Hydrogen Peroxide-photofuel Cell using TiO2 Photoanode

3752 words (15 pages) Essay

8th Feb 2020 Chemistry Reference this

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Analysis of a Professional Article, “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode”

Purpose

This is an analysis of “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode” as a potential publication for Electrochemistry Communications. The primary criteria for analyzation will be the methodology and technical communication of the article for the intended purpose of quantifying the publishability of this article in Electrochemistry Communications. The topic of the methodology will include the engineering design process, while the topic of technical communication will include measures of excellence, information structure, and integration of graphics and text.

Introduction

The introduction will briefly evaluate the potential publication journal, the authors of the article being analyzed, and the article itself.

The Journal

Electrochemistry Communications is peer-reviewed and available online as well as in hard copy form (Ulrichsweb Electrochemistry Communications, 2018). Electrochemistry Communications is available for subscription and is actively published monthly by Elsevier (Ulrichsweb, 2018). The journal is intended for a wide audience who want urgent, and important information in electrochemical research (Electrochemistry Communications, 2018). Elsevier is known for providing the world with high quality scientific and technical information and Electrochemistry Communications is associated with the International Society of Electrochemistry (Electrochemistry, 2018).

The Authors

The authors of “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode”, Hiroaki Tada, Musashi Fujishima, Keigo Fujiwara, Atsunobu Akita, and Seina Kawano, have strong credentials for their article content. Hiroaki Tada is a professor at Kindai University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Higashiosaka, Japan (Scopus, 2018). He has a Ph.D. in Engineering from Kyoto University and has published over 143 documents, which have been cited over six thousand times (Scopus, 2018). Musashi Fujishima is a lecturer, also working at Kindai University, Department of Applied Chemistry (Scopus, 2018). He has his Ph.D. in Engineering and has published 52 documents which have been cited over twelve-hundred times (Scopus, 2018). The other authors are graduate students at Kindai University, either in the Department of Applied Chemistry or Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Scopus, 2018). Between the three of them, they have published 13 documents and have been cited over thirty times (Scopus, 2018).

The Article

“Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode” (Fujiwara, Akita, Kawano, Fujishima, & Tada, 2017) is geared toward researchers and developers interested in hydrogen peroxide as a fuel in fuel cell technology. This article makes a strong case for the use of hydrogen peroxide as a primary fuel, as opposed to compressed hydrogen fuel. It justifies this case with statistics, theoretical data, safety information, and experimental data. The article was published in 2017. The article is credible because it makes clear use of the scientific method and it uses facts and data from other credible sources, which is clearly cited in the article. This article is interesting because it uses the scientific method to test a prototype fuel cell. Clean energy production and storage are interests of mine, and this experiment aligns with those interests. Prototype experimentation/ testing is an important aspect of the engineering design process and this article documents exactly that. What is more, is that the proposed solution offers greater efficiency and safety, which positively impact the environment in terms of fewer carbon emissions and accidental harm to humans and the planet. As an aspiring engineer, this article provides an excellent example of well-conducted testing and reporting. In this way, it is especially relevant to my research agenda.

Methodology Analysis

This section will analyze how well the article documents the stages of the methodology it uses. The methodology this article uses is the engineering design process.

The Engineering Design Process

The engineering design process includes defining the problem, background research, specifying requirements, creating alternative solutions, prototyping, testing the prototype, and communicating results (Science Buddies, n.d.). The effectiveness of documentation for the article will be evaluated in each of these areas.

Define the Problem

The focal design problem is well defined and cited with theoretical data and facts. This data is contrasted by other cited data which helps highlight the problem. For example, the theoretical efficiency for a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (H2O22-FC) reaches 119%, whereas, the efficiency of a hydrogen gas/oxygen gas fuel cell (H2/O2-FC) only reaches 82.9% (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). Fujiwara et al. (2017) state that, due to high pressures for storage and transport, H2 gas is not as safe as H2O2, which is simply a liquid at room temperature. Both of these provide evidence of excellent problem definition and prepare the reader for their proposed solution.

