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Leadership is always a famous term in management field. It has been very effective tool of leading and management of organisation to consult component for effective planning and providing typology, but also in organisational context. Some of the scholars explained distinction between management and leadership. In some cases many uses leadership compare to management, the explanation difference between management and leadership (Day, 2001). The management always have been some degree of inflation for the use of word leadership in place of management. The management is related to achieve goals; as administration seems to be a routine task of fulfilment of efficiency in work outcomes. On the other hand leadership with relation to management, it has creative functions for daily bases (Barham and Heimer, 1998). A leadership has been developed by management professionals. The long term changes in working environment cause changes in nature of management while on the past era of industrialisation emphasise management in simples terms as the person who mange the factors of productions on behalf of owners and stakeholders.
A leadership has domination nature at the time of discussing powerful, knowledgeable workers might be managed. Recently, there have been more complex issues of leadership and management emerges as focusing on ethical and behavioural aspects of managers and leaders. In general leadership means the sense of purpose, influence and ability to handle the consequences, negotiation and challenging power (Honey and Hamford, 2000). There are the standards of effective leader that it should match these criteria to the other persons who appointed as a leader or manager through observing how they behave and perform.
It is clear that in the early idea of what is management and leadership. From the last many years implies that management is the core scientific and rational process of behaviour, measurement and systematic training. As managerial functions of management involves planning, organisation, directing and controlling with the overall expectations. Besides the managerial aspects, leadership is the knowledge creative technique of communication, political nature of conducting personnel agenda for organisational success.
1.2 The impact of leadership and management style on organisational objectives.
LVMH is a leading organization with 20 years' experience building prestigious brand image through its unmatched historical and culture. LVMH is working on the ground of more than many luxurious bands such as wines and spirits, fashion and leather goods, watches and jewellery. LVMH builds local capacity, establishes local institutions and supports practical training and information programs to build new business ventures and enhance the international business experiences.
LVMH is a French business group and its many business offices situated in France only. Being an international organisation LVHM has a good reputation over the multi cultural business organisation. The organisation constitutes more than fifty bands and companies and subsidiaries worldwide. LVMH was established in France in 1987 and maintained country-wide activities since then by supporting democratization and development through retail industry and luxury products. LVMH has provided more than 100 luxurious brands, in both home country and other subsidiaries, with basic skills training and specialized courses in international business, human rights, civil society and brand promoting, leading to an increase in qualitative and quantitative business capacity.
Leadership style is an approach to fulfil planned implementation, motivation and provide guidance Kurt Levin (1939) identified different styles of leadership. The early stage of these study emphases three kind of leadership styles
Authoritarian or Autocratic
Participative or democratic
Deligative or free reign
So that same of the leader used all of them and some void one of them styles. The organisation follows the free reign style of leadership in. It leader provide fall authority to their employees to make decision. Hence, leader is also responsible for the decision being made. The free reign style is about to implement when employees of organisation are powerful to understand the needs and solutions of problem and know has to share the problems. In those style of leadership leader cannot do everything he has to set priorities and gives some tasks to others. It is a style of avoid planning an others when something went wrong. This creates trustworthy and confident environment in organisation, so that it use wisely.
The leadership style causes several benefits for organisation, as relation between followers and the leadership such as
An authoritarian style of leadership will be helpful for newcomers in organisation to learn job aspects. Employees are motivated to learn new skills and gives new environment for the new employees.
The participative style of leadership is very essential for those who know their jobs very well. This leader may not solve the problem. In that case employees can participate in team.
The delegative style is for those who has more knowledge leader and other cannot do everything at that time worker has to take ownership for organisation. It allows you to take part in other task at one time.
(2) Management & leadership skills
2.1 personnel & professional skills required for effective management
Personnel skills for effective management
Need of mastery.
Active, Assertive and persistent in nature.
Believe in self estimation.
Goal oriented management relationship.
Self recognition need.
An ability to accept the need for self development.
Professional skills for effective management
Impersonal attributes to the goals
Consider work as an enabling process.
Work with people, avoid solitary actions.
Self evaluation enhance by self perpetuation strengthening.
The role of manager is varied and dynamic in nature. To run the organisation very effectively mangers needs certain types of skills as personal and professional bases. According to Robert Katz managers requires three kids of skills technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills. The technical skills means certain specialised skills like ability to perform work with others. At last the human skills are very helpful for manager to identify the best person among the group persons to do right job. Thus, to know how to communicate during work, motivate and enhance enthusiasm, all these skills are vital for the all levels of management.
2.2 Comparison of skills and attributes of leaders.
Conceptual skills: - The conceptual skills are enables to eliminate business problems. It will help mangers to identify the possible opportunity to innovate something new, identifies problems and imply solutions on it. This skill is depending on technological skills as well because of gathering information and improves business conditions.
Communication skills: - The communication skills transforming ideas into languages, words and actions. The communication creates information sharing culture to give and take information among the peers, subordinates and boss too. This communication skill will be strengthen through the presentations, oral questioning and talk with others.
Effectiveness skills:- in this kind of skills, it influence leader to fulfil corporate and organisational objectives and focus aims. The manager has effective skills like multitasking ability to negotiate, change and improvement in organisation, effective time management because of it sets the performances and standards for business (Honey and Hamford, 2000)..
