Various definitions of management and the act of leadership



Management [8] is a process in which the resources available in an organization are used effectively to achieve the goals and objectives of an organization. The resources of an organization are of many types like employees, physical things etc. It is also a process in which an individual performs the act of management. The entire responsibility to achieve the targets or goals of the organization depends on the management of the organization. Hence management is the cornerstone of effective organizational performance, as the success of the organization entirely depends on the management. The management of any organization can be responsible for the, make or break of that organization. Many different people have defined management in their own perspectives. Some of various definitions of management are that management is an act of getting things done through others. Another definition of management is that it is an art of getting things done which was given by Mary parker. It can also be defined in the following "Management is the process of achieving organizational effectiveness with a changing environment by balancing efficiency, effectiveness and equity, obtaining the most from limited resources, and working with and through other people." This was given by Naylor who was one of the management gurus. This task of management is carried by the managers who take the responsibility of achieving the goals of the organization which are usually set by the top level management like the CEO, the founders of the company etc. Hence it can be defined in the simplest way as management is what managers do. Most of the times management is defined as art and most of the times it is defined as science. It is always better to define management as an art because management is the process of getting things done through others and getting things from others requires skills which are an art, hence it can be concluded that management is an art.

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There are many factors that determine the successful functioning of the management. In other words it can be said that many factors affect the successful performance of the organizational effectiveness. These factors that affect the successful performance of the organization are explained clearly in the preceding sections of this report. Some of these factors are:



Motivation of the employees

Effective training to the employees

Management of time


The successful operation of an organization majorly depends on how the communication is carried out either in between the employees of the same department or between the employees of different departments or how the communication is carried out from the top management to the lower management or the employees. It is also the ability of the management to transform the ideas into actions and words, to find the credibility of the colleagues, peers and subordinates. These skills also help in listening and asking the questions, improvement in presentation etc. These skills can be broadly classified into two main types at a workplace i.e. the oral and written communication skills. Fr the manager to give directions to his employees and to explain the process effective to the team members the oral communications skills are required. With exceptional oral communication skills the managers are also capable of praising the employees who have outperformed and they can also give talks to group of people in an efficient manner and also conduct successful meetings with their clients and counterparts. An important and integral part of the oral communication is listening. It is important because the managers have to listen to their workers as well as to their supervisors. Also a manager must always be hearing recommendations and complaints on a regular basis and thus he must be able to follow through the recommendations and complaints he has heard. A manager cannot become a good communicator if he is not a good listener.

The other way of communicating which is the writing, this skill is also required as the managers are expected to write letters, memos, reports and also statements of policy and these written communications must be written in such a way that the person receiving his communication must be able to interpret what is written and must be able to understand what exactly the manager is trying to say. This means that the managers must have excellent writing skills so that they are able to write it clearly and concisely. The only way by which these writing skills can be improved is by having a good knowledge of proper grammar and composition.

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Furthermore the communication skills can be classified based on the type of communication that is used at a workplace. Based on this the different type of communications are

Internal Communication

External Communication


This type of communication is most widely used communication which takes place internally in organization and provides the backbone of how the tasks of an organization are carried out effectively. Communication is generally between employees of same department, of different departments, between the top level management and the employees etc.


This type of communication provides the organizations a purpose. This purpose is nothing but the jobs or tasks that are to be carried out as only through this type of communication that the businesses are set up i.e. communication between the company and the clients.

Example where communication is given more importance: Kellogg's[1]

Kellogg's believes that for any strategy to become successful effective communication plays a very important role. Also it believes that it has achieved its success because of the way it communicated to its customers about its objectives which was a excellent way of communication. The objectives that were communicated were to help the consumers to "get the balance right". It used different forms of communicating to convey the message to all of its customers and that was "eat to be fit".

The means of communication that Kellogg's used to achieve the success was the typical types of communication within the organization and those were

The External Communication

As discussed earlier, this type of communication takes place between the company and the external world. Kellogg's being a large organization used many different types of communications with its consumers. One of the examples of how Kellogg's communicates with its customers is the use of Jack and Aimee which are the cartoon characters to communicate a strong message that emphasizes on the necessity to get the balance right. By using these cartoon characters Kellogg's is able to communicate the importance of exercise to the parents and their children. Also these cartoon characters are present on the cereal packets on the back side. Another example of how Kellogg's communicates with the external world is that it had made different types of leaflets to its customers which showed the importance of eating healthy food which was rich in calcium to make the bones strong.


As discussed, this type of communication takes place only within the organization. Kellogg's uses various types of communication techniques to communicate with its employees. One of the way as to how Kellogg's communicates internally is that it produces a house magazine that is distributed among all the workers working in the company. In this magazine details of getting the balance of the costumers and exercise of the customers in the right way are discussed. It also gives a detailed insight of the work carried out by Kellogg's towards the community and sports. Kellogg's supplied each of its employees with a pedometer to encourage walking among them. These type activities from Kellogg's have helped the employees to understand the objectives of the company in a better way and as to why they are created for this business. This shows how important communication is for a company.


