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The aim of any product or process development project is to take an idea from concept to reality by converging to a specific product that can meet a market need in an economical, manufacturability form. The overall development process starts with a broad range of inputs and gradually refines and selects from among them, creating a handful of formal development projects that can be pushed to rapid completion and introduction. (Wheelwright, 1992,)
The product development process can best be viewed as a "Development Funnel" (Wheelwright and Clark, 1993) The five phases in the process are as follows involved Concept Development, System-Level Design, Detail Design, Testing and Refinement, and Production Ramp-Up. The Concept Development phase consists of the identification of customer needs, the generation and selection of product concepts, and the selection of target specifications. The System-Level Design phase consists of the definition of the product architecture and the subsystem requirements. Detail Design is where the specifications for each individual part/component are defined. Testing and Refinement is then used to evaluate the proposed designs and concepts, and to develop the final specifications for the product. During Production Ram-Up, the product is manufactured using the actual production system, and then finally launched.
Most firms suffer from having far too many projects in their product development pipelines, for the limited resources available.( Smith and Reinertsen 1998) A robust innovation strategy, coupled with strategic buckets refocuses resources on high value development initiatives. Note that Gates are not merely project review points, status reports or information updates; rather they are tough decision meetings,the Gates become the quality control check points in the process-ensuring that you do the right projects and also do the projects right.
Today, both industry and academia view successful product development as an integrated process that must overcome many tradeoffs such as Customer satisfaction, time-to market, and cost reduction through total quality management are all important, but none is viewed as a guarantee of success.(Dahanand,Hauser ,2001)
Describe the difference between Active and Intelligent packaging and Provide a description of two examples of each.
Active packaging has been investigated for more than 40 years, or ever since passive packaging embracing oxygen and water vapour barriers became important to the protection of food and beverage products during distribution. The main purpose of food packaging is to protect the food from microbial and chemical contamination, oxygen, water vapour and light. The type of packaging used has an important role in determining the shelf life of a food. 'Active' packaging does more than simply provide a barrier to outside influences. It can control, and even react to, events taking place inside the package. (Regulation (EC) No 1935/2004 )
Active packaging employs a packaging material that interacts with the internal gas environment to extend the shelf life of a food. Such new technologies continuously modify the gas environment by removing gases from or adding gases to the headspace inside a package. (Active paper 30) i.e. You can also buy a can of beer with a' widget' in it that ensures a perfect head forms on the drink. The widget is a ball containing nitrogen gas at high pressure. When the ring-pull on the can is pulled, the pressure inside goes down so the nitrogen in the widget comes out and quickly mixes with the drink, causing it to foam and bubble as it is poured our ( 1RCS)
Intelligent packaging is packaging that senses a change in the food contained and informs you of it by something changing in the packaging for example some beer is sold with 'thermo chromic' ink which turns form white to blue when the beer is cold enough to drink :)(Betty Han Sand)In 'intelligent' packaging, the package function switches on and off in response to changing external/internal conditions and can include a communication to the customer or end user as to the status of the product. A simple definition of intelligent packaging is 'packaging which senses and informs', and nowhere does this generate a more potent vision than within the smart home of the future.
Fresh-cut produce continues to be one of the fastest growing segments of food retailing and while conventional film packaging is suitable for lettuce and prepared salads, it cannot cope with the high respiration rates of pre-cut vegetables and fruit, leading to early product deterioration. In the USA, novel breathable polymer films are already in commercial use for fresh-cut vegetables and fruit. Landec Corporation supplies Intellipac packaging films that are acrylic side-chain crystallisable polymers tailored to change phase reversibly at various temperatures from 0-68°C. As the side-chain components melt, gas permeation increases dramatically, and by further tailoring the package and materials of construction, it is possible to fine tune the carbon dioxide to oxygen permeation ratios for particular products. The final package is 'smart' because it automatically regulates oxygen ingress and carbon dioxide egress by transpiration according to the prevailing temperature. In this way, an optimum atmosphere is maintained around the product during storage and distribution, extending freshness and allowing shipping of higher quality products to the consumer.Self-heating packages, for soup and coffee, for example, and self-cooling containers for beer and soft drinks have been under active development for more than a decade, but have yet to achieve commercial status.
