Carbon Nonmaterial From Non-renewable Oil Resource Synthesis

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29th Jan 2018 Chemistry Reference this

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Synthesis and characterization of carbon nonmaterial from non-renewable oil resources by catalytic CVD

Introduction

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nano materials that obtain amazing properties, which find effectiveness in wide applications such as gas storage, sensor, catalyst, drug delivery system, and solar cell (Chen et al., 2012; Schnorr & Swager, 2011). Carbon nanotube has been discovered by Iijima in 1991 (Iijima, 1991). Then Iijima found that Carbon nanotube exist in two structures single-walled (SWNTs) and multi-walled (MWNTs) carbon nanotube (Iijima & Ichihashi, 1993). Typically multi-walled carbon nanotube typeset of joined single-walled carbon nanotube.

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General CNT’s synthesis methods include arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). These methods share the same principles: either carbon atoms determined from solid carbon sources (such as graphite rods used in arc discharge and laser ablation methods) or carbon-bearing gases (such as hydrocarbons, CO, and volatile solvents in the CVD method). Among these, CVD is the most convenient method to grow all kinds of CNTs and the best choice to produce large amount of CNTs at relatively low cost and with mild growth conditions(Prasek et al., 2011).

In chemical vapor deposition, energy is donated to hydrocarbons to break them into reactive radical objects in the temperature range approximately from 500-800°C, sometimes more. These reactive species diffuse down to a catalyst surface where they remain bonded. As a result, CNTs are formed. The commonly used energy source is resistive heating(Magrez et al., 2010).

It is quite clear a few years ago that the effective catalysts for CNTs synthesis are Fe, Co, Ni and their alloys. These catalysts can Growth CNTs in three steps according to Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism: Firstly, a gas precursor produces carbons which adsorb and dissociate on the surface of the catalyst particles to form elementary carbon atoms. Secondly, the carbon atoms dissolve in the mass of the nanoparticles to form liquid metastable carbide and diffuse within the particles. Lastly, solid carbons precipitate at the outer side of the nanoparticles to form carbon nanotubes.

Problem statements

Carbon nanotube is one of the most hopeful candidates among all the nanoforms of carbon. However, all the carbon based nanomaterials are synthesized using carbon precursors derived from petroleum sources. It is the required to develop and design techniques that have used waste oils to minimize depletion of petroleum. Few waste oil based precursors have already been successfully used to synthesize multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) via various techniques. Among them CVD seems to be most appropriate. A CVD system with provision for controlling the input parameters through suitable mechanism is employed for this. In other hand, it may be noted that non renewable precursors consist of a mixture of a number of hydrocarbon molecules. This makes the optimization process for synthesis of CNTs from non renewable precursors highly demanding. The optimization process is complemented by characterization of the CNTs synthesized under different conditions. Characterization of CNTs helps in ascertaining identification of their uniqueness and suitability to different applications. It is expected that only a few of them will satisfy the requirements for a particular application. One of the main targets of the project is to demonstrate the applicability of these CNTs synthesized from waste oil precursors for functionalization technique to be suitable for numerous applications.

Objective

Considering the environmental effects and depletion petroleum product sources, our efforts will direct to receive waste engine oil and use it for synthesis carbon nanotubes. Therefore, as a first step, it is attempted to design easy and suitable laboratory refining process for waste engine oil to receive quantity of fractions. This outlines the first objective of the project.

The second objective is that anticipate utilizing CNTs from the selected waste engine oil precursors.

The third objective of the project is to optimize the CNTs synthesis parameters such as; temperature, flow rate, precursor type used, and catalysis type.

The fourth objective is presenting a thermodynamic study for CNTs.

The final objective of the thesis is to demonstrate the ability of MWCNTs synthesized from waste oil precursors for functionalization and study its dispersion in appropriate liquids.

