Young urban generation of Pakistan

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Pakistani young urban generation's attitude towards imported brand name apparels

Introduction

Universal buying and selling, Trade and industry interdependence and micro environmental factors have resulted in considerable economic, social, political and technological changes within the developing South Asian countries. One noticeable sign of western influence in South East Asian countries' culture has been the increasing number of good-looking and air-conditioned shopping malls and plazas that carry an extensive range of brand names and stuffs (Forbes, 1996). For the purpose of creation of consumer loyalty, extensive range of brand names apparel stuffs imported from developed western countries has become readily obtainable inside lots of these malls, sold under some of the global famous brand names such as Georgio Armani, Versace, Adidas, Charles Jourdain, Escada, and Guess. In early 2000's, Pakistani trade and industry indicators approached those achieved by the most excellent performing economies in Asia. The continuous increase in the population and economic growth resulted in increased demand for the brand name apparels. Pakistan continues to sustain a comparatively high rate of population increased principally due to its multi-ethnic age pyramid, declining mortality, current sliding down trend in newborn deaths and a raise in life hope at birth (Hussain and Malik, 2009). GDP growth rate of Pakistan rose up to approximately 400% in first five years of the 2000,s (Hayat, 2009). To fulfil the increasing demands of products and services due to increase in population and income level of the people, the imports into Pakistan increased. Pakistan is a developing country in the present world of the economy and the approximate GDP of the country in purchasing power parity has reached $368 billion, which is greater than Saudi Arabia and very much near to GDP of Philippines (Economy watch, 2005). In 2008, however, Pakistan experienced key political changes, and consequent economic and social unsteadiness led the country into an economic recession. Pakistan's GDP growth rate declined from 7.7% to 2% in last five years and inflation rate increased by more then 400% from 2004 to 2009 (IMF/EIU, 2009). The major change in the macro economic factor has dramatic effect in the consumer behaviour of the population of Pakistan. Many people become forced to significantly alter their shopping behaviours and lifestyles (Ab, 1998).

Research problem

What are the different outcomes of the purchase behaviour, which can be anticipated from Pakistani young urban generation for making selection of imported brand name apparels?

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study will be to look into the apparel selection criteria and information sources utilized by young urban generation of Pakistan, in relation to their attitudes in the direction of imported versus domestic (i.e. Pakistani) brand-name outfits. Pakistan is known as one of the best exporters of textile all over the world. But during the global economic recession the country face decrease in demand of the Pakistani brand name apparels and therefore, decrease in exports. During 2008-9, the export of Textiles, which account for around 54% of Pakistan's total exports, dropped from US$ 10.6 billion to US$ 9.6 billion (Trade Policy by the Government of Pakistan, 2010). On the other hand, over the last few years the import of foreign brand name apparels has increased dramatically. Imports of textile groups were US$ 2,348,808 in trade year of 2007-08 which were 49.96% more then the trade year of 2006-07, also the imports of worn clothing were US$ 68,243 in trade year of 2007-08 which were 22.87% more then the trade year of 2006-07 (Trade Development Authority of Pakistan, 2008). One of the main reasons for the increase of foreign investment in apparel industry is investor friendly policies by the government of Pakistan. Textile and apparel industry are among one of the areas of investment where great prospect are present for the foreign companies as any foreign company looking to invest in Pakistan have a straightforward course of action to follow, within 30 days of the establishment of its position of business in Pakistan (www.pakistancompany.com, 2009). The surprising ups and downs in the apparel industry is a clear sign of young urban generation's increasing brand consciousness and positive attitude towards imported brand name apparels. Analysis shows that Pakistani young student's openness to normative influence had positive impact on brand consciousness and brand consciousness had positive impact on perceived quality of international apparel brands & emotional value that these brands generate (Nasir Shaheen, 2007). This research will look to find out what are the outcomes of the purchase behaviour which can be anticipated from Pakistani young urban generation for making selection of imported brand name apparels. The Pakistani young generation market is a significant part of the larger global marketplace. The median age of the population of Pakistan is 20.8 and approximately 50% population are teen age people (CIA, 2009).