When considering the microbial quality of food products describe the two types of sampling plan, indicating the meaning of limits m and M in each case. (Two-class sampling plans/Three-class sampling plans)
Harmful microbes may enter the manufacturing process and reach the end product in several ways, e.g. through raw materials, air in the manufacturing area, chemicals employed, process surfaces, or factory personnel. It is also important to remember that about 85.96% of a bio film consists of water, which means that only 2.5% of the total bio film volume is detectable on dry surfaces. A biofilm consists of microbial cell clusters with a network of internal channels or voids in the extracellular polysaccharide and glycoprotein matrix, which allows nutrients and oxygen to be transported from the bulk liquid to the cells. Once a biofilm has been formed, it can be a source of contamination for foods passing through the same processing line. At present the most efficient means for Regulation 2073/2005 modernises and harmonises existing Microbiological criteria contained in numerous commodity-based EC directives to ensure they are consistent, based on up-to-date scientific risk assessment and relevant to consumer health protection. It also includes several new
criteria that apply to certain food groups and micro-organisms not previously included in Community legislation (for example criteria for pre-cut fruit and vegetables, powdered infant formulae, Salmonella on meat carcasses and Listeria monocytogenes in certain ready-to-eat food products).1.2 The Regulation establishes two types of criterion and requires that food
business operators take corrective action when these criteria are not met.
These two types are:
â€¢ food safety criteria which should be used to assess the safety of a
product or batch of foodstuffs; and
â€¢ process hygiene criteria which should be used to ensure the production
processes are operating properly.
In developing a sampling plan, a number of factors should betaken into consideration including properties of food, production processes,storage conditions of the final products, associated risks, targeted consumers and practical limitations. Each food product should be considered individually.
A comprehensive sampling plan includes the following
(a) The microbe or group of microbes of concern or interest;
(b) Number of samples to be tested (n);
(c) Testing method(s);
(d) Microbiological limit(s), m & M
. Acceptable (< m)
. Marginally acceptable (> m and < M)
. Unacceptable (> M);
(e) Number of samples which fall into each category of
microbiological limit (i.e. acceptable / marginal /unacceptable).
Under this plan, sample are taken from the lot and tested. As only one microbiological limit "m" is involved in this plan, therefore two classes of attributes, < m & > m, could be identified. The maximum allowable number of sample(s) that yielded unsatisfactory test results is represented by "c". The lot will be accepted or rejected.
For a three-class attributes plan, two microbiological limits, m & M, are set. The microbiological limit "m" commonly reflects the upper limit of a good manufacturing practice (GMP). The criterion "M" marks the limit beyond which the level of contamination is hazardous or
unacceptable. The lot will be accepted or rejected:(Food and Public Health Branch, 2003)
Describe the different types of packaging film and the advantages of using laminate structures over monolayers.
The process of extruding two or more materials through a single die with two or more orifices arranged so that the extrudates merge and weld together into a laminar structure before chilling. Each material is fed to the die from a separate extruder, but the orifices may be arranged so that each extruder supplies two or more plies of the same material. Coextrusion can be employed in film blowing, free film extrusion, and extrusion coating processes. The advantage of coextrusion is that each ply of the laminate imparts a desired characteristic property, such as stiffness, heat-sealability, impermeability or resistance to some environment, all of which properties would be impossible to attain with any single material.
"Coextrusion is another tool in the well-outfitted converter's tool chest," according to Bruce Foster, technical sales manager of Mica Corp.
"It provides better quality monolayer extrusion coatings over a wider variety of widths and line speeds; the potential to save on the amount of premium resins by filling with lower cost materials; and the possibility to make multi-layer, multi-functional structures in a single pass."
"The disadvantage of coextrusion is that some differences in physical properties that make a combination desirable also make the combination incompatible," says Gary D. Oliver, senior corporate scientist at Cloeren Inc. "Polymers for coextrusion should have similar melt viscosities to maintain laminar flow. Viscosity differences can be more or less tolerable depending on the location of the material in the composite structure and the thinness of the layer."
List the fundamental requirements of the BRC audit.
The BRC Global Standards scheme operates at a single level of certification for quality and safety and provides clarity for producers and customers. When first introduced, the BRC Scheme operated at "Foundation" and "Higher Level" to accommodate producers at different levels of quality and safety standards. Feedback suggested that this created confusion and varied interpretation among producers and certification bodies and the principle was difficult to explain to potential customers. The current single level of certification reduces this confusion and provides greater clarity for producers and their customers.
A Single Annual Audit
Based upon performance, the BRC Global Standards scheme generally requires a single annual audit. An additional 6 monthly audit is only required if the non-conformities at an audit exceed a certain level. This provides an incentive for producers to conduct an effective pre assessment and have the standards in place to enable them to perform well at audit, freeing resources to manage the business more effectively.