Leadership skill [7] is the most critical management skill that has an ability to motivate a single or a group of employees towards a common goal. The leadership quality is the most important quality that needs to be present in a manager. If the manager is having a good leadership quality then he can get his entire team to be fired up and to follow his plans. Leadership skill is also just like any other skill that can be learned with some efforts and it is also a skill that needs lots of skills to master it. This skill is not any magical skill nor is it a gift that only some people possess while other people don't and it is also just not telling other what they have to do whereas it is a skill that allows the leader to guide his people to the right path to achieve any success. To be a good leader one has to have a clear vision of what has to be achieved. Also every good leader is made and he is not born with leadership qualities. One will become a good leader only if he has a desire and willpower to become an effective leader. Leaders are developed through a process of education, training, practice, experience and self study. In simple words Leadership can be defined as a process in which "an individual accomplishes the objectives and also directs the organization towards success to make the organization more coherent and cohesive by influencing others".

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There are two important things that determine the effective leadership in an organization, they are:

The satisfaction of employees in an organization majorly depends on the confidence and trust on the top leader of the organization.

The organizations confidence and trust can be won if there is effective communication from the leadership in the three critical areas of the organization. They are [6]:

The employees have to be supported so that they understand the overall business of the company

The employees have to be supported to help them understand as to how they will be contributing to achieving the objectives of the organization.

Information has to be shared about how the company is doing and also as to how that particular division of the employee is doing.

To do all these tasks the leader has to be trustworthy and he must be able to communicate the vision of where the organization has to go. Finally, a good leader I today's age has to have behavior's and attitudes that relate and characterize to humanity.


Some of the qualities that Richard Branson as a leader possessed were like he was a creative, fast moving, fun loving, adventurer, friendly, warm, risk taker and a workaholic entrepreneur. He was dropped out of school at the age of 16. It is then that he started his first business. At the age of 24 he was a millionaire. He is a perfect entrepreneur who is a brand builder. He acts as a driving force for his 150 to 200 companies that he owns. His companies operate in more than 26 countries. He is renowned among his followers as an influencer and having an ability by which he can create a common purpose. During his presence as a leader he has a different number of facets to his approaches and his personality and he has also used different styles of leadership and drivers. The growth of virgin empire under the leadership of Richard Branson has a number of trends involved in it. Some of them were to:

Survive through the setbacks and adversity.

He had a high belief in himself and was determined to succeed.

He was able to recognize his own weaknesses and his strengths and was supported and surrounded by people who could point out his weaknesses.

He had a strong sense of moral responsibility towards his employees at virgin; also he treated all his employees fairly and with equity.

All the above qualities from the leader of the virgin group, Richard Branson, resulted in the company achieving the goals and objectives that were set. Hence a good leader is very important for the successful performance of an organization.


The motivation can be defined as the combination of the desire and the energy that is directed by a company towards an employee to motivate him towards the goals of the company. Motivating others is to get others do a task that needs to be done. The motivation of any person depends on two main things. These are:

Strength of some needs: These are the basic needs of a person that have to be fulfilled first in order to motivate him towards the goals. These needs can be anything like food, clothing, job surety etc.

Perception about an action if done will help to satisfy the needs: This shows how important a particular task is for a particular time.

There are many ways by which the people can be motivated. Some of the forces by which the people can be motivated are the values, beliefs, fear, interests and causes that are worthy. A few of these forces are internal and a few of these forces are external. The internal forces are the values, beliefs, interests and needs. The forces that can be classified external are the environment, danger, pressure from a loved one. Motivation cannot be achieved easily as no one can judge the human nature; hence the managers must keep a open viewpoint about motivation. There are many complex forces that steer the direction of a person and theses forces can neither be seen nor can they be studied by any other person even if the same forces are driving two different people as the two different people will act entirely different for the same forces. Some of the ways in which the employees can be motivated in an organization are:

The needs of the team have to be allowed to coincide with the needs of the organization

Ever employee is concerned about the job security and promotion and many other aspects related to their jobs. Similarly the organization also has the needs of talented people in a wide variety of jobs. Hence the manager can always ensure that his team is well equipped with the required talent to advance.

Good behavior must be rewarded

Good behavior of any employee has to be rewarded in the form of thanks or a certificate or a letter of appreciation or by any which way which will make the employee motivated and make him work better. Though these things might look small but they will act as strong motivators. In addition the reward should be prompt and specific.

Set the role model

The manager must become the role model for his employees so that the employees develop themselves to be like the manager.

Developing the morale within the employees

Morale is the emotional, spiritual and mental state of any employee. Anything the employee does will have a direct impact on the organization. Hence the manager must be aware as to how his actions might affect it. Morale is sometimes defined as the spirit of an organization. It is the consciousness of an organization that allows the employees to be a part of it.

