Understanding the importance of methodology in studies

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Methodology is the central part of any scientific or empirical study in that findings deduced from such research can be replicated by other researchers who may wish to conduct similar investigations in years to come. For the research, the method of data collection in this study will be the questionnaire and interviews which will help me to statistically analysis the results of the questioners. The basic purpose to conduct this study is to examine the impact of motivational factors on the employees work performance and secondly the strategies that are currently practising in HBL to increase the motivation level of the employees in HBL. To examine the influence of motivational factors on employees work performance experimental design was used. The independent variable were Herzbergs theory factors. The dependent variable was employee work performance.

Sampling Technique

In the the research convenience sampling technique was used in which data was collected from the employees of HBL. Sekaran (2001, p. 225) defines a population as "the entire group of people, events or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate". Every employee within a company is different and, therefore, is motivated to perform well for different reasons. Due to the differences within an organization, it is important for the management to get to know their employees and understand what motivates their performance. The population for the research will be obtained from Habib Bank Limited In order to collect the data visits were made to the different branches of HBL and with the help of structured questionnaire data was collected. Our population was comprises of the employees belong to the different level working in HBL these level were senior officers, assistant managers and branch managers too .

Sample Size

A self-administered questionnaire was developed, and then pretested with a selected group of respondents to augment its overall design. Results of the pretest revealed minor instances of ambiguous wording (which were subsequently changed) and confirmed the expected completion time for the questionnaire. A sample size of 80 employees working in the HBL were selected for the analysis.


The instrument used in this questionnaire entails almost forty five questions which entail questions to measure motivational factors explain in the herzberg theory as well wants to understand the current strategies practices by the HBL these factors are:


An example of positive achievement might be if an employee completes a task or project before the deadline and receives high reviews on the result, the satisfaction the employee feels would increase. However, if that same individual is unable to finish the project in time, or feels rushed and is unable to do the job well, the satisfaction level may decrease.


When the employee receives the acknowledgement they deserve for a job

well done, the satisfaction will increase. If the employees work is overlooked or criticized it will have the opposite effect.

Work itself. This involves the employees' perception of whether the work is too difficult or challenging, too easy, boring or interesting.

Responsibility. This involves the degree of freedom an employee has to make their own decisions and implement their own ideas. The more liberty to take on that responsibility9the more inclined the employee may be to work harder on the project, and be more satisfied with the result.

Advancement. This refers to the expected or unexpected possibility of promotion. An example of negative advancement would be if an employee did not receive an expected promotion or demotion.

Possibility of Growth.

This motivation factor includes the chance one might have for advancement within the company. This could also include the opportunity to learn a new skill or trade. When the possibility/opportunity for growth is lacking or if the employee has reached the peak or glass ceiling, as it is sometimes referred to, this could have a negative effect on the satisfaction the employee feels with their job and position.

Company Policy or Administration.

An employee's perception of whether the policies in place are good or bad or fair or not, changes the level of dissatisfaction that employee will feel.

Personal or Working Relationships.

This is those relationships one engages in with their supervisors, peers, and subordinates. How someone feels about the interaction and discussions that take place within the work environment can also effect dissatisfaction.

Working conditions.

This includes the physical surroundings that one works within, such as the facilities or location.

Salary. This factor is fairly simple, the increase or decrease of wage or salary effects the dissatisfaction within a company a great deal.

Personal Life.

Although people try to separate the two, work and personal life, it is inevitable that one will affect the other.

Feeling a Job Security.

This is a pretty significant factor. The sense of job security within a position or organization as a whole relates to the dissatisfaction as well.(Ruthankoon, 2003).

Why Herzbergs Theory for Questionnaire?

Although there are many theories of motivation, there are only a few that that can be relevant and valuable in the work setting. Before settling on one theory to use in the analysis, I wanted to get a better understanding of some of the most familiar motivational theories. I have found that motivational theories have been categorized into two main groups: content theories and process theories. The content theories tend to focus on the needs of the individual, trying to explain the different factors that contribute to either encouraging or halting a behavior within that individual. These theories are also appropriately known as "need-based theories." Some of the more famous theories within this category include Maslows' Hierarchy of Needs Theory (1954), McClelland's Needs Theory (1961), and Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (1959).The process theories seem to be much more complex and delve deeply into the thinking process of the individual, trying to explain the "why" or "how" of motivation. These theories explain "why workers select behaviors and how they determine whether their choices were successful" (Hunsaker, 2005). They also seem to have more interest in the personal factors within the individual and the psychology involved in their decisions and motivations. Some of the notable process theories include Vroom's Expectancy Theory (1964), and Adam's Equity Theory (1965) (Ruthankoon, 2003).

