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Research suggests that motivated employees are happier at work. They get more satisfaction from their work, are absent less often, tend to be more loyal and work with more enthusiasm. This in turn encourages them to contribute more to the development of an organisation
Human resource management as we know it today also developed from a range of theories from sociologists, psychologists, and management and organisational behaviorists. One of the earliest can be traced back to the United States in the early 1900s with the development of 'time and motion' studies, which would find the 'one best way' of performing a task.
The father of what became known as scientific management was Frederick Taylor. Taylor replaced haphazard rules of thumb with precise measure principles. He was one of the first to emphasize the prediction of behavior and encouraged the use of training and other management techniques to influence work outcomes. Taylor identified the skills needed for a particular job and would hire and train workers to perform to the required standards.
Employees were rewarded with a 'differential piece rate' pay system that rewarded work output. Many managers took on the ideas of Taylor, often without the pay incentives. Although Taylor publicized his ideas as a success, the reality was threats of industrial action, redundancies and disgruntled management (Rose, 1975).
Taylor & Scientific Management
Taylor developed his theory of "scientific management" as he worked his way up from a labourer to a works manager in a US steelworks.
From his observations, Taylor made three key assumptions about human behavior at work:
(1) Man is a rational economic animal concerned with maximising his economic gain;
(2) People respond as individuals, not as groups
(3) People can be treated in a standardised fashion, like machines
Taylor had a simple view about what motivated people at work - money. He felt that workers should get a fair day's pay for a fair day's work, and that pay should be linked to the amount produced (e.g. piece-rates). Workers who did not deliver a fair day's work would be paid less (or nothing). Workers who did more than a fair day's work (e.g. exceeded the target) would be paid more.
If we evaluate what was happening in Telcordia in context of Taylor's approach then I don't think this fits well. No doubt Telcordia' s enumeration was at the top end of the market .Employees were rewarded all the time for their excellence but still most of the employees were still not motivated or happy.
This clearly indicates that Taylor's theory can't be a silver bullet of motivation for everyone. People are different and hence their priorities are. Money could be important factor of motivation for few but not for everyone
To my experience, money motivates only until we are out of the organisation this is why some people switch their job to the company offering higher wages. But once we are inside the organisation, after sometime the same high wages no longer remains the factor of motivation.
Unfortunately scientific management could not be a process which contributes to the development of people. It undermines their potential to take ownership of what they can do.
In Telcordia, staffs need to be encouraged to be creative and use ideas to contribute towards revolutionary change. Consequently, Taylor's view of monetary reward for output is not fit for the motivation required for this type of workplace and certainly it was not working.
Maslow's hierarchy of need is a content theory proposed by Abraham Maslow ("A Theory of Human Motivation", 1943). His theory consists of two parts. First part concern with classification of needs and second part relates these classes with each other.
He suggested that a person starts from bottom of the pyramid .When needs at one level is satisfied then need at next higher level becomes motivation for him.
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Maslow's theory however fits almost right in most of the organisation have few exception .The two main reason for the theses exceptions are:
The same need may mean different for different people and can be placed into different level into hierarchy. In contrary motivation factor for one could be demotivator for another.
In Telcordia most of the time employee has to travel globally on customer assignments. For few employees this is a factor of motivation as they see this great opportunity to travel around the world and gain multi country, multi culture work experience.
However for few employees see travel as a dark side of their job. It takes them away from their personal and family commitments. They hate their job when it comes to travel.
There is no method to measure when need at particular level is satisfied.
There are several examples in above context too. Few employees who initially were seen very excited about travel and had always found ready for it now no longer willing to travel anymore rather hates it. It was difficult to know precisely when this particular need was satisfied.
I will recommend following approach to be practiced with in Telcordia to motivate employees.
Physiological needs - Telcordia offers competitive salaries but there should be few performance related incentives/components.
Safety needs - Telcordia values the safety of all employees. Most of the people travel all the time. Travel policies should be made more flexible with generous allowance so that there is no hardship when people are performing their duties in a completely different environment.
Social needs - There should be frequent company get together and social events so that employee can meet and socialise when they are not travelling.