2.3 Impact of organization leadership style
The participation in leadership theory, the LVHM organisation follows transactional leadership theory in their organisation. In the transactional theory people are motivated through rewards for their effective work and punished because of their mistakes and faults. The LVHM is the largest luxury retailer organisation has big organisation structure. It has proper social system work with the proper command chain. In transactional leadership where organisation employee started job or if they are agree to do so, at the moment it is responsible for the leader or manager (Khuana,2007). In this type of leadership subordinates follows their superiors and do whatever their manager tell them to do.
The transactional leadership is based on contingency (Barham and Heimer, 1998):, the reward and punishment is totally based on performances. In the large organisation, it is clearly stated that what are the things they have to perform and what are the reward they will get it is fix. In LVHM, employees are eligible for salary and other financial benefits for the early stage of work. In case of work on the performance bases LVHM implies its authority over the employees. In organisation superior gives the task to its subordinate it is full responsibility of complete it, if they have nay faulted or mistake it is punishable for its failure. The transactional leader always uses management by exceptions. It is very popular like LVHM organisation. In transactional leadership it is rarely assumable that the person is totally motivated by money and its behaviour can be measured and predicable.
(3) Organisation theories
3.1 Leadership and management theories
The review of management and leadership school of thoughts revels that there are several organisational leadership theories are avail form 'great man' to 'transformational theory'. The theories of leadership and management are as follow as contextual nature.
Great Man Theories
The Great Man theory is based on the thought that leaders are extraordinary people are born with the inner state of quality. The term man indicates the concept of primary mean of human, military and western theories are leading it to Tait Theory.
In Tait theory list of various qualities are leave by leader or new qualities are emerges. The various objectives of human life are described as positive and ambitious way of life.
It is basically shows the actions of leaders rather than its qualities. As a style of leadership many patterns are observed and categorised. This area is most influential by the managers.
This approach seems to be depends on the situation based and analyses. For instance, some of the leaders can use autocratic style some of the leaders can use participative approach. In the same organisation but different level different situational theories are used.
In this theory, first of all the factors are identified on the bases of situation and gauge variables. After that leader select the best possible leadership style fit to the particular situation.
This theory indicates the relation between leader and follower. It is based on the mutual understanding as leader provides the things as rewards or recognitions in return follower serve them as loyal in work.
Here it is different from the transaction theory, organisation identifies and implement organisation changes and enhance the organisation performances
The behaviouristic theory of leadership is capable to short requirement of organisation after merger. It has been taken into consideration for performances management and planning and development throughout the worldwide there are many application used along with the leadership to support and develop their application ( Day,2001). The organization leadership behaviour indicates the business priorities and organisation value. Here are some of the capabilities of organisation in which behaviour context are involved such as organisation strategic direction, maintaining relationship, concentrate on on- time delivery.
Furthermore, for the performances based organisation level some set of objectives used to improve the business performances. They have been developed several factors against the competitive against high level of organisation. These are several competitive in which different behaviour theory is used such as getting high performances, consumer focus and developing other plans as well.
3.2 Worth of Leadership require in Organisation.
The organisation results are basically influenced by the factors like result orientations, customer spotlight, leadership and loyalty purpose, people development and association and partnership progress. The model consider the five criteria and four result enabling the performance of organisation along with the scored get across the nine criteria the outside scoring associated to universal scoring of process to score against all the organisation for improvement of their performance in comparison to other organisations (Russell, 1999). All the company of LVHM have their own policy of international transfer do that recently they establish the policy of international transfer covers all the aspects of international mobility. The policy was first introduced in strong effective documentation process then it implemented in the common policy for all the companies and now they can share more information through internet.
(4) Development of Leadership and Management skills.
4.2 Development of Leadership and Management Style
Examine the organisations process and performances compare to same and defined strategies cannot make process better but as excellence model define process as definite set of standards even though it is more committed to perfect design of process (Senge, 1990). The desired approaches for committed sources required are more complex nature. The list of observation is in benchmarked organisation areas. First, all the five designs are compare with and make ideal situation for assuming the ideas situation for improved performances. And another all the five approaches of made a systematic approach to compared useful for organisational best practice focused success factors. ( Porter, 1999; Seddon. 1998; Russell, 1999). The LVHM do not want to attract the employees on the bases for compensation schemes. Company does not focus on providing good salary and incentive package or getting French connection is not the motivating factor for the organisation international assignment.
4.3 Justification of Leadership and Management development methods.
The organisation LVHM becomes multicultural business process for influence by the various aspects of global managerial techniques. The organisation need multicultural and multilingual environment for its global business prospective, LVHM has wide spread business in five groups in the world. The criteria for recruitment become more selective in terms of languages and various different cultures to attain both local and world markets. Increasing demand of world class talent in company influenced organisation to adopt new aims and objectives.
Some studies suggested that organizational self evaluation is a self-serving behaviour and exists when there is a climate that lacks trust between its members. In such environments, managers usually try to influence decisions by using power in order to protect or further their own interest. Therefore, these studies have mostly concluded that more politicize environment generate more unfavourable work environment,. Some scholars argue that human resource utility can be either functional or dysfunctional for the organization, depending on whether that behaviour assists or deters the organization in attaining its goal.