related interests and experiences. Further, gender differences in opinion were shown, in favor of girls, about Science and Technology. However, local studies specifically on chemistry perceptions of students are still limited.

Knowing the perception of secondary students in chemistry is useful in designing strategies in uplifting or maintaining positive attitudes. The study will be useful on how chemistry education in general can help communicate the invaluable role of chemistry in daily life, not to mention its part in addressing the global major concerns in the next few years.

This paper aimed to determine the perception in chemistry of secondary students in Isabela City, Basilan, Philippines. Specifically, the study aimed to:

discuss perceptions in chemistry, chemists, chemistry jobs, chemistry experiments, chemicals and chemical industries;

assess whether the perception of students are related to gender and ethnicity;

elicit the common words associated with 'chemistry'; and

identify the sources of perceptions of students.

METHODOLOGY

2.1 The Sample

The respondents were third year high school students at two schools in Isabela City, Basilan SY 2009-2010. The total number of third year high school students at both schools was 1,319 in which each class consisted of 40 to 60 students. There were 21 and three third year class sections at School A and School B, respectively. The students in School A were grouped by class sections based on the general weighted grade they obtained from their previous second year high school achievement (i.e. section one class is composed of students with highest general weighted grade in second year high school, followed by section two class, and so on) while students at School B were not grouped according to their previous second year high school grade.

Using Slovin's Formula (Equation 1), the sample size had been determined to be at least 307 at e = 0.05.

Equation 1:

Where n = sample size; N = population size; and e = margin of error. For this particular study, the sample size used was 354. The age of majority of respondents ranged from 14 to 15 years old although there were very few students with age reaching 18 years old. The classification of respondents is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Total number and classification of respondents

No. of Respondents

%

Total Respondents

354

27

Total No. of 3rdYr HS Students

1319

a. School A

1171

b. School B

148

1. Respondents Based on School

a. Sc. A/% Resp. in Sc. A

292 (25%)

82

b. Sc. B/% Resp. in Sc. B

62 (42%)

18

2. Respondents Based on Gender

a. Male

145

41

b. Female

209

59

3. Respondents Based on Ethnicity

a. Chabacano

145

41

b. Tausog

105

30

c. Bisaya

45

13

d. Yakan

45

13

e. Others (Samal, Maranao,

Ilonggo, Tagalog, Maguindanao)

14

4

The Instrument

A Chemistry Perception Survey Questionnaire developed by the researcher was used in this study. This questionnaire had been reviewed by six (6) teacher-colleagues at the Chemistry Department, College of Science and Mathematics, Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga City and evaluated based on clarity and relevance among others.

The questionnaire consisted of two parts: the first part contained questions about personal data of respondents like name, age, gender, and ethnic tribe. The first part of the questionnaire was followed by 16 questions pertaining to perceptions in Chemistry (3 sub-items), Chemistry and Society (2 sub-items), Chemists (3 sub-items), Chemistry Jobs (1 sub-item), Chemistry Experiments (2 sub-items), Chemicals and Chemical Industries (4 sub-items), and Leisure Interest in Chemistry (1 sub-item), which were all answerable by yes or no. Students were asked to check the appropriate column for their response then an elaboration/ expansion column was provided for their short explanation of their response. The direction indicated that their answers may be written in English, Filipino, or the local dialects Chabacano or Bisaya. The items in part 1 have been developed in support for part 2 of the questionnaire.

Part 2 of the questionnaire started with a question asking students to supply a word associated with Chemistry. The bulk of part 2 included perception in: Chemistry (6 sub-items), Chemistry and Society (4 sub-items), Chemists (4 sub-items), Chemistry Jobs (4 sub-items), Chemistry Experiments (4 sub-items), Chemicals and Chemical Industries (5 sub-items), and Leisure Interest in Chemistry (4 sub-items). Each respondent was asked to check one appropriate column: strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree on 31 items. Lastly, the questionnaire included question on the sources of information with regards to chemistry, chemists, chemicals, and chemical industries.

Conduct of Survey

For each school, a random sampling using intact classes was utilized. For each class, the researcher explained the directions, read the questions and items from the questionnaire, and translated majority of the items mostly in Filipino and occasionally in Chabacano and Bisaya. All answers of students were entered into by students on the provided questionnaire. The duration for the survey in each class was about 30 minutes. The School A survey was done on January 29, 2010 while the School B survey was done on February 2, 2010.