Background Research

The article does a good job of explaining the research findings from secondary sources. It uses a mix of naming authors as well as end-of-sentence citations. The paraphrasing for the background research is technical and simultaneously easy to understand. An example of this occurs in the introduction, which states, “Yamazaki and co-workers reported a simple one-compartment H2O2-FC [2], but the study on the H2O2-FC is limited [3,4]” (Fujiwara, Akita, Kawano, Fujishima, & Tada, 2017), p. 71). This sentence helps justify the work of Fujiwara et al., and ensures that the direction of the project is well founded. With a thorough knowledge of what has already been accomplished, untested directions can be recognized and innovation may take place. Another example of the article’s explanation of research findings is in the explanation that because the carbon anode within the H2O2-FCs bears degradation underneath harsh aerobic conditions, the “carbon-supported particulate electrocatalysts” are sometimes used (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). This sentence highlights the problem with expensive materials currently used for H2O2-FC and paves the way, again, for the proposed solution. While it is very technical, it is easy to understand the material of reference is carbon, and the keyword “degradation” lets the reader know that there is a problem. All of this background research helps set up the testing of the prototype.

Specify Requirements

After defining the problem and explaining what has been accomplished, Fujiwara et al. (2017) specify the requirements for their prototype. This happens in stages, as each problem is stated, a solution requirement is provided:

The two-compartment cell structure using expensive membrane separator and noble metal electrocatalyst raises the device cost… Yamazaki and co-workers reported a simple one-compartment H2O2-FC [2]. (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71)

This is employed again with:

The carbon-supported particulate electrocatalysts usually used as the anode in the H2O2 -FCs undergo degradation under harsh oxidative conditions [10]. On the other hand, photofuel cells (PFCs) using TiO2 as the photoanode have been devised [11,12]. However, the PFCs use biomass and bio-related compounds as the fuel, and the operation is accompanied by the emission of carbon dioxide. (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71)

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This last passage illustrates a problem, a solution, and then points out that the solution is incomplete, and thus, another problem. In this last case, the final requirement of clean emissions is established. As solutions accumulate, the solution requirements are revealed. These requirements are very detailed and the purpose of these requirements is to address the downfalls of other methods which are stated in the introduction of the article (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71).

Create Alternative Solutions

The method of specifying requirements and creating alternative solutions are mixed in this article. The process is as follows: describe an operational process, define its shortcomings, discuss an alternative process which overcomes the shortcoming, and define the other shortcomings of the alternative process (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). This is evident in the previous section, and for the sake of brevity, will not be repeated. Though the approach is mixed for the areas of analysis in this memo, it does not detract from the efficacy of either specifying requirements nor creating alternative solutions. The method employed by the authors does both simultaneously and is very descriptive and evaluative.

Build a Prototype

With all of the requirements defined, and other alternatives ruled out, Fujiwara et al. (2017) present their prototype. Each detail of the prototype is described, and this is evident by “Here we present the prototype of one-compartment H2O2-PFC using mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanocrystalline film coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode (mp-TiO2/FTO) as the photoanode working under UV-light and responding to visible-light” (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). Aside from the photofuel cell this fully describes the prototype construction and materials. As it is complete, it is also well done.

Test the Prototype

Only one prototype was tested in this article and the experimental methods are described and illustrated very well. The type of film used and the specific technique of application is detailed with, “paste containing anatase TiO2 particles with mean size of 20 nm (PSTe18NR, Nikki Syokubai Kasei) was coated on FTO electrode (sheet resistance = 10 Ω/square) by the doctor blade technique” (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). Also described are specific temperatures, like 298 K, and measurements, such as 10 nm, for the materials, as well as specific equipment used for formation of the materials, such as a “Hitachi U-4000 spectrophotometer” and a TriStar 3000 (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71-72).

Communicate Results

After testing, the results are summarized with, “We have shown that one-compartment H2O2-PFC using TiO2 as the photoanode is a promising clean, stable, and inexpensive fuel cell” (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 73). Fujiwara et al. (2017) also summarize that 79% efficiency was the estimated maximum efficiency. Other detailed results are offered which include explanations of operation, as well as chemical equations for the reactions taking place (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 73). From these, it is evident that the results are thoroughly detailed and summarized.