Why Herzbergs theory for instrument development?

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory divides motivation and job satisfaction into two groups of factors known as the motivation factors and hygiene factors. According to Frederick Herzberg, "the motivating factors are the six 'job content' factors that include achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and possibility of growth. Hygiene factors are the 'job context' factors, which include company policy, supervision, relationship with supervision, work conditions, relationship with peers, salary, personal life, relationship with subordinates, status, and job security" (Ruthankoon, 2003). Basically the theory differentiates the factors between intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators. The intrinsic motivators, known as the job content factors, define things that the people actually do in their work; their responsibility and achievements. These factors are the ones that can contribute a great deal to the level of job satisfaction an employee feels at work. The job context factors, on the other hand, are the extrinsic factors that someone as an employee does not have much control over; they relate more to the environment in which people work than to the nature of the work itself (Schermerhorn, 2003). Herzberg identifies these factors as the sources for job dissatisfaction. Therefore, the basic premise of the Two-Factor Theory is that if an employer or manager is trying to increase job satisfaction and ultimately job performance for an employee or co-worker, they need to address those factors that effect one's job satisfaction. The most direct approach is to work on the intrinsic, job content factors. Giving the employee encouragement and recognition helps them to feel more valued within the company, as well as giving a sense of achievement and responsibility. Herzberg says, that "the only way to motivate the employee is to give him [her] challenging work in which he [she] can assume responsibility" (Leach, 2000). I think that this statement can be applied to any job within any industry. If the employee does not feel some responsibility associated with a certain task or department, he/she will not feel like their work is worthwhile. Also "people must believe that they are capable of attaining a goal before they will commit serious energy [or motivation] to it" (Hunsaker, 2005). Therefore, it is important to include your employees in the decision making and at times the job assignment or delegation. This will help the employee to feel more responsibility and in turn a higher level of motivation. On the other hand, employers need to consider the level of job dissatisfaction among their employees as well. To directly approach the issue of dissatisfaction in the work place and to try and revitalize the environment a bit, employers need to focus on the hygiene or job context factors. For example if an employer brings in an ergonomic expert to alter the workstations in some way or change up some of the work teams, they might decide to turn the individual's desk to face a certain direction or change something as little as the height of the employees' chair, or position or style of the keyboard and computer monitor. In the two-factor theory, job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are totally separate dimensions. Therefore, when trying to improve a factor that effects job dissatisfaction, an extrinsic factor, such as the working conditions, this will not alter the employees perception of whether they are satisfied with their work; it will only prevent them from being dissatisfied (Schermerhorn, 2003). Throughout my interviews and analysis, I would like to be able to address the different factors that the managers are able to work on directly and indirectly. Also, I am interested in learning simply whether or not the managers are aware of the differences the intrinsic or extrinsic rewards may have on the employee performance and ultimately satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

Measurement of Variables

Each of the independent variables and the dependent variable were measured in subsequent sections of the questionnaire. Demographic data were also collected, to allow the researcher to obtain a deeper understanding of the participants' responses. Variable were measured on likert scale rating 1 to 5 from 1 being strongly agree and 5 is strongly disagree. Furthermore for statistical application analysis questions were recode as 5 as strongly agree and 1 is strongly disagree.

Employee Work Performance

Subjects were asked to describe their feelings using Herzbergs motivational two factor theory. Using a 5-point scale, participants circled the number that represented how well the they are achieving their targets specified in their jobs. Multiple Linear Regression was used to generate the results. The Herzberg's two factor theory is renowned over the last 50 years and works as an important tool when companies are developing strategies with respect to HR practices.

Strategies followed by HBL

Strategies followed by HBL was measured by providing a set of 17 questions to the participants and instructed them to respond their views with respect to the each variable provided in the list. The purpose of giving the subjects is to study that on the basis of the variables given which variable would they thought that HBL do follow in order to enhance the motivation level among employees. The final set of dependent variables were selected after all the above careful consideration and it included 17 items and a bipolar five point scale was designed to obtain the degree of agreement of the respondent on the product placement. Thus the independent variables used for the study include motivational factors that have an direct impact on the employees work performance. A bipolar 5-point scale was used to measure respondent attitude about motivational factors. All the items in the scale were adopted from the Herzbergs two factor theory and suitable modifications were done on the basis of the practitioners' opinion obtained during the preliminary discussion with industry people. Few variables were selected to represent the employees evaluative and ethical judgements.