Self-Actualisation - Telcordia should provide employees with the opportunity to take on challenging and motivating responsibilities. For example, BU provides the opportunity for individuals to take ownership of projects. This enables them to develop their career.
Elton Mayo was the founder of the Human Relations Movement. His experiments were conducted at the Hawthorne plant in the USA during the 1930s. His work showed that taking an interest in and caring for employees can have a positive effect on employee motivation
Mayo suggested that employees are best motivated when they worked in a team rather than as individual. Also they are also motivated when their manager communicates and consulted with them on work matters making them feel their value and importance.
It was very prominent in the Denson survey result. Departments which were identified has highly demotivated were consulting division where employees travel most of the time to customer sited and work individually on their work package.
The only department where employees were highly motivated was customer support organisation where all employees were co-located and working like a team. Their manager was interacting with them all the time .,consulting and guiding them on their day to day work.
Based on these analyses I am in complete agreement with Mayo's theory.
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I will recommend both elements of Mayo's theory to be adopted in Telcordia. Manager need to to be communicating more with team and team member should be consulted more in the decision making process.
Manager need to take greater interest in employee's wellbeing and views.
Herzberg in his article ("One More Time: How do You Motivate Employees", 1960), published Motivation-Hygiene Theory.
Hygiene factors are often referred to as 'dissatisfiers'. These are the elements at the workplace,if not considered adequte by employees, could make employees unhappy, if such as excessive company bureaucracy or an autocratic working environment, quality of supervision etc.
Though motivation factors are those when exist create job satisfaction.
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However he pointed out that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not opposites.
The opposite of Satisfaction is No Satisfaction.
The opposite of Dissatisfaction is No Dissatisfaction.
Herzberg also pointed out that by management can keep employee motivated through job enlargement, job rotation and job enrichment.
In case of Telcordia Job enlargement cannot be motivational factor. As it was identified in Denison survey that employees were stressed and overloaded with work .In such scenario job enlargement could become de-motivator.
Job rotation also cannot be well received in Telcordia as an employee who is specialized in one skill cannot be equally productive in other areas. Also company has to incur extra cost on training if it has to implement job rotation.
However job enrichment can be proved beneficial for Telcordia and will help bring better performance to the workplace.
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I will recommend Telcordia to develop a number of motivating factors, to ensure that Telcordia is perceived as a good place to work and can be seen employer of choice. Awareness of motivating factors will help Telcordia to build a business that delivers consistently strong results
Flexible Working, job sharing allowing working from home, part time working.
Career breaks, time off for dependents, parental leave, maternity and paternity leave
Subsidized access to local facilities, Child care voucher etc.
Motivating staff helps to make them more committed to the workplace. By understanding the effects of different motivation techniques, Kellogg's is able to make work a more exciting and interesting experience for employees whilst creating a more productive, profitable and competitive business.
Vroom expectancy theory states that an employee's motivation to complete a task influenced by
E- (Expectancy) Probability that effort will lead to task completion.
I- (Instrumentality) Probability that task completion will lead to reward.
V-(Valance) Value attached to the reward
Vroom expectancy theory is very prominent in service industry. [IMAGE] demonstrate how a library service get influenced by VROOM's factors.
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In case of Telcordia, V Room theory was very prominent in sales organisation. Sales executives had guaranteed rewards attached to their accomplishment as per their terms of employment so they were highly motivated towards meeting their sales target. Same level of motivation was not seen in other parts of organisation.
Employee pay and benefit packages need to be reviewed .It should be re structured in such a way that there are more valued components linked to employee's performance and accomplishment of individual goal.
Process and Structure Change
Denison survey reported that Telcordia OSS and BSS products business units(BU) are plagued with all-round problems [Section xxx] ,which are posing immediate threats to the existence of company
SWOT analysis was done to get an insight on theses BUs and decide the future path to overcome problems.
Top management commitment for a change.
Committed staff and wealth of experience.
Cooperative organisation behaviour.
Lack of leadership.
Low morale, low productivity of employees
Low customer retention.
No fresh blood ( read ideas ) for last 5-6 years
No customer focus.
Demand for OSS/BSS products
Innovation and revolution in communication technology
IT outsourcing at customers end.