Technical Communication Analysis

The technical communication analysis will analyze the article in terms of measures of excellence (Markel, & Selber, 2018), information structure, and integrating graphics and text.

Measures of excellence

Clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness will be evaluated in the analysis of the measures of excellence (Markel, & Selber, 2018).

Clarity

A document which displays clarity will convey a single meaning, in a logical progression, about an idea or purpose. To have clarity, it will lack unrelated information or information which may otherwise detract from the central idea or purpose. This article demonstrates clarity with its cohesive content and its progression. Fujiwara et al. (2017) first establish a foundation for the project, then introduce the prototype, test the prototype, and then communicate the results. An example of non-clarity may be giving the results before introducing the prototype, or introducing the prototype before justifying its necessity. While difficult to provide evidence, all information in the article pertains to the subject of the article. There is no evidence of unnecessary information or disordered information. In this way, the article exhibits clarity.

Accuracy

Accuracy is objective correctness and preciseness, as well as inclusive of relevant factors or facts. This article uses relevant, precise quantifiable data as evidenced by, “Under illumination by a UV-LED (λ = 365 ± 25 nm, light intensity at 365 nm (I365) = 31.2 mW cm−2 nm−1, HLV- 24UV365-4WNRBT, CCS) at 298 K, photocurrents were measured at the rest potential in the dark using a  potentio/galvanostat (HZ-7000, Hokuto Denko)” (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 72). Not only are precise data reported, but the level of certainty is also described. Conventions such as “±” help define uncertainty, and when conveyed, they help define accuracy. As result, the article displays accuracy.

Comprehensiveness

A document is comprehensive when it does not fail to include all relevant information, background or otherwise. An indication of comprehensiveness is is directly proportional to the documents ability to stand on its own. This article, while specific in topic, displays comprehensiveness because all information necessary to understand the topic is contained within the article. While H2/O2 FC’s are not the focus of this article, information about them is required to fully understand the central subject of  one compartment H2O2-PFC’s (Fujiwara et al., 2017).

Information Structure

In the analysis of this article’s information structure, clear and informative titles, headings, and paragraphs will be discussed.

Title

The title of the article is very clear and informative. The contents of the article are clearly represented by the title. The article is about the existence and performance of a one cell H2O2-PFC which uses titanium dioxide and the title is “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode” (Fujiwara et al., 2017). For extra clarity, H2O2-PFC stands for hydrogen peroxide photofuel cell, and TiO2 stands for titanium dioxide (Fujiwara et al., 2017). The title is a larger font than the rest of the article but appears to be the same typeface as the rest of the article. The title is located near the top of the first page and is left justified. All of these things help the title be clear and informative.

Headings

The headings are very simple and clear, they are: introduction, experimental methods, results and discussion, and conclusion (Fujiwara et al., 2017). Fujiwara et al. (2017) place background and foundational information in the introduction and describe the methods of experimentation in experimental methods. The contents of the paragraphs are properly labeled with these headings, and therefore, the headings are informative. These headings are numbered, bold, and justified left. They are visually easy to locate and the same font and typeface as the rest of the text. This helps the headings be clear.

Paragraphs

The paragraphs of this article are clear and informative. Each paragraph pertains to a main point or concept, and gives support for that concept. The information within each paragraph moves along a logical progression, and this similar logical progression proceeds and follows the paragraph itself. In this way, one paragraph leads into the next. As an example, one paragraph discusses the light being used in the experiment and the next paragraph describes the data collected as a result of the light (Fujiwara et al., 2017). This article does not appear to make use of transitional paragraphs and its clarity and informativeness are not diminished as a result. Paragraphs in this article are indented on the first line with no space between paragraphs. Visually, it is clear where a paragraph ends and another begins.