Implications/ Rationale of the research

The findings of this study will be encouraging to international apparel manufacturers, marketers and retailers as it will analyze the positive outcomes of the purchase behaviour which can be anticipated from Pakistani young urban generation for making selection of imported brand name apparels

The Research Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework for the research will be an inspiration from Fishbein's attitude model which was applied to a marketing context (Fishbein, 1967; Fishbein, 1991; Blackwell et al, 1993; Blackwell et al, 2001).

Susan Amin and Lynne Richards (2002) applied this inspired Fishbein's attitude theoretical framework to evaluate the apparel selection criteria and information sources used by Indonesian teenagers by investigating in relation to attitudes towards imported versus Indonesian brand name clothing. The idea of this research was to investigate the function of external variableson attitudes toward imported and domestic apparel among collegestudents by using Fishbein's Attitude Model. External variables included demographics, clothing attitude, students' self-perceptions,and level of fashion attachment (Shim et al, 1989).

According to Susan Amin and Lynne Richards (2002), this model has an attitude in the direction of a product category (e.g. imported apparel), and therefore, supposed to be the function of two indicators: 1) the significance of different product attributes, and 2) Assessment of the measure to which the product category possesses those considered necessary attributes or unwanted attributes.

Ajzen, Albarracin and Hornik (2007) expanded upon these information's to propose that the external variables may also control product attitudes, such as demographic characteristics, disposition traits and information factors. Engel, Blackwell and Miniard (1993) proposed that the attainment of new information can modify which criteria or product attributes are used for attitude development, thus resulting in transformed product attitudes.

A theoretical model was developed to illustrate these relationships.

(Solid lines specify the variable relationships that will be tested in this research)

Hypothesis

To check specific portions of this given theoretical model, the following hypotheses were proposed:

1. There are significant relationships between selected Pakistani young urban generation demographic characteristics (buying power, age and gender) and the expression of attitudes towards imported brand name apparel appearance, prestige, fashion ability, durability, monetary value, and availability.

2. There is a significant positive relationship between the salience of brand name as a clothing selection criterion, and the expression of attitudes towards imported brand name apparel appearance, prestige, fashion ability, durability, monetary value, and availability.

3. There is a significant positive relationship between Pakistani young urban generation consultation of fashion magazines as a source of fashion information, and the expression of attitudes towards imported brand name apparel appearance, prestige, fashion ability, durability, monetary value, and availability.

Methodology of the Research

For the assessment of variables of the theoretical model, a questionnaire will be considered to determine demographic features, the salience of particular apparel selection criteria, the consultation of different fashion information sources, attitudes in the direction of imported brand-name apparel, and apparel buying preferences.

Four demographic indicators will be measured: sex, age, ethnicity and amount of pocket money per day. Amount of pocket money will be used to work out three clear-cut index of teen purchasing power. These ranges will be formed in consultation with Pakistani students studying abroad.

A 5 point scale (1 for ‘not influential' and 5 for ‘very influential') will be assessing the salience of apparel selection criteria (11 indicators), and a five-point scale (1 for ‘never use' and 5 for ‘frequently use') will find out the degree to which the students consult different fashion information sources. Moreover, the young students will be asked to list the names of those magazines that they frequently read.

A 5 point scale (1 for ‘poor' and 5 for ‘excellent') will be used to consider attitudes towards five features of imported brand-name apparel. The response of questionnaire asked from the respondents will be entered in to SPSS software and Cronbach's Alpha will be used to assess the reliability of these three variables. The generally accepted social science cut-off is that alpha should be 0.70 or higher for a set of objects to be measured in a scale, but some people use 0.75 or 0.80 while others people are as easy-going as .60. That 0.70 is as low as one may wish to go, it is also reflected in the fact that when alpha is 0.70, the standard error of dimension will be over half (0.55) a standard deviation (David Garson, 2004).

The questionnaire will be translated from English into Urdu (The national language of Pakistan) for those respondents who may not be able to understand English language. The instrument then will be further pilot tested by administering it to some Pakistani university students who are studying in UK.

