Workplace Psychology and Prevailing the Management Style

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The aim of this report is to apply theories of workplace psychology within a work based setting. Also, to evaluate the current Human Resource Management (HRM) style and approach to a work based setting and relate this to theories of management and workplace psychology. A report will be produced that advices a company on how to improve the issues they are facing through the use of HRM and management best practise.

The Scenario

The owner of the business is concerned there is a high turnover of staff and a general feeling of discontent. Sales revenues are down and repeat business is not as brisk. As a manager the owner has asked you for an explanation as to the reduction in profitability and high staff turnover. The manager has also intimated that they have received letters of complaint from some of the regular customers outlining that the service has been poor and the atmosphere is not as friendly. The owner has asked you to prepare a discrete report on the how to improve the issues through HRM and or management best practise. (Refer to appendix 1 to see further explanation)

Workplace Psychology

Workplace psychology allows managers to understand human behaviour in the workplace as it looks at different personalities and how people act, think and feel. Guion defines workplace psychology as 'the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work: in the process of making a living' (Scribd, 2010)

Human Resource Management (HRM)

HRM is the company's function that deals with issues related to the employees and their most valued assets. 'Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in organisations. It is responsible for bringing people into the organisation, helping them perform their work, compensating them for their labours and solving problems that arise.' (Cherrington, D. 1995. p.5) In addition, the aim of HRM is to help organisations meet their goals by attracting, maintaining and motivating the employees and to manage them successfully. HRM also provide the resources needed for individuals to successfully accomplish their work and reach their goals. 'HRM approach seeks to ensure a fit between the management of an organisation's employees, and the overall strategic direction of the company.' (AHRRM, 2009)

Methodology

This section aims to provide a general idea of the methodological approaches taken during this People Management report. There are numerous approaches to research, to complete the report the main sources of research carried out were collected from secondary sources via journals, websites, articles and books. This approach was taken to find out more information about the subject.

Over time, plenty of journals and books have been published that incorporate management and HRM, for example, Management and Organisation Behaviour, by Mullins, L. The journals used will not be any older than the year 1995 as the information collected should be current.

As already mentioned the internet will be another main source of research. There is a great deal of information surrounding management via these sources. The information was collected to find out more about the topic of management and to help complete the report.

Findings

1. Motivation

Motivation is 'the driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfil some need or expectation.' (Mullins, L. 2005. p250)

It is vital that employees within the workplace are motivated. 'Why do we need motivated employees? The answer is survival. Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive.' (Cheung, P. and Robertson, R. 2006. p.155)

The current factors the workplace are presenting are poor sales, no repeat business and high turnover of staff, by means of motivation these issues can be resolved. Employers should discover and understand how each employee is motivated, for example, incentives or recognition. According to John Adair there are eight rules for motivating people 'be motivated yourself, select motivated people, treat each person as an individual, set realistic but challenging targets, understand that progress itself motivates, create a motivating environment, provide relevant rewards and recognise success.' (Team Building, 2011)

Figure one - shows the basic model of motivation (Mullins, L, 2010. p. 253)

There are many theorists who all provide different methods on how to motivate employees to work willingly and efficiently. There are two types of motivational theories which are content and process, content explains the things that motivate the individuals at work, to achieve this they identify people needs. Process theories emphasise on the actual process of motivation, such as, the goal theory.

1.2 Content Theories

Abraham Maslow developed a model that represents and understands human motivation, management training and personal development. This model is known as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and is comprised of five needs, which are, physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation. The model is shown as a pyramid with the basic needs at the base and the important at the top. When one of the needs is satisfied it will no longer motivate an employee, therefore the next need takes place.

Figure two - shows Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. (Dinamehta, 2011)

Clayton Aldefer modified Maslow's hierarchy of needs model and condensed the five levels into three, which are based on existence, relatedness and growth. Existence includes the physiological and safety needs and is mainly motivated by money. Relatedness includes the love/ belonging and esteem needs, it also centres upon the desire to create and maintain relationships, this need is mainly satisfied by co-workers. Finally, growth includes the self-actualisation needs which are satisfied by a person's job or profession. Alderfer's model demonstrates that more than one need may be used to motivate someone and he explains that unlike Maslow's Hierarchy the lower levels do not need to be satisfied before a person can move onto higher motivators.