Integrating Graphics and Text

The integration of graphics to the text should promote the communication of the text in a clear and concise way. Graphics should be inserted near the text that they are meant to enhance and should have clear labels and descriptions which justify their presence. An example of this is seen in Figure 1 (Fujiwara et al., 2017). This graphic follows after a paragraph which describes the results of the experiment (Fujiwara et al., 2017). Fujiwara et al. (2017) also refer to the figure in that preceding paragraph, and the figure is clearly labeled and described. In this way, the graphic is a visual representation of the data, and it is placed near the text that it illustrates. The legend is clearly visible and the trend lines are clearly identifiable because of the legend. The axes are labeled and this indicates the relationship of the data being presented. A concise and relevant description is located below the graph, which is where readers are accustomed to looking for such information. The font is smaller and helps set the graph description apart for the paragraph that follows. The only possible detraction is the omission of a title, however, this is consistent with the other graphics in the article. Overall, the graphics are well integrated with the text in the article.

Conclusion

In conclusion, “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode” would be a fitting publication for Electrochemistry Communications. The topic and the caliber of the article aligns with the focus and quality of the journal. The article also serves well as an excellent example to follow in terms of its methodology, measures of excellence, information structure, and graphics/text integration. It exhibits a methodology of the engineering design process with an emphasis on excellent problem definition and background research. I learned that cycling through problems/solutions/problem-with-solution is an effective way of defining an overall problem while establishing background research and ruling out alternative solutions to arrive at the best option. This process also helps define the specific requirements. I plan to make effective use of this methodology in my future memos and reports for ENGR 100W. The article shows clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness as its measures of excellence. I learned that accounting for uncertainty, and being clear about it, is appropriate and leads to greater accuracy overall. I plan to incorporate clarity about the accuracy of my data and facts going forward. This article demonstrates clear, informative information structures in its title, headings, and paragraphs. While this article served as a simple example, I learned the importance of bold typeface, font size, and appropriate naming. I will model my future written works on this same principles to gain the benefits of good information structures. The article did well with its introduction, reference, and placement of graphics. I learned that text that refers to, and is followed by a graphic with simple and clear labels and descriptions helps illustrate data and the overall understanding of the article I plan to use these techniques when integrating graphics into my memos and reports.

References

 

Analysis of a Professional Article, “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode”

Purpose

This is an analysis of “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode” as a potential publication for Electrochemistry Communications. The primary criteria for analyzation will be the methodology and technical communication of the article for the intended purpose of quantifying the publishability of this article in Electrochemistry Communications. The topic of the methodology will include the engineering design process, while the topic of technical communication will include measures of excellence, information structure, and integration of graphics and text.

Introduction

The introduction will briefly evaluate the potential publication journal, the authors of the article being analyzed, and the article itself.

The Journal

Electrochemistry Communications is peer-reviewed and available online as well as in hard copy form (Ulrichsweb Electrochemistry Communications, 2018). Electrochemistry Communications is available for subscription and is actively published monthly by Elsevier (Ulrichsweb, 2018). The journal is intended for a wide audience who want urgent, and important information in electrochemical research (Electrochemistry Communications, 2018). Elsevier is known for providing the world with high quality scientific and technical information and Electrochemistry Communications is associated with the International Society of Electrochemistry (Electrochemistry, 2018).

The Authors

The authors of “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode”, Hiroaki Tada, Musashi Fujishima, Keigo Fujiwara, Atsunobu Akita, and Seina Kawano, have strong credentials for their article content. Hiroaki Tada is a professor at Kindai University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Higashiosaka, Japan (Scopus, 2018). He has a Ph.D. in Engineering from Kyoto University and has published over 143 documents, which have been cited over six thousand times (Scopus, 2018). Musashi Fujishima is a lecturer, also working at Kindai University, Department of Applied Chemistry (Scopus, 2018). He has his Ph.D. in Engineering and has published 52 documents which have been cited over twelve-hundred times (Scopus, 2018). The other authors are graduate students at Kindai University, either in the Department of Applied Chemistry or Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Scopus, 2018). Between the three of them, they have published 13 documents and have been cited over thirty times (Scopus, 2018).