Analysis of Data

Descriptive statistics (e.g. frequency, percentage) was used. Non-parametric analysis using Chi-Square test (OpenStat by W.G. Miller, 2010) was also used for the quantitative aspect of the study with level of significance P ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The study explored the perceptions of students in chemistry and related these to gender and ethnicity. The study also elicited words associated with chemistry and identified sources of these perceptions.

Perceptions in Chemistry

For the first part of the study, the perceptions of students on different aspects of chemistry were determined. Based on the results (see Table 2), majority of the students indicated positive responses on 13 out of the 16 question-items. It is worth noting that 90% of the students indicated that they know what chemistry is, 86% responded that they like chemistry, and 86% also responded that they like chemistry laboratory experiments. But for items 15 and 16, majority answered negatively while in item 7, a little more than half answered negatively. Majority of the students does not know examples of chemical industries (60%) and have never visited a chemistry web site (82%); and a little more than half of the students do not know a local chemist (53%).

Table 2. Percentage respondents for part 1

No.

Questions

% Response

Yes

No

1

Do you know what chemistry is?

90

10

2

Do you know the importance of chemistry?

73

27

3

Do you like chemistry?

86

14

4

Are there benefits we can get from chemistry?

77

23

5

Does chemistry solves problems?

77

23

6

Do you know what a chemist is?

69

31

7

Do you know someone (local) who is a chemist?

47

53

8

Do you know a famous chemist (national or international)?

57

43

9

Do you know the jobs of a chemist?

74

26

10

Have you performed any chemistry laboratory experiments?

80

20

11

Do you like chemistry laboratory experiments?

86

14

12

Do you know what a chemical is?

66

34

13

Do you know the importance of chemicals?

60

40

14

Do you know where chemicals can be found?

74

26

15

Do you know some examples of chemical industries?

40

60

16

Have you ever visited a chemistry web site?

18

82

It is not surprising that many students were not able to give examples of chemical industries and do not know any local chemist since the city is not known for the existence of big chemical plants and industries or learning or research institutions wherein chemists are expected to work. A great majority (82%) also responded that they have never visited a chemistry web site due to many reasons: limited or no internet connectivity at home and school; students are not familiar with the computer, internet and/or the chemistry web site; they were not told by the teachers to use the internet; and they are not interested in visiting the site.

Perceptions Related to Gender

One of the objectives of the study was also to determine if perceptions of students in chemistry was related to gender. Table 3a shows the four items shown to have significantly different responses between males and females based on part 1 of the questionnaire. Females responded significantly higher than males. More females (81%) agree that chemistry solves problems than males (72%); know a famous chemist (63% females vs. 48% males); know the job of a chemist (78% females vs. 68% males); and know where chemicals can be found (79% females vs. 67% males). The rest of the items did not show any significant differences in the responses of males and females.

Table 3a. Items showing significant differences

between male vs. female students for part 1

No.

Questions

Gender

% Response

YES

NO

About Chemistry

5

Does chemistry solves problems?

M

72

28

F

81

19

About Chemists

8

Do you know a famous chemist?

M

48

52

F

63

37

About Chemistry Jobs

9

Do you know the jobs of a chemist?

M

68

32

F

78

22

About Chemicals and Chemical Industries

14

Do you know where chemicals can be found?

M

67

33

F

79

21

The responses of males vs. females were also compared for part 2 of the questionnaire. Majority of the students responded positively on all 31 items but 9 items showed significant differences in the responses between males and females. These include item numbers 8, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, and 28 (see Table 3b).

Table 3b shows the same trend with part 1, more females responded positively than males. More females (96%) view that chemistry helps find new sources of energy than males (90%); more females believe that chemists are flexible in their ideas (94% females vs. 86% males) and are friendly (86% females vs. 75% males); chemistry jobs are interesting (97% females vs. 91% males), exciting (96% females vs. 88% males), and satisfying (94% females vs. 86% males); chemistry experiments are exciting (97% females vs. 90% males) and satisfying (95% females vs. 85% males); and chemistry puzzles and trivia are exciting (94% females vs. 86% males).