Focus on Management Commitment and HACCP
The BRC Standard places a heavy emphasis on Management Commitment and a detailed approach to HACCP as the cornerstones of an effective Product Quality and Safety Management System. Feedback from BRC's international network of food experts and discussions with CEO's of BRC Certificated companies consistently identify these as the major components in a well managed quality and safety focused company.
Detailed Requirements Aid Consistent Interpretation
The "Requirements" in the BRC Global Standard are documented to a high level of detail. This is designed to promote consistent interpretation of the Standard by auditors and implementation by producers, thereby enhancing confidence in the certification process.
Fundamental Requirements Drive Sustainable Standards
The BRC Global Standard identifies 10 Fundamental Requirements that are crucial to a sustainable Quality and Safety Management System; they help ensure the necessary practices are in place to help maintain standards of operation between audits.
Food Quality and Safety
Based on feedback from the international community, Issue 5 of the BRC Global Standard for Food Safety contains enhanced sections on issues of interest and concern to producers and their customers such as Allergen Management, Site Security, and Foreign Body Management. The Standard has also incorporated sections on Product Design and Customer Focus to help ensure safety is built into the New Product Development process and that the food safety and quality system is constantly reviewed in line with customer needs.
A Framework for Global Supply Chains
The BRC operates a Global Network of over 80 Certification Bodies operating in 90 countries. The availability of the Standard in 14 languages assists food businesses to implement the Standard throughout their global production facilities and relevant international supply chains.
Explain the meaning of 'Nature', 'Substance' and 'Quality' in the Food Safety Act 1990. Explain the 3 elements required in order to show 'Due Diligence in Defence'. (food safety act 1990)
Health and Safety Management is at the pinnacle of all our working environments, primarily driven by the media. The Health and Safety at Work Act (HASWA) of 1974 states 'It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all of his employees whilst at work' (Smith and Keenan). The following are some examples of the major duties and obligations an employer has to his employees; providing and maintaining safe premises, provide information, training and supervision, prepare and revise policy statements on the health and safety of employees. (Smith and Keenan) however, the latter does not apply to an employer with fewer than five employees. In addition, an employer must ensure that if the premises are open to others, and are not employed by him, that they are safe. An example of the former; Environmental Health News (EHN), stated that B&Q were fined £15,000 and ordered to pay £33,000 costs after several kitchen doors fell onto customers; B&Q failed to satisfy its duty of care to both employees and customers. EHN suggests that since 1996 B&Q have displayed a catalogue of events where the safety of employees and customers has been compromised, resulting in fines in excess of £650,000. In practice this type of breach is vicarious liability, which means the liability of one person for acts of another, for example in the case of B&Q, the employees where acting on behalf of the company, however, the individuals were not held responsible the employers were. Should companies such as B&Q be permitted to trade with such poor safety records? Or should the Government intervene and levy greater punishment?
environment. Breaches are usually motivated by financial considerations, asbestos has disappeared but its destructive path still lingers on.
Threats to Public Health are not new, the first Public Health Act of 1848, was passed in response to the findings of Edwin Chadwick (1803-1890). Chadwick's work predominately involved the amelioration of sanitary conditions, housing and the supply of clean water. In the 21st Century and indubitably in the United Kingdom, poor sanitary conditions have improved infinitely since the 1800's. Food Safety has become the forefront of the media's agenda. Under the Food Safety Act of 1990; 'It is an offence for anyone to sell, or intend to sell food that could damage your health.'(Sprenger, R.A.) This can be defined as; food that has been rendered injurious to health, or is unfit for human consumption, or that it is so contaminated that it would not be reasonable to expect it to be used for human consumption in that state. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) suggests that an estimated five million people across England and Wales suffer from food poisoning a year. Is this due to poor standards of hygiene and knowledge in establishments that prepare and serve food?
In July 2006, and still in progress, 'Scores on the Doors' was introduced into parts of England, this is attached to the Local Borough Council's website, and involves a star rating for every food outlet within that borough. A star rating summary is issued, indicating the food safety conditions at the time of the inspection, five being excellent and one being poor. Albeit still in its infancy, scores on the doors is making the consumer more aware of potential food risks and hazards within the industry. Furthermore this is helping to raise the profile of environmental health, and it has been suggested, that in order to improve the standards of hygiene in establishments, perhaps these scores should become compulsory display notices. It maybe questioned, whether the standards of hygiene would actually improve or if food poisoning levels would decrease in the nationwide implementation of this system. An illustration of a breach of the 1999 Food Safety Act, and of a lack of duty of care to the consumer was highlighted in; The Stuart hotel in Derby (also in the scores on the doors scheme) were fined £12,000 for breaches of hygiene regulations during a hearing before magistrates in September 2007. The inspectors found unacceptable conditions in the kitchens, and food packets in the stores were well past their use by dates. Evidence was also given that there were poor standards of supervision and training of staff, emphasising that monetary driven issues take precedence over food safety.