The Article

“Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode” (Fujiwara, Akita, Kawano, Fujishima, & Tada, 2017) is geared toward researchers and developers interested in hydrogen peroxide as a fuel in fuel cell technology. This article makes a strong case for the use of hydrogen peroxide as a primary fuel, as opposed to compressed hydrogen fuel. It justifies this case with statistics, theoretical data, safety information, and experimental data. The article was published in 2017. The article is credible because it makes clear use of the scientific method and it uses facts and data from other credible sources, which is clearly cited in the article. This article is interesting because it uses the scientific method to test a prototype fuel cell. Clean energy production and storage are interests of mine, and this experiment aligns with those interests. Prototype experimentation/ testing is an important aspect of the engineering design process and this article documents exactly that. What is more, is that the proposed solution offers greater efficiency and safety, which positively impact the environment in terms of fewer carbon emissions and accidental harm to humans and the planet. As an aspiring engineer, this article provides an excellent example of well-conducted testing and reporting. In this way, it is especially relevant to my research agenda.

Methodology Analysis

This section will analyze how well the article documents the stages of the methodology it uses. The methodology this article uses is the engineering design process.

The Engineering Design Process

The engineering design process includes defining the problem, background research, specifying requirements, creating alternative solutions, prototyping, testing the prototype, and communicating results (Science Buddies, n.d.). The effectiveness of documentation for the article will be evaluated in each of these areas.

Define the Problem

The focal design problem is well defined and cited with theoretical data and facts. This data is contrasted by other cited data which helps highlight the problem. For example, the theoretical efficiency for a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (H2O22-FC) reaches 119%, whereas, the efficiency of a hydrogen gas/oxygen gas fuel cell (H2/O2-FC) only reaches 82.9% (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). Fujiwara et al. (2017) state that, due to high pressures for storage and transport, H2 gas is not as safe as H2O2, which is simply a liquid at room temperature. Both of these provide evidence of excellent problem definition and prepare the reader for their proposed solution.

Background Research

The article does a good job of explaining the research findings from secondary sources. It uses a mix of naming authors as well as end-of-sentence citations. The paraphrasing for the background research is technical and simultaneously easy to understand. An example of this occurs in the introduction, which states, “Yamazaki and co-workers reported a simple one-compartment H2O2-FC [2], but the study on the H2O2-FC is limited [3,4]” (Fujiwara, Akita, Kawano, Fujishima, & Tada, 2017), p. 71). This sentence helps justify the work of Fujiwara et al., and ensures that the direction of the project is well founded. With a thorough knowledge of what has already been accomplished, untested directions can be recognized and innovation may take place. Another example of the article’s explanation of research findings is in the explanation that because the carbon anode within the H2O2-FCs bears degradation underneath harsh aerobic conditions, the “carbon-supported particulate electrocatalysts” are sometimes used (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). This sentence highlights the problem with expensive materials currently used for H2O2-FC and paves the way, again, for the proposed solution. While it is very technical, it is easy to understand the material of reference is carbon, and the keyword “degradation” lets the reader know that there is a problem. All of this background research helps set up the testing of the prototype.

Specify Requirements

After defining the problem and explaining what has been accomplished, Fujiwara et al. (2017) specify the requirements for their prototype. This happens in stages, as each problem is stated, a solution requirement is provided:

The two-compartment cell structure using expensive membrane separator and noble metal electrocatalyst raises the device cost… Yamazaki and co-workers reported a simple one-compartment H2O2-FC [2]. (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71)

This is employed again with:

The carbon-supported particulate electrocatalysts usually used as the anode in the H2O2 -FCs undergo degradation under harsh oxidative conditions [10]. On the other hand, photofuel cells (PFCs) using TiO2 as the photoanode have been devised [11,12]. However, the PFCs use biomass and bio-related compounds as the fuel, and the operation is accompanied by the emission of carbon dioxide. (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71)

This last passage illustrates a problem, a solution, and then points out that the solution is incomplete, and thus, another problem. In this last case, the final requirement of clean emissions is established. As solutions accumulate, the solution requirements are revealed. These requirements are very detailed and the purpose of these requirements is to address the downfalls of other methods which are stated in the introduction of the article (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71).