Literature review

Liquefied petroleum gas, has been employed as carbon source to produce CNT arrays on ceramic spherical surface in the floating catalyst process into two-stage furnace. Good alignment of CNT has been obtained and the purity is as high as 97.5%. Through controlling the growth temperature, CNTs in aligned form with diameter approximately of 13 nm have been gained. As a result, from synthesize industrial fuel as a carbon source and the ceramic substrate, CNT arrays can be easily produced with large scale and at low cost(Zhang et al., 2007).

Multi walled carbon nanotubes were utilized by spray pyrolysis of biodiesel oil which prepared from Jatropha curcas over Fe/Co/Mo catalyst which supported on either silica or alumina. Synthesized MWNTs have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectroscopy suggested that the MWNTs were well graphitized. In addition, abundant MWNTs have been utilized by catalyst which supported on silica nanoparticles(Karthikeyan & Mahalingam, 2010).

Carbon nanotubes were synthesized from heavy petroleum fractions such as Light diesel Oil (L.D.O.) and furnace Oil (F.O.) by modified chemical vapour deposition method and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. In this search a locally reactor has been designed for the synthesis and collection of soot from the petroleum material. Then, the soot collected is purified by sohxlet extraction apparatus. After that, the purified CNTs are oxidized with diluted nitric acid. The utilized CNTs have been dispersed in different solvents. Then, the dispersed stability has been analyzed at different temperature and results demonstrates that it is highly disperses in distilled water and acetone in compared to ethanol and methanol. Result shows SWCNTs having approximately 70nm in term of F.O and 90nm in term of L.D.O (Jagdeep et al., 2011).

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Single walled carbon nanotubes were utilized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using heavy oil residue as carbon source. Different kinds of metals as catalysts including transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) and nonmagnetic metals (Au and Pt) are used in the growth of SWNTs. The morphology and structure of the synthesized SWNTs products have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that it is possible to synthesize high quality SWNTs by a CVD method with inexpensive heavy oil residue as the starting material. The diameter distribution of as-grown SWNTs strongly depends on the type of catalysts. It is found that SWNTs grown from transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) have smaller diameter compared to that of SWNTs synthesized from nonmagnetic catalysts (Au, Pt). This result demonstrates the feasibility of controlling the SWNT diameters by selecting the catalysts. Moreover, it is found that the reaction temperature is the key factor that affects the formation of SWNTs from oil residue. In our case, the growth mechanism of SWNTs is considered to be different from that of SWNTs synthesized from conventional carbon source (Li et al., 2012).

Quasi aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized for using waste engine oil (WEO) as the carbon source by thermal chemical vapour deposition. The rich carbon content of WEO was supposed to endorse the growth of the quasi aligned CNTs. Synthesis process has been carried out at temperature of 500 and 570 °C for precursor and CNTs synthesis, respectively, a ferrocene catalyst concentration was 17.99 wt%. Synthesized CNTs have been characterized by energy dispersive X-Ray, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and micro Raman spectroscopy. The ability of CNT samples for emitting electrons has been examined by field electron emission (FEE) analysis. Both Electron microscopy and micro Raman analysis exposed a dense mixture of quasi aligned SWNTs and MWNTs with a moderate ID/IG ratio of 0.90(Suriani et al., 2015).

Hypothesis

In this project, we hypothesize that malty walled carbon nanotubes can be practically formed by using waste engine oil as non-renewable source. Catalytic CVD will be installed since it is currently considered as the most adaptable and affordable method for growing carbon nanotubes especially with high molecular weight hydrocarbons. Waste engine oil can be used directly into CVD, but it will produce carbon nano materials, which means many impurities such as amorphous carbon, nano fiber, and graphite. Thus, we can use re-refine the waste engine oil process at laboratory to receive many hydrocarbon products and use them as a carbon sources.

References

Chen, T., Qiu, L., Cai, Z., Gong, F., Yang, Z., Wang, Z., & Peng, H. (2012). Intertwined aligned carbon nanotube fiber based dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett, 12(5), 2568-2572. doi: 10.1021/nl300799d

Iijima, S. (1991). Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature, 354, 56 – 58.