It can be concluded that Health and Safety Management, Environmental Health and Public Health are all interlinked in numerous ways, and are a major concern for individuals and society as a whole. Conversely, to move the industry forward, employers ought not to be driven by economics and the desire to make financial gain from taking unnecessary risks and compromising the welfare of employees. Furthermore if the Government were to distribute the penalties received, into the implementation of better education and training within the field, perhaps overall this would reduce the amount of litigious cases arising within the industry. REFERENCES
Provide examples of Supply Seasonality and Demand Seasonality and comment on the impact that these have on the use of manufacturing plant and employment status of employees. (e.g ice cream). Describe 3 examples of how flexibility can be introduced into manufacturing.
Demand is the amount of a product that consumers are willing and able to purchase as any given price. Supply is the ability for firm to provide for these demands of goods for the people. Seasonality means the changes in the season i.e. summer and winter. Some goods are said to be seasonal in that the demand for those goods tend to go up in particular seasons such as the demand for warm clothes during winter and the demand for drinks during summer tend to be high only during these seasons.
Demand and supply are linked together because an effect in demand will have a direct effect on the supply and an increase in supply will affect demand, the reason for this is the change it has on the market price.
Not all goods are affected by seasonal change only good that are made for specific season are affected by seasons. As mentioned above the demand for Jackets and warm clothes by summer will be very little or none at all. The problem that this causes is that the supply also has to be reduced. So much that these days when the market is very hard to be competing in seasonal goods are completely taken of the production line up to the time when the demand of the good rises again. This has actually been a strategy to cope with the change in seasons. By changing supply to match each season companies have managed to improve business and change about stock though each season. But this is when the market moves right into the season. But before the season actually comes in, if we were to take the example of winter before we actually come to the end of summer around September the wrong clothes will come into shops and the summer clothes will not come out straight away but the price for these goods will fall. In the same way as we were to approach summer just about this time of the year and then the price of worm clothes will start to fall. This is another strategy that most firms use to get rid of their last stock because next year the clothes will become out of fashion. A price decrease is made to sell the very last of the stock and so enabling them to slowly bring in more clothes for the season coming in. When these good enter the beginning to the season then the price of the goods will be much more expensive. Because these goods tend to be price elastic at this time the demand is high because people trying to get into the correct clothes so they can charge a higher price to get a higher profit. As the demand rises the supply will also have to rise. Most companies these days work very closely to the manufacturers if they don't manufacture themselves. In this way they can control the supply not to increase too much otherwise the cost of the items will fall. By keeping the supply under control to a certain good level then can carry on with that high price.
As the demand goes down towards the end of each season as people begin to get ready for the next season. Shops will have to devise ways in which to remove the excess stock they will be holding. This has to be a great problem because they have to remove all the outdated stock and get ready for the next season. What we call a sale is actually a very goods strategy for companies to deal with this problem. They put all good on sales at a lower price having a psychological effect on people when they see sale and people tend to by good at these prices. The companies not only succeed in getting rid of the stock but also make some money out of the whole process.
A new company will have the problem of seasonality because they will not have any pass experience to such a situation. This leads to the firm having too much stock the supply is bad, because the demand is low. So the company end up with a huge surplus of unwanted goods making huge losses.
This company and all the other companies have to carry out sales forecasting. This is very important as it will show them the change sin level of demand and giving the companies enough time to see the problems the will face in the change in demand and so plan for the reduction in supply. A time series analysis is very important as it will point out any seasonal fluctuations that are to be faced in the future, because the past figures will predict this trend. Once this has taken place and the trend identified the company can either increases stock levels or reduced stock levels accordingly.
The supply can also be predicted in a similar way, the manufacturers can be get their sales figures are predict the seasonal fluctuation and then after that decide on when to increase supply of the goods. So if a company predicts a rise in sales and demand by July. Then the company can increase its production so that it doesn't fail to provide correctly for the demand. In this way the company can also control is own levels of production. To maintain these methods during low demand time the company can divide the use of Just in Time production because it can make the good just in time for supply and reducing the chances of goods not being sold.
Because people know how the season work and the technology available to predict when weather patterns will change when it will be hot and when really cold companies can develop their selling patterns properly. Therefore the problems of seasonality have been reduced greatly these days. Sales forecasting has to be the major method is solving this big problem.