Create Alternative Solutions

The method of specifying requirements and creating alternative solutions are mixed in this article. The process is as follows: describe an operational process, define its shortcomings, discuss an alternative process which overcomes the shortcoming, and define the other shortcomings of the alternative process (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). This is evident in the previous section, and for the sake of brevity, will not be repeated. Though the approach is mixed for the areas of analysis in this memo, it does not detract from the efficacy of either specifying requirements nor creating alternative solutions. The method employed by the authors does both simultaneously and is very descriptive and evaluative.

Build a Prototype

With all of the requirements defined, and other alternatives ruled out, Fujiwara et al. (2017) present their prototype. Each detail of the prototype is described, and this is evident by “Here we present the prototype of one-compartment H2O2-PFC using mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanocrystalline film coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode (mp-TiO2/FTO) as the photoanode working under UV-light and responding to visible-light” (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). Aside from the photofuel cell this fully describes the prototype construction and materials. As it is complete, it is also well done.

Test the Prototype

Only one prototype was tested in this article and the experimental methods are described and illustrated very well. The type of film used and the specific technique of application is detailed with, “paste containing anatase TiO2 particles with mean size of 20 nm (PSTe18NR, Nikki Syokubai Kasei) was coated on FTO electrode (sheet resistance = 10 Ω/square) by the doctor blade technique” (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71). Also described are specific temperatures, like 298 K, and measurements, such as 10 nm, for the materials, as well as specific equipment used for formation of the materials, such as a “Hitachi U-4000 spectrophotometer” and a TriStar 3000 (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 71-72).

Communicate Results

After testing, the results are summarized with, “We have shown that one-compartment H2O2-PFC using TiO2 as the photoanode is a promising clean, stable, and inexpensive fuel cell” (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 73). Fujiwara et al. (2017) also summarize that 79% efficiency was the estimated maximum efficiency. Other detailed results are offered which include explanations of operation, as well as chemical equations for the reactions taking place (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 73). From these, it is evident that the results are thoroughly detailed and summarized.

Technical Communication Analysis

The technical communication analysis will analyze the article in terms of measures of excellence (Markel, & Selber, 2018), information structure, and integrating graphics and text.

Measures of excellence

Clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness will be evaluated in the analysis of the measures of excellence (Markel, & Selber, 2018).

Clarity

A document which displays clarity will convey a single meaning, in a logical progression, about an idea or purpose. To have clarity, it will lack unrelated information or information which may otherwise detract from the central idea or purpose. This article demonstrates clarity with its cohesive content and its progression. Fujiwara et al. (2017) first establish a foundation for the project, then introduce the prototype, test the prototype, and then communicate the results. An example of non-clarity may be giving the results before introducing the prototype, or introducing the prototype before justifying its necessity. While difficult to provide evidence, all information in the article pertains to the subject of the article. There is no evidence of unnecessary information or disordered information. In this way, the article exhibits clarity.

Accuracy

Accuracy is objective correctness and preciseness, as well as inclusive of relevant factors or facts. This article uses relevant, precise quantifiable data as evidenced by, “Under illumination by a UV-LED (λ = 365 ± 25 nm, light intensity at 365 nm (I365) = 31.2 mW cm−2 nm−1, HLV- 24UV365-4WNRBT, CCS) at 298 K, photocurrents were measured at the rest potential in the dark using a  potentio/galvanostat (HZ-7000, Hokuto Denko)” (Fujiwara et al., 2017, p. 72). Not only are precise data reported, but the level of certainty is also described. Conventions such as “±” help define uncertainty, and when conveyed, they help define accuracy. As result, the article displays accuracy.

Comprehensiveness

A document is comprehensive when it does not fail to include all relevant information, background or otherwise. An indication of comprehensiveness is is directly proportional to the documents ability to stand on its own. This article, while specific in topic, displays comprehensiveness because all information necessary to understand the topic is contained within the article. While H2/O2 FC’s are not the focus of this article, information about them is required to fully understand the central subject of  one compartment H2O2-PFC’s (Fujiwara et al., 2017).

Information Structure

In the analysis of this article’s information structure, clear and informative titles, headings, and paragraphs will be discussed.