Figure three - shows Alderfer modified hierarchy of needs (Envisions Software, 2007)

1.3 Process Theories

Theorist Victor Vroom believed if employees put effort into their performance they would get their just rewards. His theory was that employee's would be highly motivated if a positive reward was given. On the other hand employees would less likely be motivated if they received a negative reward. His theory was based on three variables: valence, instrumentality and expectancy.

Theorists Edwin Locke developed the goal theory. He believed to motivate an employee to work at a high level, specific goals should be set. 'People strive to achieve goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. Goals guide people's responses and actions. Goals direct work behaviour and performance and lead to certain consequences or feedback. Locke subsequently pointed out that goal setting is more appropriately views as a motivational technique rather than as a formal theory of motivation.' (Mullins, L. 2010, p.277) The goals that are set should be difficult to accomplish because the employees will have to strive and work harder to achieve them. 'People who have difficult goals will perform better than people with easier goals.' (Mullins, L. 2010, p.277) (Refer to appendix 2 to see early ideas of work motivation)

1. 4 Motivation is one of the most important things when it comes to work and employees and there are many different ways in which motivation can be applied. It is important to apply effective motivation as it can reduce staff turnover, it also makes for a happier workforce, ensuring everyone works together and performance and sales levels are high. If little or no motivation was applied, employees may not enjoy their work and resent being there, this could be detrimental to the well-being and success of the company. The author of The Manager's Pocket Guide to Motivating Employees, Shawn Doyle explains, 'motivation is the absolute key to driving productivity and increasing profit. A smart manager can get 60% of workers to work harder resulting in an increase of productivity.' (Doyle, S. 2004. p7-8)

2. Leadership

Leadership is 'a relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other people' (Mullins, L. 2005. p363). Leadership plays a big role in the way a company is run, the notion is, poor quality leadership has negative effects for individuals and can lead to high turnover of staff, poor performance, reduced productivity and poor atmosphere. Effective leadership motivates, inspires and gives direction; it also makes certain the organisation is run efficiently. Studies show with good leadership 'employees have more personal satisfaction with work and personal life, greater ownership is transferred to the people doing the work and expanded skills and competencies.' (Leadership Expert, 2011) According to research carried out by James Kouzes and Barry Posner in the book The Leadership Challenge there are five leadership traits that are normally connected with good leaders. These are honest, inspiring, forward-looking, competent and intelligent. Furthermore, Raymond Cattell explains that leaders should be emotional stable, enthusiastic, conscientious, tough-minded, self-assured, compulsive and dominant.

2.1 Psychologist Kurt Lewin researched and identified the different styles of leadership; these are known as the authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire style.

Authoritarian

The Authoritarian style is a form of transactional leadership where a manager exerts high levels of power over their employees or team members. People within the team are given few opportunities in proposing ideas, even if these would be in the team's or organisations best interest.

Democratic

The Democratic style involves the leader being part of the team and including all employees in the decision making process. However the democratic leader will make the final decision taking into account everyone's ideas.

Laissez-faire

The word Laissez-faire comes from the French phrase "leave it be". This style is used to describe a leader who leaves their employees to get on with their work or to make the final decisions.

2.2 According to John Adair's theory, there are eight vital leadership functions and behaviour types, which are, defining the task, planning, briefing, controlling, evaluating, motivating, organising and providing examples. According to Adair 'being able to do all of these things, and keep the right balance, gets results, builds morale, improves quality, develops teams and productivity, and is the mark of a successful manager and leader.' (Business Balls, 2011) By concentrating on Adair's leadership functions it will improve both the leaders and employees performance. The functional approach believes that the skills of leadership can be learned, developed and perfected.

Leadership Functions

Defining the task

This allows the group to set aims and objectives and allows them to work towards a goal.

Planning

Leaders need to be conscious of timescales and their responsibilities in order to achieve structure, efficiency and accuracy.

Briefing

Individuals can benefit by giving and receiving information and summarising ideas.

Controlling

To ensure standards are met and tasks are achieved, the leader needs to apply self control but also implement effective control systems for the employees. This also builds confidence in the leadership ability.

Evaluating

To develop and maintain skills, leaders should evaluate individuals and group performances and provide feedback to improve the performance if required.

Motivating

Leaders who provide rewards, set realistic goals, encouragement and praise will improve the individuals and group performance, resulting in increased profits.

Organising

To make the task more achievable it is essential to have the efficient resources, people, time and allocation. If the leader is more organised it also provides a clear action plan for the employees.

Providing examples

Leading by example builds credibility with the employees. It also helps to apply motivation and efficiency.