Final respondents in the study will be students enrolled in the universities of Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan. Three universities will be randomly selected from lists of Islamabad public and private universities. A letter will be send to the head of departments of each university, explaining the research objectives and requesting permission to oversee the survey instrument, which will be arranged by personal contacts. Data will be collected in Pakistan during regularly programmed class sessions, although respondents in the study will be voluntary. At each university, at least two classes of graduate and post graduate students will be included in the study.

By using SPSS software, the data will be analysed by doing following tests:

ü Frequency tabulations.

ü Mean.

ü Standard deviation.

ü Cross tabulation.

ü Pearson correlation coefficients (Level of significance, P<0.05) will be used to assess the measure of association for hypothesis two and hypothesis three.

ü T-tests and one-way ANOVA (Level of significance, P<0.05) will be employed to assess the measure of differentiation for hypothesis one.

Research Methods

The methods that will be used in this research are quantitative and the researcher will gather data by using research instrument of structured questionnaire which will derive measures or variables from the data, and then investigate relationships among the variables.

Ø Investigation of the relationships among the variables will be done by testing hypotheses.

Ø Error of measurement is an important issue.

ü Almost all measures can have small errors.

ü Errors may affect the relationship between measures.

ü The researcher can attend to errors via validity and reliability.

ü A pilot study will be done to investigate error that can be valuable.

ü The minimum accepted margin of error to measure the variables will be 5%.

Ø The gathered data will be analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Software).

Ø The open-ended nature of these methods will allows for more flexibility and serendipity in identifying factors and practical strategies than the formal structured quantitative approach.

Ø Formal procedures will enhance trustworthiness of the information.

ü Triangulation–aim will be for congruence of information from various sources.

ü Member checking or respondent validation–the subjects may/can check the researcher's analysis.

ü Peer debriefing–colleagues or experts will check the analysis.

Ø Hybrid or mixed method will analyze a sample of cases qualitatively, and then code information into values of variables to make inferences about a population quantitatively.

Ideology of the Research

The ideology of the research will be Positivist or objective as the researcher will make and share observations, identify problems and solve them without disagreement about the nature of meaning or reality.

References

1. Forbes, D., (1996): Asian Metropolis: Urbanisation and the Southeast Asian City. Melbourne. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

2. http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr_31_3_15.pdf

3. http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr_31_3_15.pdf

4. http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/pakistan/export-import.html

5. http://www.dfat.gov.au/GEO/fs/paki.pdf

6. Ab, S. (1998, Dec.). Berburu merek di akhir tahun. TIARA [On-line], viewed <http://www.tiara.com.id/tiara.html>.

7. http://www.commerce.gov.pk/Downloads/Trade_Policy_2009-10_Speech.doc

8. http://www.epb.gov.pk/v1/exporters/docs/pakistans_import_management_strategy.doc

http://www.pakistancompany.com/foreign_company.html

10. http://www.qurtuba.edu.pk/jms/default_files/JMS/2_2/04_nasir_shaheen.pdf

11. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pk.html

12. Albarracín, Hornik, R D., &. Ajzen, I., (2007): Prediction and Change of Health Behavior: Applying the Reasoned Action Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp 2-8.

13. Blackwell, R., Miniard, P., & Engel, J., (2001): Consumer Behaviour, Ed 9th. Harcourt College Publisher.

14. Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D., & Miniard, P. W., (1993): Consumer Behaviour, Ed 7th. New York: Dryden Press.

15. Fishbein, M., (1967): Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. New York: Wiley.

16. Fishbein, M., (1991): Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. New York: Books on Demand.

17. http://ctr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/4/8

18. http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:-6Dq2M6y0r4J:www.heia.com.au/heia_graphics/JHEIA93-1.pdf+attitude+towards+brand+name+apparel&hl=en&gl=pk&sig=AHIEtbRW7xfJ9hZc5QBOTRw5QAwkK20SDA

19. http://www.childrens-mercy.org/stats/weblog2004/CronbachAlpha.asp

20. http://209.85.229.132/search?q=cache:JQyemLhg9m4J:www.sportsci.org/jour/0201/What_is_research.ppt+validity+of+research:ppt&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk

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