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This is a discussion paper based on references from management books, e-journals and other resources taken from libraries discussing about human resource management functions link to Organisation Development and helps it stable operation. In this discussion paper, it will first of all discuss the main purpose of the report and also the defined the fundamentals of human Resource (HR) and also how it inter-related with Organisation Development (OD). Furthermore, it will elaborate more on the roles of HR to optimise the organisational development and describes the methods advantage for OD.
This discussion paper which basically talks about OD is aiming to improve organisational effectiveness by maximising the use of human resources. Organisational behaviour studies organisations from a multiple viewpoints, methods and levels of analysis and it is a growing behavioural science discipline which provides us a set of methodologies for accurately bringing up high-performance organisations. The goals of organisational development is to enhance effectiveness and efficiency and as well as opportunity for each individuals to develop and maximise its true potential.
2.1 Purpose of report
With the rapid economic development and 21st century information era's coming, as an important pillar of the economy, the modern enterprise and organisation in the knowledge economy to a people-oriented management principle have already become the rules of industry operation. Accordingly, manage and handle staff appropriately and effectively so as to prevent disasters occurring inside and outside the organisation such as strikes by unhappy employees which cost organisations large amount of money throwing out the drain. Hence, how to maximize staff's potential of the enterprise, greater efficiency the working and communicate has become an important issue of common concern for all level managers. Corresponding to this, human resource department at this time plays an important role, but also as a mediation sector to regulation the misunderstanding between departments in business management system. Human resources management as a discipline, its task is to analyse and clarify some existing rules, in order to increase production and create a more favourable working environment. This report will guide and help organisations to using the human resource management functions to solve different enterprise issue, in order to create a stable and efficient work team and environment.
Overview of Human Resource management
Definition of Human Resource
Human resource is referred to all activities that associate with the management of employee relationships in an organisation. It is concerning with the management of all groups in the workplace. Managers are referred to as "the basic resources of the business enterprise and its scarcest'' (Peter D, 1968)
Managing Individual Performance and Development
Traditional personal management has always been concern with individual performance within the given structure of work and employment. The main focus of it has usually been on the individual human resource (HR) practices such as selection and different training techniques. The cycle of employing and managing individuals includes trial techniques from the various job analyse of pay, appraisal, training and etc. (John P, 2003)
In order for organisation to work effectively and efficiency with its members, there must be an input to the organisation. The input will then be transform in productive output. In this situation, input means according HR's performance of the individual recruited or performance appraisal to training, to remuneration, and to other forms of rewards such as promotion systems (John P, 2003).
Managing Employee Ability - Leadership Training
A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards a specific result. It is not dependent on title or formal authority. (Wikipedia, 2010)
Levels and Types of ability vary enormously across the human population in the world. Research consistently demonstrates the huge impact of intelligence or general cognitive ability on performance (Hunter & Hunter, 1984). Other than intelligence, education, life as well as work experience make key impacts to a person's abilities. The process of tackling more challenging work develops their abilities further as well as increasing their value to potential employers and therefore enhancing their advantages over the others.
For the future organisational development, HR specialist should need to consider that the self-enhancement of senior managers. For example: offer some training courses to update their industry knowledge, or to provide regular funding for overseas studying opportunities and other incentive mechanisms, establish a knowledge circle of reserve personal in all different department, which are all good for organisational long term development.
Overview of Organisation Development
4.1 Definition of Organisational Development
According to a book called "An Experiential Approach to organisation development" written by Donald R. Brown and Don Harvey (2006) says that an organisational development comprises the long-range efforts and programs aimed at improving an organisation's ability to survive by changing its problem-solving and renewal processes. It involves in moving the organisation towards the adaptable culture to achieve organisational excellence by implementing the desires of individuals so as to improve and lead the growth of the whole organisations towards a greater achievement. Another definition of Organisational Development will be according to Warren Bennis which states that "Organization development is a complex strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of organizations so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges. Organization development is not anything done to better an organization."
4.2 Operation of Organisational Development
The following will briefly discuss the five key elements of organisational development identified by Richard Beckhard (1969):
manage from top
To increase organisation effectiveness and health
Through planning interventions in organisation's process using behavioural knowledge
Organisations must change so as to adapt to the current situation by using systematic approach and other collaborative intervention activities. It involves a large amount of changes to the organisation so as to provide work effectiveness in the system as well as to bring the employees to work cooperatively together so as to achieve goals.