3. Building Successful Teams

'Team work is relevant to businesses of all sizes and sectors. Team working involves working cooperatively and making use of individual strengths within a group to achieve a common goal.' (Business Link, 2010)

By introducing effective team work it boosts employee morals, motivation, commitment, product quality and production; it also allows employees to work together and build relationships. However, there are advantages and disadvantages:

Teamwork

Advantages

Disadvantages

Team work can increase product quality, encourage product innovation and make team members more independent and accountable.

None of the team members takes blame or can feel really good of gained success. It can sometimes get confusing knowing who is doing what and if this happens the job might not get completed.

It can boost employee morale, motivation, commitment and encourage employees to work efficiently and share their skills and knowledge. Within the team, each individual has the opportunity to learn from others.

Conflicts may be caused which may result in disagreements and fights, which can put the whole project in a deadlock.

As well as improving productivity, team working can maximise team members' strengths, improve delegation and reduce some levels of management.

Some individuals are not compatible with team work.

New approaches to tasks may be discovered.

Some employees may do more work than others

3.1 Dr. Meredith Belbin (1970) analysed team work, his theory helps individuals deal with the demands of the team environments by making them aware of their own strengths. It also helps them understand the role that they are capable of playing within the team. A creative team requires a balance of all these roles, according to Belbin 'no ones perfect, but a team can be.' (Mullins, L. 2005. p.332)

Role Name

Strengths and Styles

Coordinator

Able to get others working to a shared aim; confident, mature

Shaper

Motivated, energetic, achievement-driven, assertive, competitive

Plant

Innovative, inventive, creative, original, imaginative, unorthodox, problem-solving

Monitor-Evaluator

Serious, prudent, critical thinker, analytical

Implementer

Systematic, common sense, loyal, structured, reliable, dependable, practicable, efficient (originally called 'Company Workers')

Resource Investigator

Quick, good communicator, networker, outgoing, affable, seeks and finds options, negotiator

Team Worker

Supportive, sociable, flexible, adaptable, perceptive, listener, calming influence, mediator

Completer-Finisher

Attention to detail, accurate, high standards, quality orientated, delivers to schedule and specification

Specialist

Technical expert, highly focused capability and knowledge, driven by professional standards and dedication to personal subject area

(Chart from Business Balls, 2011)

3.2 Bruce Tuckman's theory (1965) looks at the behaviour of small groups in a variety of environments and the distinct phases they go through, which are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. Tuckman suggested they need to experience all five stages before they achieve maximum effectiveness. 'Tuckman's model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style.' (Business Balls, 2011)

Team Development Stages

Stage 1 - forming

This is where the group of people are introduced to each other, at this stage everybody is finding their place within the team and getting to know one another. This stage evaluates each individual to see how they work and manage pressure.

Stage 2 - Storming

The group are now getting to know each other which will make them feel more confident to put across their view or idea. If this stage is effective the group will have made progress towards the task. However, disagreements may occur which could lead to conflict and some loss of performance or focus on the task.

Stage 3 - Norming

The group are able to clarify who does what and how things will be done to complete the task. The team should realise that in order to complete the task they need to co-operate and help each other.

Stage 4 - Performing

During this stage both the task and the relationships between the group members will increase as they will be working together. The group can now concentrate on completing the task effectively.

Stage 5 - Adjourning

The task is now complete meaning the team will separate. This stage is also known as the mourning phase as it can be a sad time for the group.

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Figure four - shows Bruce Tuckman's team development model. (Banyan, nd)

4. Culture and Change

4.1 It is clear that for the workplace and its issues to improve it will need to go through change. 'Change is nothing new and a simple fact of life. Some people actively thrive off challenges and constant change, while others prefer the comfort of the status quo and strongly resist any change. It is all down to the personality of the individual and there is little management can do about resistance to change.' (Mullins, L. 2010. p.753) Nevertheless, if change is managed effectively it can benefit the company and its employees as it provides more opportunities, new challenges and reduces tediousness. Change may take place due to natural processing, for example, as equipment loses efficiency or skills become outdated. Change may also be planned, for example, the need for new challenges or to cope with potential future issues.

