Depending on the employer to provide a "fair day's pay for a fair day's work", there is a hierarchy in business which is the levels of management in a business. Motivating a workforce will bring more benefits for a business. All in all, this essay will primarily relate to how to motivate a workforce and to give some solutions for dealing with the financial and non-financial ways.
Motivating a workforce means somebody who gains several benefits, so that needs to work hard for the company. It is argued that if an individual's needs are not satisfied, then that worker will not be motivated to work. Businesses have found that even if employees are satisfied with pay and conditions at work, they also complain that their employer does not do a good job in motivating them. This shows the importance of motivating employees. In other words, a few people need a work that really satisfied. Employees may also appreciate the work they do, which could be reflected in the prestige attached to their job.
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Moreover, motivation theories can be broadly categorized into two main groups, content theories and process theories. Content theories of motivation explain the specific factors that motivate people, and include Maslow, McGregor, McGregor, McClelland and Herzberg. Process theories are concerned with the thought process that influences behaviour, such as the theories of Vroom, Porter and Lawler, and Adams (Hall, 2008). Maslow's theory includes two parts. The first concerns classification of needs. Meanwhile, the second concerns how these classes are related to each other. Maslow suggested that 'classes' of needs could be placed into a hierarchy (Griffith, 2008). This hierarchy is normally presented as a 'pyramid', with each level consisting of a certain class of needs (Hall, 2008).
Figure1: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
(Source: Tuffley, 2008)
The low-order needs was met and satisfied by employees, such as food, shelter, safety and security, love and belonging, and then self esteem. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs sample results show there are five steps for the employee. The base of pyramid is physiological need, which including air, water, food, shelter, sleep and sex, and then people want safety and security needs, such as, physical safety, economic security, and freedom from threats. Finally, self-actualisation shows that being promoted and given more responsibility, scope to develop and introduce new ideas and take on challenging new job assignments (Hall, 2008). It is a task that the superior who allocate to employee. In short, if a person feels that he or she was trusted by his or her boss, it is one of the ways of motivating a workforce. According to Business Know-how, there is an example of Graham Weston, co-founder and CEO of Rackspace Managed Hosting, who gives the keys to his BMW M3 convertible to his employees for a week. This creative way to reward employees has a bigger impact than cash. He says, "If you gave somebody a $200 bonus, it wouldn't mean very much. When someone gets to drive my car for a week, they never forget it." It means that if you trust someone, then he or she will be sincere to do work for the employer.
Furthermore, motivator factors are one of Herzberg's theories. Motivator factors are based on an individual's need for personal growth. When they exist, motivator factors actively create job satisfaction. If they are effective, then they can motivate an individual to achieve above-average performance and effort. Motivator factors include: status, opportunity for advancement, gaining recognition, responsibility, challenging or stimulating work and sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job (Tutor2u, 2010).
In particular, job enrichment and job loading can be used as strategies to motivate a workforce. Whereas job enlargement expands the job 'horizontally', job enrichment attempts to give employees greater responsibility by 'vertically' extending their role in the production process (Hall, 2008). There is some similarity between Herzberg's and Maslow's models. They both suggest that needs have to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated. However, Herzberg argues that only the higher levels of the Maslow hierarchy (e.g. self-actualisation, esteem needs) act as motivators. The remaining needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not addressed (Tutor2u, 2010).
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Last but not least, employers may swing between financial and non-financial theories to deal with some problems. To create a motivated workforce, employers need to understand why workers may lack motivation in the first place. The workforce could be lacking in motivation if a company has high staff turnover, low productivity, a poor workplace atmosphere will lead to a lot of employee grievances to deal with. All of these could be caused by monotonous work, lack of praise for achievements, individuals feeling ignored, little opportunity for advancement and a poor reward structure. I have a friend who sells CDs and lost money every year. In my view, the main reasons are high staff turnover and have a poor reward structure which leads to loss. After all, if a company wants to make profit it has to know about these solutions, which are demonstrating trust, showing respect, giving encouragement, valuing diversity and rewarding good performance (Business link, 2010). If assigned tasks, believe the staff can complete on time and show a detailed report to the employer. Besides, giving more encouragement to the employee when he or she can outstanding complete tasks for the company and bring tremendous benefits. In addition, employees can be motivated by employer without spending money, such as praise them more and give them more opportunities to exercises.
People spend most of their time at work, to earn more money and many of them expect they will a happiness time during job. Money may be important but it is certainly not the only motivation. Money is a short motivator because a manager can give a raise of their salary and probably the employees will be happy but after some time this compensation is seen as normal reward and doesn't contribute anymore to the happiness of the employees. Appreciation of their work and flexibility are often more important than money (Van Tongerloo, 2010). In brief, there are five methods which are strategic workforce solutions, compensation, benefits, development and career opportunities, performance and work environment. They are important and useful for employers.
Figure 2: Total reward strategy
(Source: Strategic workplace solutions, LLC, 2010)
To sum up, motivates a workforce is basing on provides a "fair day's pay for a fair day's work". The employees will want to enter companies which have low staff turnover, high productivity and a good workplace atmosphere. The most important thing is even if Maslow's hierarchy of needs is satisfied with employees, they will wholeheartedly work. A leader, who wants to be successful in career, must be master of the hierarchy of needs, and needs to raise payment or provide promotion opportunities to employees who contribute at appropriate time. This is the only way that business can keep useful people. In brief, financial and non-financial that is both beneficial forms in business.
Business link (2010) [online], Lead and motivate your staff
http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?type=RESOURCESHYPERLINK "http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?type=RESOURCES&itemId=1077346982"&HYPERLINK "http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?type=RESOURCES&itemId=1077346982"itemId=1077346982
(Accessed 14th March 2010)
Smith.G. (2010) [online], How to Attract, Keep and Motivate Today's Workforce
(Accessed 14th March 2010)
Tuffley.D. (2008) [online], A Life Well-Lived: a Guide to Self-Actualisation
(Accessed 13th March 2010)
Hall, D. (2008) Business Studies (Fourth Edition). Ormskirk: Causeway Press Ltd
Helium (2010) [online], How to motivate employees without spending money
(Accessed 14th March 2010)
Strategic-workplace-solutions (2010) [online], Leveraging total rewards during economic turbulence
(Accessed 15th March 2010)
Tutor2u (2010) [online], Motivation in the theory- Herzberg two factor theory
(Accessed 14th March 2010)