In fact, both Human resource (HR) and Organisation development (OD) are helping the enterprise's operation at different aspects (internal and external). The factor is listed below in point form:
â€¢ People Matters
The essential element that is underlying the demand for growth of human resource (HR) and organisation development (OD) is the increase centrality of people to organisational success (Brockbank, 1999). The increased importance of people to the functioning of the way organisation do tend to relief the tension for OD which therefore remove the human concerns toward focusing on the financial impact of intervention. The focus on people will allow OD practitioners to concentrate on using human resources to work towards making buildings adaptable and functioning.
5. INTERVENTION PROCESS OF OD AND HR
5.1 Define Intervention Process
Organisational development needs to intervene human resource department in order to attract and retain its staff members. Intervention process are defined as "An OD skill used by OD practitioners, whether managers or OD professionals, to help work groups become more effective (Donald R, 2006). The main purpose of having intervention process in to encourage group members and work teams to be aware of the on-going operations in the organisation as well as to know the way how each team member works. The work group uses this knowledge to develop its own problem-solving activity (Leath Nathans S, 1995). It is best describe by Edgar Schein in Process Consultation as a set of roles for consultants to assist their client to understand and act as according to the process events that relates to the client's environment in order to improve the situation as defined by the client.
5.2 Continues Improvement Process
Many self-managed team works rely heavily on process interventions. Intervention process helps team members to become more independent and much more capable to solving problems by themselves without the help of managers. OD interventions leading to improve productivity, efficiency as well as quality, without doing this, the organisations will sooner or later faces elimination the reason being that many organisations are changing constantly in the way how they operate in areas such as culture, structure and technology. Total quality management (TMQ) is one of the examples that are widely used to manage quality and productivity. As stated by Donald R. in "An Experimental Approach to Organisational Development" (2006) the North American companies finds it that it is crucial to learn to manage more effectively and therefore TQM involves all levels of organisation in developing practices that are customer-oriented, flexible and very responsive to today's changing needs.
5.3 Diagnosis Process
Diagnosis is a systematic approach to understanding and describing the present state of the organisation. (Donald R, 2006) It is to gather information to specify the exact nature of the problem that requires a solution. Today's 21st century organisation faces with challenging global competition as well as regulations which turn to have created a huge uncertainty almost in every industry. Therefore an improvement of quality products must be enforced while cutting down costs. Here are the following diagnosis steps done by Michael: (Michael B, & Bert S, 1993)
Enhance the capacity of the organisation to change its working culture.
To provide an opportunity for organisational employees to take new insights into fundamental aspects of their culture and trend of behaviour as a base for the development of a more effective organisation.
To ensure that the organisation remains contently improving according to the change in the macro-environment.
Diagnosis concerns with the organisational process which includes team problem-solving, communication network, decision making, leadership and authority style, goal setting and planning methods as well as managements of conflict and competition.
5.4 Job Enrichment
"Employees at every level of an organisation are interested in two facets of their work-the quality of the work itself and the benefits or rewards the job offers (money, status, and so forth)" (Frederick H, 1959) This two quality of work leads to job satisfactions in an organisation. As stated by Donald R. in "the Experimental Approach to Organisation Development says that job satisfaction occurs when employees experience work situation that entail increases in satisfactory achievement, recognition, challenging work, responsibility and advancement." There are a number of techniques that helps to improve employee's motivational factors. These factors will be elaborate in point form so as to be clear. These are the followings:
â€¢ Adding difficult task to employees and provide appropriate training.
â€¢ Giving them empowerment which means giving them more authority by letting them to make important or difficult decisions.
â€¢ Having mates at team work and making a team to become specialized in an area or department.
â€¢ Giving staff members or work group to complete a unit of work which will help to practice specialization of labour.
â€¢ Removing the control of employers over employees however hold them accountable.
â€¢ Making information feasible to all employees in an organisation including reports without editing or covering up information. This is crucial especially when information given is related to employees.
To conclude, human resource management (HR) and organisation development (OD) are two individuals of interrelated and interdependent. In simple terms, an organization's human resource management strategy should maximize return on investment in the organization's human capital and minimize financial risk. Human Resources seeks to achieve this by aligning the supply of skilled and qualified individuals and the capabilities of the current workforce, with the organization's ongoing and future business plans and requirements to maximize return on investment and secure future survival and success. Human resources are helping and improving enterprise development from internal, through by employee selection, training, communication analyse, turnover and so on to integrate and analyse the inner workings, in order for the enterprise's stable development, then, efficient to maximise the business opportunities and profits from external. Example of human being, they are like the blood vessels and body, HR specialist will analyse various types of feedback and then delivered the blood (right staff) to all parts of the body (sector). As well in obtaining feedback, they will do a series of diagnostic for finding the internal problems of organisation.