4.2 Workplace culture is 'the habitat that a company and or business creates with and for its employees.' (Code Lines, 2007) Workplace culture exists everywhere within the workplace and has an impact on the employees, whether the employees realise it or not but they also have an impact on the culture. 'Workplace culture is a major influence on business performance, customer service, recognisable value for money in public services, risk management and staff issues such as motivation and sickness absence.' (The Work Foundation, 2008)

4.3 According to Kotter there are eight steps for leading change, which are, 'create a sense of urgency, recruit powerful change leaders, build a vision and effectively communicate it, remove obstacles, create quick wins and build on the momentum.' (Mind Tools, 2011) If these steps are carried out it should make it easier for both the company and employees to deal with change. Kotter and Schlesinger explain that there are six ways of overcoming resistance to change, which are, 'education and communication, participation and involvement, facilitation and support, negotiation and agreement, manipulation and explicit and implicit coercion.' (Value Based Management, 2011)

5. Recruitment and Selection

'Recruitment is the process of having the right person, in the right place, at the right time; it is crucial to organisational performance.' (CIPD, 2011) Selection 'consists of the processes involved in choosing from applicants a suitable candidate to fill a post.' (The Times 100, 2011)

The aims of implementing an effective recruitment and selection processes is to reduce high turnover of staff, poor performance levels, low job satisfaction and prevent losing money. It can be time consuming and expensive when recruiting candidates so it is important to follow a good, well thought out procedure to ensure the right candidates apply for the vacancy and are selected and hired the first time round. (Refer to appendix 3 to see recruitment and selection stages) The company will know when the process has been successful when the candidate selected makes a good impact and remains employed.

Figure five - shows the main stages in recruitment and selection. (CIPD, 2011)

5.1 It is vital for everyone involved in the company to ensure candidates are treated fairly and decisions are made objectively and in line with the equal opportunities legislation. 'Equality is about creating a fairer society, where everyone can participate and has the opportunity to fulfil their potential.' (Faculty London Deanery, 2011) The legislation aims to prevent discrimination on the grounds of gender, race, marital status, disability, sexual orientation, religion and age in all aspects of employment. If legislations and laws are not abided by within the company this could also cause high turnover of staff, poor unfriendly atmosphere and a general feeling of discontent.

6. Communication Skills

'Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another.' (People Communicating, 2010) Communication is important in every day life, especially in the workplace. By carrying out effective communication it allows teams to be able to work together and accomplish their goals, it also gathers the correct information, form and maintain relationships, solve problems, give and receive support, make decisions and find about individuals needs and expectations. Not only does communication focus on what is said verbally, but it also focuses on non verbal messages, for example, how it is said, body language, facial expressions and eye contact. According to Devito, 'non verbal messages account for more than 90 percent of the meaning of any message.' (Devito, J. 2009. p.7) Communication can be carried out by written letters, emails and telephone calls. However, any type of communication can be misinterpreted which could lead to problems. To prevent this occurring feedback can be applied or the message could be written down to ensure the messenger remembers and understands the message. Professor Albert Mehrabian developed a communication model to help people understand communication. He explained '7% of a message pertaining to feelings and attitudes is in the words that are spoken. 38% of a message pertaining to feelings and attitudes is paralinguistic (the way that the words are said). 55% of a message pertaining to feelings and attitudes is in facial expression.' (Business Balls, 2011)

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is vital for a company and HRM to deal with any issues as soon as possible and focus on continually improving the business. Most of the issues the workplace are facing can be dealt with and overcome. The main objectives are to focus on motivation, leadership, building successful teams, culture and change, the recruitment and selection process and communication. The notion is that once all of these areas have been improved it should improve the business and their problems, such as high turnover of staff, poor repeat business, reduction in profitability, general feeling or discontent and poor service.

Recommendations

8. The main presenting problems the workplace are faced with is reduction in profitability, high turnover of staff, general feeling of discontent and repeat business is not as brisk. Through the use of HRM most of the issues can be resolved; however this may take time, money and change. Conflict may occur between the employees as a result of change, the manager should deal with this appropriately and efficiently to prevent tensions from rising. If conflicts are not dealt with it could cause staff turnover, poor atmosphere, poor service and performance. The main recommendations for the workplace are to implement motivation, staff training and appraisals, good working conditions, recruitment and selection process, effective leadership and team building.

8.1 Recruitment and Selection

Initially, to resolve the high turnover of staff the recruitment and selection process must be effective, if a person is hired who does not suitably fit the role, they are more likely to leave as it was not the job they wanted. Furthermore, if the right process is performed then it will save time and money as the right person for the right job will be hired the first time round.