Title

The title of the article is very clear and informative. The contents of the article are clearly represented by the title. The article is about the existence and performance of a one cell H2O2-PFC which uses titanium dioxide and the title is “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode” (Fujiwara et al., 2017). For extra clarity, H2O2-PFC stands for hydrogen peroxide photofuel cell, and TiO2 stands for titanium dioxide (Fujiwara et al., 2017). The title is a larger font than the rest of the article but appears to be the same typeface as the rest of the article. The title is located near the top of the first page and is left justified. All of these things help the title be clear and informative.

Headings

The headings are very simple and clear, they are: introduction, experimental methods, results and discussion, and conclusion (Fujiwara et al., 2017). Fujiwara et al. (2017) place background and foundational information in the introduction and describe the methods of experimentation in experimental methods. The contents of the paragraphs are properly labeled with these headings, and therefore, the headings are informative. These headings are numbered, bold, and justified left. They are visually easy to locate and the same font and typeface as the rest of the text. This helps the headings be clear.

Paragraphs

The paragraphs of this article are clear and informative. Each paragraph pertains to a main point or concept, and gives support for that concept. The information within each paragraph moves along a logical progression, and this similar logical progression proceeds and follows the paragraph itself. In this way, one paragraph leads into the next. As an example, one paragraph discusses the light being used in the experiment and the next paragraph describes the data collected as a result of the light (Fujiwara et al., 2017). This article does not appear to make use of transitional paragraphs and its clarity and informativeness are not diminished as a result. Paragraphs in this article are indented on the first line with no space between paragraphs. Visually, it is clear where a paragraph ends and another begins.

Integrating Graphics and Text

The integration of graphics to the text should promote the communication of the text in a clear and concise way. Graphics should be inserted near the text that they are meant to enhance and should have clear labels and descriptions which justify their presence. An example of this is seen in Figure 1 (Fujiwara et al., 2017). This graphic follows after a paragraph which describes the results of the experiment (Fujiwara et al., 2017). Fujiwara et al. (2017) also refer to the figure in that preceding paragraph, and the figure is clearly labeled and described. In this way, the graphic is a visual representation of the data, and it is placed near the text that it illustrates. The legend is clearly visible and the trend lines are clearly identifiable because of the legend. The axes are labeled and this indicates the relationship of the data being presented. A concise and relevant description is located below the graph, which is where readers are accustomed to looking for such information. The font is smaller and helps set the graph description apart for the paragraph that follows. The only possible detraction is the omission of a title, however, this is consistent with the other graphics in the article. Overall, the graphics are well integrated with the text in the article.

Conclusion

In conclusion, “Hydrogen peroxide-photofuel cell using TiO2 photoanode” would be a fitting publication for Electrochemistry Communications. The topic and the caliber of the article aligns with the focus and quality of the journal. The article also serves well as an excellent example to follow in terms of its methodology, measures of excellence, information structure, and graphics/text integration. It exhibits a methodology of the engineering design process with an emphasis on excellent problem definition and background research. I learned that cycling through problems/solutions/problem-with-solution is an effective way of defining an overall problem while establishing background research and ruling out alternative solutions to arrive at the best option. This process also helps define the specific requirements. I plan to make effective use of this methodology in my future memos and reports for ENGR 100W. The article shows clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness as its measures of excellence. I learned that accounting for uncertainty, and being clear about it, is appropriate and leads to greater accuracy overall. I plan to incorporate clarity about the accuracy of my data and facts going forward. This article demonstrates clear, informative information structures in its title, headings, and paragraphs. While this article served as a simple example, I learned the importance of bold typeface, font size, and appropriate naming. I will model my future written works on this same principles to gain the benefits of good information structures. The article did well with its introduction, reference, and placement of graphics. I learned that text that refers to, and is followed by a graphic with simple and clear labels and descriptions helps illustrate data and the overall understanding of the article I plan to use these techniques when integrating graphics into my memos and reports.

References

 

  • Electrochemistry Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 18, 2018, from https://www.journals.elsevier.com/electrochemistry-communications/
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