These positive opinions regarding chemistry aspects in favor of females may somehow be in agreement with the results obtained by Andersen and Nielsen (2003) and Talisayon et al. (2006). However, the underlying factors leading to these observations must still be examined.

Perceptions Related to Ethnicity

Another objective of the study was to determine if ethnicity plays a role in the perception of students in chemistry. Table 4a shows items indicating significant differences based on ethnicity for part 1.

Table 3b. Items showing significant differences

between male vs. female students for part 2

Item

Gender

% Res.

A

D

About Chemistry and Society

8. Chemistry helps us find new energy sources.

M

90

10

F

96

4

11. Chemists are flexible in their ideas.

M

86

14

F

94

6

12. Chemists are friendly.

M

75

25

F

86

14

About Chemistry Jobs

16. Chemistry jobs are interesting.

M

91

9

F

97

3

17. Chemistry jobs are exciting.

M

88

12

F

96

4

18. Chemistry jobs are satisfying.

M

86

14

F

94

6

About Chemistry Experiments

21. Chemistry experiments are exciting.

M

90

10

F

97

3

22. Chemistry experiments are satisfying.

M

85

15

F

95

5

About Leisure Interest in Chemistry

28. Chemistry puzzles and trivia are exciting.

M

86

14

F

94

6

A - Agree; D - Disagree

Table 4a. Items showing significant differences

among students based on ethnicity for part 1

Item

Response

% Respondents

C

T

B

Y

O

1

Yes

96

87

84

84

93

No

4

13

16

16

7

2

Yes

84

68

76

56

71

No

16

32

24

44

29

5*

Yes

86

67

80

76

100

No

14

33

20

24

0

6

Yes

79

63

64

56

71

No

21

37

36

44

29

10

Yes

87

80

78

58

86

No

13

20

22

42

14

11*

Yes

91

85

89

71

100

No

9

15

11

29

0

Table 4a. Items showing significant differences among students based on ethnicity for part 1 (cont'd)

Item

Response

% Respondents

C

T

B

Y

O

12

Yes

71

65

69

44

86

No

29

35

31

56

14

13

Yes

66

54

62

42

79

No

34

46

38

58

21

14

Yes

79

69

82

56

71

No

21

31

18

44

29

C - Chabacano; T - Tausog; B - Bisaya; Y - Yakan

O - Others (Ilonggo, Maranao, Samal, Tagalog, Maguindanao)

* X2critical (df=3)=7.815 & the rest X2critical (df=4)=9.488.

Table 4b. Chi-square results for part 1 based on ethnicity at X2critical (df = 1; α = 0.05) = 3.841

No.

C/T

C/B

C/Y

C/O

T/B

T/Y

T/O

B/Y

B/O

Y/O

About Chemistry

1

6.997

7.024

7.024

0.274

0.129

0.129

0.430

0.000

0.645

0.645

2

9.441

1.722

16.023

1.463

0.945

1.990

0.082

3.986

0.096

1.115

About Chemistry and Society

5

12.450

0.786

2.433

NA

2.702

1.171

NA

0.257

NA

NA

About Chemists

6

7.506

3.707

9.304

0.385

0.034

0.704

0.393

0.741

0.232

1.115

About Chemistry Experiments

10

2.155

2.208

18.199

0.016

0.095

7.955

0.259

12.554

0.415

3.635

11

2.337

0.184

11.541

NA

0.446

3.764

NA

4.444

NA

NA

About Chemicals and Chemical Industries

12

1.109

0.076

10.636

1.375

0.239

5.362

2.461

5.475

1.529

7.327

13

3.645

0.241

8.269

0.887

0.808

1.834

2.975

3.607

1.274

5.645

14

3.229

0.273

9.304

0.385

2.455

2.336

0.047

7.465

0.768

1.115

C - Chabacano; T - Tausog; B - Bisaya; Y - Yakan; O - Others (Ilonggo, Maranao, Samal, Tagalog, Maguindanao)

Bold chi-square values indicate significant difference at α=0.05; NA - not applicable

Results show that the responses of students grouped according to ethnicity gave significant differences with respect to 9 out 16 items in part 1. These question-items are listed below:

No. Question

1. Do you know what chemistry is?

2. Do you know the importance of chemistry?

5. Does chemistry solves problems?

6. Do you know what a chemist is?

10. Have you performed any chemistry laboratory experiments?

11. Do you like chemistry laboratory experiments?

12. Do you know what a chemical is?

13. Do you know the importance of chemicals?

14. Do you know where chemicals can be found?

Further analysis of items showing significant difference with respect to ethnicity led to Table 4b. Here we can see which among the ethnic tribes show significant difference based on the 9 items mentioned above.