8.2 Motivation

Motivation plays a big part in retaining staff, high profits and exceptional standards. Edwin Locke's theory could be applied where the organisation sets goals for employees. By implementing this into the workplace it should improve the employee's performance. It will also give each employee to work towards and complete a goal; this will make them feel satisfied and motivated to continually carry out a good job. Furthermore, Maslow's and Alderfer's theory could be related to the workplace which allows the employers to understand how to satisfy their employees needs which will result in motivating them to do a good job.

8.3 Appraisals

Another way to motivate employees is to carry out appraisals regularly. Appraisals are an important part of performance management, by carrying out yearly appraisals it helps the performance levels within the workplace. Essentially it is an opportunity for the individual and manager to discuss any problems, the individual's performance, development and any support they may require in the future. 'Once a talented individual is brought into an organisation, another function of HRM comes into play - creating an environment that will motivate and reward exemplary performance.'(Book Rags, 2011)

Advantages

Disadvantages

They provide a record of performance over a period of time, and allow the employee and manager to meet, discuss issues and give feedback on their performance and how they completed their goals.

They can become stressful for all involved and if it is not done appropriately it can be a negative experience for all.

Appraisals can also be motivating if the manager is pleased with the individual's performance and rewards and compensation systems should be discussed to ensure motivation is ongoing.

They can be time consuming, especially for a manager with a lot of employees and if it is not carried out correctly it can be a complete waste of time.

It also offers an opportunity to think about the upcoming year and develop the employee's goals.

8.4 Training

Company's often send employees on staff training in hope it benefits the business and motivates their employees. Staff training is important because sometimes just allowing the employees to have a break from their work schedule is enough to re-energise and encourage employees to recommit to their jobs. 'Learning new skills and interacting with new and different people has a direct impact on the productivity and development of the work environment.' (The Summit, nd) Staff training also gives employees the opportunity to learn new skills, further their career and gain more qualifications. Research shows that 'productivity increases while training takes place. Staff who receive formal training can be 230 percent more productive than untrained colleagues who are working in the same role.' (Training, nd) (Refer to appendix 4 to see Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model)

Advantages

Disadvantages

Learn new skills and knowledge, which can improve quality and productivity. It also builds relationship[s within the workplace.

Cost of training may be high and it may be time consuming

The company can offer more services

Quality of training must be to a high standard otherwise it would not be as effective

Training reduces staff turnover which saves the company a lot of money. 'In some companies, training programs have reduced staff turnover by 70 per cent.' (Training, nd)

Work time is lost when staff are being trained

8.5 Work conditions The company must ensure that employees are working the correct hours, carrying out the correct job role and have a work life balance. If the employees are working too many hours which is against their contract of employment it could cause poor performance, tiredness at work, change in attitude and illness, it will also make the employee feel unappreciated and therefore they may leave. 'Certainly working too many hours a week isn't good for safety and certainly isn't good for your health.' (BBC, 2002) Moreover, if the working conditions are poor and the cleanliness and hygiene is not to a high standard then this could be another reason for staff turnover and poor sales and performance, it is also vital that the health and safety policies and procedures are in place and are met to a high standard.

8.6 Leadership

If effective leadership is carried out it can motivate, inspire and help give employees direction; it also makes certain the organisation is run efficiently reducing staff turnover and poor performances. John Adair's leadership functions should be used as it will help to organise, motivate, control and provide direction, which in turn will improve performance. The leaders should be honest, inspiring, forward-looking, competent and intelligent. It is also important that leaders use the right leadership style depending on the situation and their employees, if the incorrect leadership style is used it can demotivate the employees causing poor performance and high staff turnover.

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Appendix 1 - Scenario

As a manager it is important that they deal with any problems within the workplace as soon as possible so they can be resolved, it also prevents the issues from harming the business and its reputation. There are many ways in the manager and HRM can improve these problems, however, if they do not follow the correct procedures and do not keep all employees informed of the changes then it could cause further problems which could be more difficult and take longer to resolve. The owner of the business explains the main problems they are faced with are general feeling of discontent, sales revenues are down, repeat business is not as brisk, reduction in profitability, staff turnover is high, customers are complaining, poor service and the atmosphere is not as friendly. The workplace should consider looking at motivation, team building, leadership, culture and change and communication to improve the issues. Over time there have been plenty of theories based on motivation, leadership and team building, it is important that the managers take these into consideration to help to improve the problems they are faced with. Moreover, the manager of the company should know how to manage their employee's performance, they must ensure employees are not underperforming or over performing as this could cause low profits, tension within the team and complaints from customers. Managers must also understand that all employees are different and have different attitudes, some employees may explain they "won't do" or "can't do" the job, the manager should try to resolve this by talking to them and finding out why they have this attitude. 'Managers are responsible for addressing performance issues as early as possible and for taking appropriate action.' (The University of York, 2009)