Motivational Factors

This was collected by providing the list of factors (derived from the Herzbergs two factor theory) in the questionnaire and asks them to check the responses from the rating scale of 1 to 5 showing their interest to stay or not to stay with HBL. This was provided to determine either what factors do employees of the HBL consider important to be a part of the HBL in future..

The final set of dependent variables were selected after all the above careful consideration and it included eleven items and a bipolar five point scale was designed to obtain the degree of agreement of the respondent on the product placement.

Thus the dependent variables used for the study include subject's attitudes about product placement, recall and recognition of brands directly after watching the movie clippings. A bipolar 5-point scale was used to measure respondent attitude about product placements. Some of the items in the scale were adopted from the scale developed by d'Astous and Seguin (1998) and suitable modifications were done on the basis of the practitioners' opinion obtained during the preliminary discussion with industry people. Few variables were selected to represent the consumer's evaluative and ethical judgments.


The main method of collection of raw data for this study will be an effective questionnaires and interviews which broadly deal with both the personal characteristics of the respondent and the area under debate mater of inquiry. The questionnaire is purely made up of close-ended questions. In line with the fact that the study population entirely are well learned employees,. the questionnaire were given to the employees of the Habib Bank Limited for completion. Since we were interviewing people already in management levels within an organization, we were instead looking to see how those managers choose to motivate and stimulate their own employees and whether those techniques are effective within the atmosphere of their particular organization.


The data which collected for the research purpose and analysis is done by the help of the regression analysis. Regression is used to study the impact of one or multiple variables over other i.e one dependent and one independent variable. The regression statistics was used to predict the dependent variable when the independent variable is known. The regression analysis on this study is conducted on Employee work performance treated as an dependent variable and Motivational Factors are treated as independent variable.


During my research for investigation in the field, several factors may serve as obstacles in the collection of qualitative data and as a result these could have a negative affect on my work.

First of all, obtaining information from the management (Zonal Chief, Staff Manager, Staff Officer, Manager, sub Manger, Cashier, Technical and non-technical staff.

Secondly, senior employees(i.e Zonal Chief, Staff Mnager) are always busy in their work due to workload, their response to the questionnaire could be slow and some may refuse to complete it.

Additionally due to workload and time restriction, some respondents may take their questionnaires home and eventually when it comes to collection some may say that they have forget it at home or have misplaced theirs. These can be overcome by reminding them either by calling them or mailing them.


Reliability of the questionnaire for analysis of the data is important. This information throws light on the internal consistency of the questionnaire and enables a more efficient design of this instrument by eliminating the least reliable items. (good but say how - piloting the questionnaire?) The benefit is an end product or instrument that is shorter, but has improved reliability (Carmine and Zellner, 1980). The questionnaire consists of questions that are demographic and socio-economic .The validity and reliability of the content of instrument is assessed by an overview of the items through pilot study. Initially, data was collected from 10 employees who are working in HBL. They give their opinions about the relevance of the questions and about the assurance of their formulation.

The reliability test of the instrument strengthened the validity of the instrument. The value of cronbach's α is .753 which is more than .5. That simply means that the questionnaire is valid in measuring the dependent and independent variables. Following table shows the value of reliability test.


Without accessing to organisation, its staff, customers, and or data, research cannot be conducted. I planned to prepare questionnaires and then handover them to the Habib Bank Limited employees based in London for my primary data. For this purpose, I have already contacted some employees of the bank and asked for cooperation and they agreed to cooperate in my research work.

As I am a member of The British Library and I am able to use it for my research .I am also using the local public library located in Tooting South-west London. The British Library has a enormous variety of books related to my topic on motivation and I found it very helpful especially for information on further reading as well. At The British Library, I can gain access to hundreds of books on different topics as well as develop the quality of my research skills. Kaplan has also given me access to the online website which is very helpful for all of us.


Doing research ethically is concerned with respecting privacy and confidentially and being transparent about the use of data. Data that has been collected in the researcher would be treated as a highly confidential and not to be disclose by any other than bank. The selection of the population would be equal as no preference would be given to the people belong to any ethnic group. The copy of the questionnaires will also be provided on demand of the bank.

Statistical Tools

In order to formulate the appropriate results Multiple Regression Analysis was used by the help of SPSS 17. All the tables were generated from SPSS 17.


I will use Gantt Chart in planning and scheduling for my dissertation.