Interestingly, Chabacanos and Yakans gave 8 of the items significantly different responses. This was followed by Bisaya compared with Yakans having 5 significantly different responses in part 2. Noticeably, Other ethnic tribes did not show any significant different response compared with Chabacanos, Bisaya, and Tausogs. Moreover, the response of Tausogs was not different with Bisaya. With regards to part 1 item 1 in Table 4b, the response of Chabacanos was different from Tausogs, Bisaya, and Yakans; for item 2, the response of Chabacanos was different from Tausogs and Yakans, while the response of Bisaya was different from Yakans; for item 5, the response of Chabacanos was different from Tausogs; for item 6, the response of Chabacanos was different from Tausogs and Yakans; for item

10, the response of Yakans was different from Chabacanos, Tausogs, and Bisaya; for item 11, the response of Yakans was different from Chabacanos and Bisaya; for item 12, the response of Yakans was different from Chabacanos, Tausogs, Bisaya, and other tribes; for item 13, the response of Yakans was different from Chabacanos and Other tribes; and for item 14, the response of Yakans was different from Chabacanos and Bisaya.

The response of students on part 2 of the questionnaire based on ethnicity was also compared as shown in Table 5a. Notice that only two ethnic tribes (Chabacanos and Tausogs) were included in the analysis while, the rest were lumped as others. The choice on Strongly Agree was also collapsed with Agree while, Strongly Disagree was collapsed with Disagree.

Table 5a. Items showing significant differences

among students based on ethnicity for part 2

Item

% Respondents

C

T

O

A

D

A

D

A

D

2. Chemistry is an active, evolving science.

99

1

95

5

91

9

7. Chemistry helps us prevent and treat diseases.

89

1

82

18

97

3

21. Chemistry experiments are exciting.

97

3

96

4

89

11

26. Chemicals industries throw their wastes properly.

64

36

82

18

63

37

31. Stories with Chemistry explanations are enjoyable.

72

28

88

12

86

14

C - Chabacano; T - Tausog; Others - Bisaya, Yakan, Ilonggo, Maranao, Samal, Tagalog, Maguindanao

A - Agree; D - Disagree

Table 5a shows that 5 items (2, 7, 21, 26, and 31) indicated significant difference with respect to ethnicity. Further analysis shows where the specific difference lies as can be seen in Table 5b.

Table 5b. Chi-square results for part 2 based

on ethnicity at X2critical (df=1;α=0.05)=3.841

No.

Item

C/T

C/O

T/O

About Chemistry

2. Chemistry is an active, evolving science.

4.311

9.965

1.266

About Chemistry and Society

7. Chemistry helps us prevent and treat diseases.

2.522

5.707

12.835

About Chemistry Experiments

21. Chemistry experiments are exciting.

0.026

5.187

3.582

About Chemicals and Chemical Industries

26. Chemicals industries throw their wastes properly.

9.454

0.012

8.960

About Leisure Interest in Chemistry

31. Stories with Chemistry explanations are enjoyable.

9.086

6.667

0.188

C - Chabacano; T - Tausog; Others - Bisaya, Yakan,

Ilonggo, Maranao, Samal, Tagalog, Maguindanao

Bold chi-square values indicate significant difference at α=0.05.

The Chabacanos responded significantly different compared with Tausogs with regards to items 2, 26, and 31. Using both Table 5a and Table 5b, it shows that more of the Chabacanos (99%) believe that 'chemistry is an active, evolving science' compared with Tausogs (95%); but more Tausogs (82%) believe that 'chemical industries throw their wastes properly' than Chabacanos (64%); and also more Tausogs (88%) believe that 'stories with chemistry explanations are enjoyable' than Chabacanos (72%). Results also show that Chabacanos responded differently compared with other ethnic tribes with regards to items 2, 7, and 21, while the Tausogs responded differently compared with others with regards to items 7 and 26.