Iijima, S., & Ichihashi, T. (1993). Single-Shell Carbon Nanotubes of 1-nm Diameter. Nature, 363(6430), 603-605.

Jagdeep, S., N.C., K., & Deepak, P. (2011). Synthesis of Highly Dispersed Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Furnace Oil and Light Diesel Oil by Modified Chemical Vapour Deposition Method. International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Science, 3(2), 15-20.

Karthikeyan, S., & Mahalingam, P. (2010). Synthesis and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Biodiesel Oil: Green Nanotechnology Route. International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Physics and Chemistry, 2(2), 39-46.

Li, Y., Wang, H., Wang, G., & Gao, J. (2012). Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from heavy oil residue. Chemical Engineering Journal, 211-212, 255-259. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2012.09.031

Magrez, A., Seo, J. W., Smajda, R., Mionić, M., & Forró, L. (2010). Catalytic CVD Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes: Towards High Yield and Low Temperature Growth. Materials, 3(11), 4871-4891. doi: 10.3390/ma3114871

Prasek, J., Drbohlavova, J., Chomoucka, J., Hubalek, J., Jasek, O., Adam, V., & Kizek, R. (2011). Methods for carbon nanotubes synthesis—review. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21(40), 15872. doi: 10.1039/c1jm12254a

Schnorr, J. M., & Swager, T. M. (2011). Emerging Applications of Carbon Nanotubes†. Chemistry of Materials, 23(3), 646-657. doi: 10.1021/cm102406h

Suriani, A. B., Alfarisa, S., Mohamed, A., Isa, I. M., Kamari, A., Hashim, N., . . . Rusop, M. (2015). Quasi-aligned carbon nanotubes synthesised from waste engine oil. Materials Letters, 139, 220-223. doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2014.10.046

Zhang, Q., Huang, J., Wei, F., Xu, G., Wang, Y., Qian, W., & Wang, D. (2007). Large scale production of carbon nanotube arrays on the sphere surface from liquefied petroleum gas at low cost. Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(21), 2896-2902. doi: 10.1007/s11434-007-0458-8

Synthesis and characterization of carbon nonmaterial from non-renewable oil resources by catalytic CVD

Introduction

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nano materials that obtain amazing properties, which find effectiveness in wide applications such as gas storage, sensor, catalyst, drug delivery system, and solar cell (Chen et al., 2012; Schnorr & Swager, 2011). Carbon nanotube has been discovered by Iijima in 1991 (Iijima, 1991). Then Iijima found that Carbon nanotube exist in two structures single-walled (SWNTs) and multi-walled (MWNTs) carbon nanotube (Iijima & Ichihashi, 1993). Typically multi-walled carbon nanotube typeset of joined single-walled carbon nanotube.

General CNT’s synthesis methods include arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). These methods share the same principles: either carbon atoms determined from solid carbon sources (such as graphite rods used in arc discharge and laser ablation methods) or carbon-bearing gases (such as hydrocarbons, CO, and volatile solvents in the CVD method). Among these, CVD is the most convenient method to grow all kinds of CNTs and the best choice to produce large amount of CNTs at relatively low cost and with mild growth conditions(Prasek et al., 2011).

In chemical vapor deposition, energy is donated to hydrocarbons to break them into reactive radical objects in the temperature range approximately from 500-800°C, sometimes more. These reactive species diffuse down to a catalyst surface where they remain bonded. As a result, CNTs are formed. The commonly used energy source is resistive heating(Magrez et al., 2010).

It is quite clear a few years ago that the effective catalysts for CNTs synthesis are Fe, Co, Ni and their alloys. These catalysts can Growth CNTs in three steps according to Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism: Firstly, a gas precursor produces carbons which adsorb and dissociate on the surface of the catalyst particles to form elementary carbon atoms. Secondly, the carbon atoms dissolve in the mass of the nanoparticles to form liquid metastable carbide and diffuse within the particles. Lastly, solid carbons precipitate at the outer side of the nanoparticles to form carbon nanotubes.