Describe Control Systems used in the Food Industry and by using examples describe their advantages and disadvantages .
The nature, sophistication of and results achieved by food control systems varies widely across countries. There may be differences in the way in which these systems are structured, operated and managed, the underlying principles on which they are based, the institutions and groups involved and the resources available. Generally, food control systems cover all the food that is produced, processed and marketed within the country. However, in some cases, there may not be a national food control system as such but rather different systems targeting different market segments. For instance, in some countries it is not unusual to find a modern and effective safety and quality assurance system that meets international requirements for food exports and has licensed enterprises Strengthening national food control systems: A quick guide to assess capacity building needs 5
using good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and GHPs to produce pre-packaged foods
for an emerging urban retail segment, existing alongside an informal food sector that is
subject to minimal or no food safety or quality control.
First, there are different types of control systems:
Digital, Computer, On-Off, Linear, Proportional, PID, Optimal, Rules-They all have specific advantages and specific disadvantages
There are some general advantages they all have, though:Precision, speed, recovery time, efficiency, less size and weight, repeatability, safety ... these usually translate into much better performance for less cost. Try positioning a 1 mm laser beam to 10 microns at the end of a 2000 meter optical path without a good control system. Try having a modern jet land on a carrier deck at night in heavy weather all by itself. And so it goes.And some general disadvantages:Strong technical knowledge to design well, more attention to safety (i.e. range, displacement, power, malfunction, etc), more knowledgeable service and maintenance staff.
Describe the difference between Open and Closed Innovation and discuss the market benefits of using an Open Innovation model. By means of three examples describe how an Open Innovation mindset influences 'Make or Buy' decisions.
SCM is a integration concept of all the value-creating elements in the supply, manufacturing, and distribution process, from raw material extraction, through the transformation process, to end-user consumption. ( Basnet etal, 2003 ). Chandra ( 2002 ) also describes SCM is a way of improving competitiveness by reducing uncertainty and enhancing customer service through creating relationship with suppliers and customers.
Make or buy strategies determine whether tasks are internal or external operations. But cost and capacity of organization shape whether organization should make or buy ( Gadde and Hakansson, 2001 ). Unless organization have no capacity to make by itself, it should buy from others. If buy, organization needs to communicate more than one suppliers.
Networked Innovation is a type of Open Innovation, a term coined by Henry Chesbrough (Ref.1). A firm that leverages external technologies and ideas for its own innovation is considered tobe using the concept of Open Innovation. This is in contrast to "Closed Innovation" in which companyrelies primarily on its own internal resources, R&D and others, to develop technologies andinnovations.A driving force behind the emergence of Open Innovation is the increasing difficulty in sustaining thestatus quo of technology and product development. The product life cycles are becoming shorter due to fast moving technology development and rapidly changing consumer preferences. At the same time, the cost of R&D is going through the roof as the technology requirements in new products increases, availability of talented staff diminishes, and degree of specialization increases. These three forces place pressure on the "profitability" of R&D. A model that relieves this pressure is needed. This new
model needs to have:
â€¢ Lower fixed costs
â€¢ Flexibility to rapidly respond to changing requirements
â€¢ Resources and processes to fill-in the knowledge gaps rapidly and efficiently
From the earliest food supply drivers such as survival and satisfaction of hunger, the food industry has evolved through phases, where the development of foods is driven by higher level consumer desires such as indulgence, conscience and more recently impact on health.
Whereas yesterday's food market was driven by taste and safety, today's consumer is driven by taste, safety, health and well being. This is an important shift which has pitched food companies into the Health and Wellbeing market. This is a competitive space occupied by agriculture companies, consumer product companies, biotech companies and pharmaceutical companies. It is a growing and fast moving market where the lines between food and medicine are becoming blurred.
Open Innovation is the term that refers to the current thinking that companies cannot afford to rely entirely on their own research, but should instead buy or license processes or inventions from other companies. In addition, internal inventions not being used in a firm's business should be taken outside the company.
Food companies are turning to open innovation to access the novel technologies, expertise and intellectual property they need from organisations around the world. Firms embracing Open Innovation use external as well as internal ideas in their research and development. They also use internal and external paths to market to capitalise on their opportunities. These companies are developing teams of people dedicated to connecting with organisations outside their own company to discuss innovative technologies and opportunities.
So what are the implications of this shift in focus, from traditional in-house R&D to open collaborative methods, for food research, nutrition and safety?http://www.cremeglobal.com/information/newsletter/vol2issue6.php