After detailed analysis it was decided that Lean IT is the best way forward as these problems are appropriately mapped with the Lean IT concepts to provide results. Lean is a holistic concept and a continuous process which requires serious commitment from the top management as in the case of Telcordia.
[Appendix ] describes the detail why LeanIT was selected
Management of change : Implementing Lean IT system
Implementing Lean IT at organisation level is a big change and such change always requires a change management process.
People love progress but dislike change. It is natural because changes are disruptive and brings up self-doubt. Even though our individual reactions to change may vary, we are all personally affected by it. We all have feelings in response to the change, including disorientation, confusion, and uncertainty.
Change does not occur in a straight line. It is a journey that flows through a series of phases as people come to terms with the change. The phases signal a process of renewal, a passageway from the old to the new.
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The difficulty in mastering change lies in the fact that we can't "program" ourselves to adjust. Human beings are complex and emotional, and some of the stress of change comes from a gap between what we want to feel and do, and what we actually feel. The gap will not go away by ignoring it, but it can be easier to take by recognizing and facing up to one's real difficulty with change.
An effective change management here comes into picture.
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One of the most useful frameworks in this area is Kurt Lewin's three-stage model of planned change.
Change Management (CM) Process Owner:
HRM function would own the change management process.
Monitoring of CM process
A task committee would be formed with representation from HR partner, Telcordia Leadership tam as well as from each business units. This task committee will monitor the change management process until the change become part of the organisation culture.
Change will be implemented in three phases:
Phase I : Unfreezing Prior to Change
Create a Vision for Change
Communicate vision, mission and value to all employees through corporate communication, email.
Install visual aids throughout office location to remind employee about these changes.
Introduce change in corporate stationaries like letterhead, corporate brochures, email signature and straplines, which would reflect the corporate vision.
Communicating a Plan for Change
Hold regular town hall meetings at to communicate upcoming changes.
organisation level by CEO : once in two month
BU level by BU head: once in a month
local level by VP :fortnightly
Communicate the plan for change so that employees are aware when and how the change will impact them.
Develop a Sense of Urgency
Communicate that change is important for survival of business.
It is important for employee to understand how they will be impacted if this change is not introduced.
Communicate that this change will bring opportunity for their growth.
It helps in developing sense of urgency if we keep the crisis front and centre
Individuals can see themselves as victims of change, passively responding as little as possible to what happens, or they can become change masters, anticipating changes and making the best of the ones that are offered.
At such times providing support to all those who are affected builds positive motive towards the change.
Allow Employees to Participate
Ask for volunteer from team level to participate help with implementation of changes. This greatly helps in developing the understanding about the change at grass root level.
Phase II: Executing Change
Continue to Provide Support
Appoint local HR representative to provide counseling to employee about the change
Establish a central helpdesk who can provide information and support to all those who are potentially affected by the change.
Keep on communicating about progress through emails and coporate communications.
Create Small Wins
Identify the area of quick win first and implement changes into those areas first.
Once quick wins are achieved then communicate these results through corporate communications.
These winning results would act as hygiene agents against resistance to the change.
These success stories will motivate employees towards adaption of upcoming change on the organisation.
There may be obstacles rooted in a company's structure, existing processes, or culture. It is the management's job to identify, understand, and remove these obstacles.
Phase III: Refreezing
Before making the change permanent it is important share the result and success stories with whole organisation .e.g. What benefit we gained from the change? How much value it has created? How much value it added to the organisation? Such ting would increases their confidence that the implemented change was a right decision.
First step- A town hall meeting chaired by CEO , to tell success stories.
Second step- Town hall meeting chaired by BU head -telling the success story of the change in context of the respective BU.
Next step- Publicize success story through corporate communication through internal electronic media.
Visual aid throughout organisation telling success stories.
Build on Prior Change
Push for even more change by reaping the benefit of momentum gained by success stories of earlier changes.
Reward Change Adoption
organizations may benefit from rewarding those who embrace the change effort
The simple act of recognizing those who are giving support to the change effort in front of their peers may encourage others to get on board
Make Change a Part of Organizational Culture
If the change effort has been successful, change will have become a part of corporate culture