Problem statements

Carbon nanotube is one of the most hopeful candidates among all the nanoforms of carbon. However, all the carbon based nanomaterials are synthesized using carbon precursors derived from petroleum sources. It is the required to develop and design techniques that have used waste oils to minimize depletion of petroleum. Few waste oil based precursors have already been successfully used to synthesize multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) via various techniques. Among them CVD seems to be most appropriate. A CVD system with provision for controlling the input parameters through suitable mechanism is employed for this. In other hand, it may be noted that non renewable precursors consist of a mixture of a number of hydrocarbon molecules. This makes the optimization process for synthesis of CNTs from non renewable precursors highly demanding. The optimization process is complemented by characterization of the CNTs synthesized under different conditions. Characterization of CNTs helps in ascertaining identification of their uniqueness and suitability to different applications. It is expected that only a few of them will satisfy the requirements for a particular application. One of the main targets of the project is to demonstrate the applicability of these CNTs synthesized from waste oil precursors for functionalization technique to be suitable for numerous applications.

Objective

Considering the environmental effects and depletion petroleum product sources, our efforts will direct to receive waste engine oil and use it for synthesis carbon nanotubes. Therefore, as a first step, it is attempted to design easy and suitable laboratory refining process for waste engine oil to receive quantity of fractions. This outlines the first objective of the project.

The second objective is that anticipate utilizing CNTs from the selected waste engine oil precursors.

The third objective of the project is to optimize the CNTs synthesis parameters such as; temperature, flow rate, precursor type used, and catalysis type.

The fourth objective is presenting a thermodynamic study for CNTs.

The final objective of the thesis is to demonstrate the ability of MWCNTs synthesized from waste oil precursors for functionalization and study its dispersion in appropriate liquids.

Literature review

Liquefied petroleum gas, has been employed as carbon source to produce CNT arrays on ceramic spherical surface in the floating catalyst process into two-stage furnace. Good alignment of CNT has been obtained and the purity is as high as 97.5%. Through controlling the growth temperature, CNTs in aligned form with diameter approximately of 13 nm have been gained. As a result, from synthesize industrial fuel as a carbon source and the ceramic substrate, CNT arrays can be easily produced with large scale and at low cost(Zhang et al., 2007).

Multi walled carbon nanotubes were utilized by spray pyrolysis of biodiesel oil which prepared from Jatropha curcas over Fe/Co/Mo catalyst which supported on either silica or alumina. Synthesized MWNTs have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectroscopy suggested that the MWNTs were well graphitized. In addition, abundant MWNTs have been utilized by catalyst which supported on silica nanoparticles(Karthikeyan & Mahalingam, 2010).

Carbon nanotubes were synthesized from heavy petroleum fractions such as Light diesel Oil (L.D.O.) and furnace Oil (F.O.) by modified chemical vapour deposition method and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. In this search a locally reactor has been designed for the synthesis and collection of soot from the petroleum material. Then, the soot collected is purified by sohxlet extraction apparatus. After that, the purified CNTs are oxidized with diluted nitric acid. The utilized CNTs have been dispersed in different solvents. Then, the dispersed stability has been analyzed at different temperature and results demonstrates that it is highly disperses in distilled water and acetone in compared to ethanol and methanol. Result shows SWCNTs having approximately 70nm in term of F.O and 90nm in term of L.D.O (Jagdeep et al., 2011).

Single walled carbon nanotubes were utilized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using heavy oil residue as carbon source. Different kinds of metals as catalysts including transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) and nonmagnetic metals (Au and Pt) are used in the growth of SWNTs. The morphology and structure of the synthesized SWNTs products have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that it is possible to synthesize high quality SWNTs by a CVD method with inexpensive heavy oil residue as the starting material. The diameter distribution of as-grown SWNTs strongly depends on the type of catalysts. It is found that SWNTs grown from transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) have smaller diameter compared to that of SWNTs synthesized from nonmagnetic catalysts (Au, Pt). This result demonstrates the feasibility of controlling the SWNT diameters by selecting the catalysts. Moreover, it is found that the reaction temperature is the key factor that affects the formation of SWNTs from oil residue. In our case, the growth mechanism of SWNTs is considered to be different from that of SWNTs synthesized from conventional carbon source (Li et al., 2012).