Appendix 2 - Early Ideas on Work Motivation

Theorist, Frederick Winslow Taylor believed that workers were motivated mainly by pay. He explained that employees do not naturally enjoy work, therefore they need close supervision and control, to do this managers need to break down production into a chain of smaller tasks. He believed that employees would work more efficiently if they only worked on one set task, and to do this they would receive the appropriate training and tools. The employees were then only paid according to how much they produced in a period of time. This theory had its advantages and disadvantages, the main advantage being the harder the employees worked the more money they received, and the disadvantage being employees were becoming bored from carrying out repetitive tasks and constantly working to a high level, especially if they weren't hitting their targets.

Appendix 3 - Recruitment and Selection Stages

Identifying a vacancy - The recruitment and selection process begins once the company identifies a vacancy. This process should begin when a resignation is received, a job move agreed or the need for a new task to be completed within the company.

Recruitment action plan - All aspects of the recruitment action plan should be discussed to make sure all stages are effective, which will result in finding the best candidates and prevent wasting valuable time and money.

Define the job role - After the action plan has been put into place, the company should define what the job will entail to ensure that whoever is applying for the role knows what they are applying for. It is vital that all areas of the job role are identified so the new employee will benefit the company.

Advertising a vacancy - Advertising is one of the most important stages of recruitment because depending on the advert depends on how many applicants apply for the job and how suitable they are. There are many different ways to advertise; it will depend on what the job is and what sort of candidate is required to where and how it is advertised. It also depends on how much the company has to spend on advertising as it can become quite expensive.

Managing the response - Once applicants start applying for the job the manager will short list them leaving the ones who appear right for the job, have the right qualifications and experience. These applicants will then be asked to come for an interview.

Interviews and there outcome - The manager will hold interviews to discover the right person. There are different types of interviews, which include panel interviews, one to one/two, phone interviews or a presentation interview, however the type of interview depends on what type of job it is. The manager evaluates each applicant by filling out evaluation forms; this usually consists of a scoring system. Again, the manager will short list the candidates leaving the ones who are most suited. The manager can ask for references from previous jobs to back up the candidate and to make certain they are capable of doing a good job. They may also ask to see evidence of qualifications.

The interviewer must be prepared for the interview by having a standard set of questions to ask each candidate. They should find out as much as they can about the candidate to ensure that they are right and will fit into the company. They should also ask the right type of questions and make sure the questions lead to a detailed answer. The interviewer must also look presentable, use good open body language and also must be approachable and welcoming.

Technical competence (trade test) - Some jobs require trade testing, for example, a beauty therapist will perform different treatments on other workers to allow the manager to see how good their practical and communication skills are.

Assessing and selecting candidates - After completing all the stages of interviewing, the manager will only have a few candidates who they think will be right for the job. They will choose the best one out of the final candidates and make them an offer. The manager should contact those who were not successful explaining why and provide constructive feedback on their performance if required. There are different methods of selection which include, short listing, selection tests, selection interview, peer questionnaires and assessment centres.

Evaluation - The recruitment and selection process must be evaluated to make sure it is effective. Sometimes the process needs to be altered if they are not getting the required candidates. It is important a process is used to ensure that all applicants are selected and interviewed using the same format; this will result in hiring the best person for the job making certain that equality is maintain and there is no discrimination.

Appendix 4 - Kirkpatrick's Evaluation model

Theorists Donald Kirkpatrick devised four levels of evaluation model. This is used to study how effective the training was and whether it will have a positive impact on the company and employees. The four levels include reaction - what the person thought about the training. Learning - whether there has been an increase in knowledge or capability. Behaviour - whether behaviour and capability has improved due to the training. Results - the effects on the business after the training has been completed.

Figure six - Shows Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Model (Learning Pool, 2010)

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Figure one - shows the basic model of motivation

Mullins, L. (2005) Management and Organisational Behaviour, Harlow: Prentice Hall

Figure two- shows Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

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Figure three - shows Alderfer's modified hierarchy of needs model

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Figure four - shows Bruce Tuckman's team development model

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Figure five - shows the main stages in recruitment and selection

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Figure six - Shows Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Model

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