Word(s) Associated With 'Chemistry'

Another objective of the study was to elicit word associated with 'chemistry'. Results show that the top words associated with chemistry were: chemical(s) (27%), matter (12%), experiment(s) or laboratory experiment(s) (9%), and element(s) (7%). It is worth noting that a high percentage (22%) of students were not able to supply any word associated with chemistry although based on their response on part 1 of the questionnaire, majority (90%) answered they know what chemistry is. It was also observed that some students supplied more than one word associated with chemistry. For example, some students wrote both the words chemist and matter and so for this case, the first word associated with chemistry was the one noted (i.e. chemist). Other than this, connecting words were also given (e.g. laboratory experiments, chemistry teacher) and for this case, they were noted as is. A summary of their answers is shown in Table 6.

Table 6. Word(s) associated with 'Chemistry'

Associated Word(s)

%

Rank

chemical(s)

27

1

no answer given

22

2

matter

12

3

experiment(s), laboratory experiment(s)

9

4

element(s)

7

5

interesting, exciting

3

6

hard, difficult

2

7

others (e.g.chemist(s), science, happy,

inventing, substance, atom(s), etc. whereeach word obtained ≤ 1%)

22

8

Total

100

Sources of Perceptions in Chemistry

With regards to the sources on views in chemistry, chemists, chemicals, and chemical industries, teachers topped the list (87%). This was followed by books (82%), the internet (77%), national/local TV reports (50%), magazines/periodicals (42%), and the rest are shown in Table 7.

Table 7. Sources of chemistry perceptions

Source

%

Rank

Teachers

87

1

Books

82

2

Internet

77

3

National/Local TV Reports

50

4

Magazines/Periodicals

42

5

Newspaper

38

6

Table 7. Sources of chemistry perceptions (cont'd)

Source

%

Rank

Friends/Other People

28

7

Radio

18

8

Others (family, laboratories, nature,

school, relatives, posters, food,

environment, chemist)

13

9

The percentage of students who answered that the internet is one of their sources of information about chemistry is high (77%) yet based on their previous response, 82% of them have never visited a chemistry web site. This may be the case since as noted earlier some students are not aware what a chemistry web site is and are not aware of its usefulness.

Summary and Conclusion

Majority of the students have positive chemistry perceptions. Majority know what chemistry is, like chemistry, and like chemistry laboratory experiments. However, majority also of the students does not know examples of chemical industries and have never visited a chemistry web site; and a little more than half of the students do not know a local chemist.

More females responded significantly higher than males: more females agree that chemistry solves problems, know a famous chemist, know the job of a chemist, and know where chemicals can be found than males. In addition, females view that chemistry helps find new sources of energy, believe that chemists are flexible in their ideas and are friendly; agree that chemistry jobs are interesting, exciting, and satisfying; agree that chemistry experiments are exciting and satisfying; and believe that chemistry puzzles and trivia are exciting, more than what males perceive.

Some responses of students have also been shown to vary based on ethnicity. Chabacanos and Tausogs have more different responses compared with other tribes while, the Tausogs and Bisaya showed no difference in their responses. More Chabacanos believe that 'chemistry is an active, evolving science' compared with Tausogs; but more Tausogs believe that 'chemical industries throw their wastes properly' than Chabacanos; and also more Tausogs believe that 'stories with chemistry explanations are enjoyable' than Chabacanos.

The top words associated with chemistry were chemical(s), matter, experiment(s) or laboratory experiment(s), and element(s). However, a number of students were not able to supply any word associated with chemistry.

Lastly, the main sources on views in chemistry, chemists, chemicals, and chemical industries of students were the teachers, books, the internet, national/local TV reports, and magazines/periodicals.

In light of the foregoing study, we as chemistry teachers are therefore, being affirmed in our role as facilitators of learning. However, there is a big challenge in addressing the big knowledge gap in and among our students. The results seem to alert us to adopt key considerations to improve the plight of chemistry education - be more receptive in updating our content knowledge and skills in chemistry, ensure quality of books and other reading materials we recommend in class, explore effective teaching strategies, and acknowledge gender and ethnic disparities of students on some chemistry perceptions and consider these for students to better appreciate and relate in chemistry.

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