Quasi aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized for using waste engine oil (WEO) as the carbon source by thermal chemical vapour deposition. The rich carbon content of WEO was supposed to endorse the growth of the quasi aligned CNTs. Synthesis process has been carried out at temperature of 500 and 570 °C for precursor and CNTs synthesis, respectively, a ferrocene catalyst concentration was 17.99 wt%. Synthesized CNTs have been characterized by energy dispersive X-Ray, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and micro Raman spectroscopy. The ability of CNT samples for emitting electrons has been examined by field electron emission (FEE) analysis. Both Electron microscopy and micro Raman analysis exposed a dense mixture of quasi aligned SWNTs and MWNTs with a moderate ID/IG ratio of 0.90(Suriani et al., 2015).

Hypothesis

In this project, we hypothesize that malty walled carbon nanotubes can be practically formed by using waste engine oil as non-renewable source. Catalytic CVD will be installed since it is currently considered as the most adaptable and affordable method for growing carbon nanotubes especially with high molecular weight hydrocarbons. Waste engine oil can be used directly into CVD, but it will produce carbon nano materials, which means many impurities such as amorphous carbon, nano fiber, and graphite. Thus, we can use re-refine the waste engine oil process at laboratory to receive many hydrocarbon products and use them as a carbon sources.

References

Chen, T., Qiu, L., Cai, Z., Gong, F., Yang, Z., Wang, Z., & Peng, H. (2012). Intertwined aligned carbon nanotube fiber based dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett, 12(5), 2568-2572. doi: 10.1021/nl300799d

Iijima, S. (1991). Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature, 354, 56 – 58.

Iijima, S., & Ichihashi, T. (1993). Single-Shell Carbon Nanotubes of 1-nm Diameter. Nature, 363(6430), 603-605.

Jagdeep, S., N.C., K., & Deepak, P. (2011). Synthesis of Highly Dispersed Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Furnace Oil and Light Diesel Oil by Modified Chemical Vapour Deposition Method. International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Science, 3(2), 15-20.

Karthikeyan, S., & Mahalingam, P. (2010). Synthesis and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Biodiesel Oil: Green Nanotechnology Route. International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Physics and Chemistry, 2(2), 39-46.

Li, Y., Wang, H., Wang, G., & Gao, J. (2012). Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from heavy oil residue. Chemical Engineering Journal, 211-212, 255-259. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2012.09.031

Magrez, A., Seo, J. W., Smajda, R., Mionić, M., & Forró, L. (2010). Catalytic CVD Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes: Towards High Yield and Low Temperature Growth. Materials, 3(11), 4871-4891. doi: 10.3390/ma3114871

Prasek, J., Drbohlavova, J., Chomoucka, J., Hubalek, J., Jasek, O., Adam, V., & Kizek, R. (2011). Methods for carbon nanotubes synthesis—review. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21(40), 15872. doi: 10.1039/c1jm12254a

Schnorr, J. M., & Swager, T. M. (2011). Emerging Applications of Carbon Nanotubes†. Chemistry of Materials, 23(3), 646-657. doi: 10.1021/cm102406h

Suriani, A. B., Alfarisa, S., Mohamed, A., Isa, I. M., Kamari, A., Hashim, N., . . . Rusop, M. (2015). Quasi-aligned carbon nanotubes synthesised from waste engine oil. Materials Letters, 139, 220-223. doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2014.10.046

Zhang, Q., Huang, J., Wei, F., Xu, G., Wang, Y., Qian, W., & Wang, D. (2007). Large scale production of carbon nanotube arrays on the sphere surface from liquefied petroleum gas at low cost. Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(21), 2896-2902. doi: 10.1007/s11434-007-0458-8

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