Every employee must be allowed to be a part of the problem solving and the planning process

By doing this the employees will be developed and be more competitive and will allow the managers to coach them and most importantly it motivates them.


Siemens believes that motivating the employees stimulates and encourages them to perform extremely well and makes them to put more efforts. The employees that are motivated are always happy about the workplace and they will be more productive and will produce work of high quality. There are many other factors other than food and shelter which the pay can provide that motivate the individuals. At Siemens, the employees are motivated by empowering them to improve the processes by putting their own ideas. It also provides the employees with the opportunity to learn new things and the opportunity to succeed and progress within its business. By taking these steps Siemens ensures that the employees are more loyal to the company and stay with the company for longer durations as all their requirements are met. This culture at Siemens clearly demonstrates that how important motivated employees are for the company to succeed.


Time in an organization can be regarded as the most critical factor for the successful performance of the organization as time is irreversible and is a constant. There is no substitute for time in an organization as it can never be regained. This factor can be even more fatal when the organization is related to services. Thus time has to be managed effectively and hence time management skills by a manager become the most important factor for the successful operation of an organization. Some of the ways by which time can be managed effectively by any individual at a workplace are:

The decision making process have to be ,managed and not the decisions

Only one task has to be done at a time

Priorities based on daily, short, mid and long term have to be established.

Unneeded things have to be thrown away.

Other people's time should not be wasted.

Things have to be kept simple.

When to stop a task or policy have to be known beforehand.

Example of a company where time management is done efficiently: SYNGENTA [5]

Syngenta is a plant science business company which is world leading which promotes sustainable agriculture by research and technology. At Syngenta time is of most importance as the results have to be measured at a particular time without any delays because if there are delays in the studies conducted then appropriate result will not be generated from the researches. Hence the staff at Syngenta has used the time effectively.

The above factors showed their importance in the successful performance of the work organizations. Similarly there are other factors that deteriorate the performance of an organization. There are many factors which act as obstacles to the organization performances. A few of the factors which are most common among the workplace environments can be explained as follows

Employees taking a number of leave either casually or due to some reason can be major factor that can affect the performance at the workplace. This usually happens when the employees have no interest in their jobs because they are less motivated. An employee taking a number of leaves clearly shows the signs of him leaving the organization in the near future.

Another factor can be that if the employees are not given the recognition for their work they will no more be interested in their work and hence the productivity will be decreased.

When the employees are overstressed by giving them more work than they can handle. This can be a result in shortage of employees or mismanagement from the managers.

All these factors will affect the organizations performance and will reduce the possibilities of the organization to be successful.

The organizations are continuously trying to change in today's competitive business world to compete with their competitors; this is in regard to a change that is organization wide. Earlier the changes in organization were small scale like adding an employee to the organization or changing or modifying any process. But the organization wide changes most of the organizations are undergoing are the changes that include the change in the mission and vision of an organization or it can be changing the objectives of an organization. This change is not done for the sake of a change; however this change is done to achieve or accomplish a particular goal. This change is mainly caused due to the external driving forces like funding cuts, new markets, to increase the services or productivity etc. This change can be done to evolve the organization to a completely new level like changing from a reactive entrepreneur organization to a stable and steady organization.

The organizations should not be going for the organizational change because there are many factors that need to be considered before undergoing the change. Also, change in the organization is the major step in the organization so it has to be analyzed before taking this step. As the outcomes of the change cannot be predicted, it can be either a successful change or it can lead to the destruction of the organization as the outcomes of the change are unknown. This type of change also goes against the interests of the members of the organization, i.e. It can affect the beliefs of the members of the organizations about how the things are to be done. Most of the time organizational change is related to culture change of an organization that includes changes in the values, beliefs. Hence it is not advisable for the organizations to opt the process of organizational change. Instead they have to look out for alternatives by which the change can be minimized to a bare minimum without affecting the values and beliefs of the organization.


After studying the different theories and practical examples related to these theories about the management it can be concluded that management is the cornerstone of organizational effectiveness and it plays a very important role and in fact can be described as the backbone of an organization. Also it can be concluded that management is an art as it requires many skills by a manager to do effective management in the organization. Also that management depends on a number of factors that include the positive factors and the negative factors. Every factor in the management has to be given importance as all these factors are interrelated to each other.

This assignment provided a clear view of the concepts of organizational behavior as it gave me an opportunity to relate the theories with the practical concepts. By doing so, I got an idea of hoe huge organizations are working and how they use the concepts of organizational behavior to be successful and to compete with their competitors. Also by doing this assignment I got an idea as to how the employees at any organization must behave themselves so that they can climb the ladders of success of easily. It should not a be a choice but mandatory to learn the concepts of the organizational behavior as the organizations tasks will be reduced if all of its employees know the way to conduct themselves at the organization.