Two Selected Organisational Structures And The Cultures Business Essay

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According to above structure Bellvantage has a functional based organisational structure where the levels of hierarchy are been categorised according to the tasks & jobs. Each and every employee has an immediate boss. So it is easy to keep an eye on the employees and manage them properly. The span of control is narrow in this company.

Since Bellvantage is a having a functional based structure, it is easy to identify and to analyse each and every employee's duties and responsibilities which they should fulfil towards the company. Their main focus is being on the call centre, they recruit employees who can work as a unit (Team players) in order to achieve the targets of each department. Also when having employees with similar specialties, knowledge and orientation at each departments; it will help to do their jobs efficiently while coordinating well with the colleagues. But having this kind of a structure, will lead into poor communication across the functional areas. Even the employees will have a poor view of the organisational goals.

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Even though the company has been departmentalised, all the departments are interconnected with the call centre. To run the call centre with the BPO associates, the company needs the assistance of the IT department. Without them no communication would be possible. Also the databases, and the servers are been taken care by the IT department. Without the Human Resources department recruiting new employees especially for the call centre, and making the salaries of the employees will be not done properly.

Meanwhile Vodafone has a geographical organisational structure due to its wide reach across the world. So the span of control is extremely wide compared to the Organisation structure of Bellvantage with decentralisation. And it is much easier for the company to handle specific regional issues in an effective and efficient way by having a geographically based structure. But the Superiors should be in alert, because sometimes employees working in a specific region might get a feeling that they are being isolated from the rest.

At Bellvantage, the company is implementing a role culture where each and every employee is specialised in whatever the job he/she is doing. The power of making decisions will only be limited to mangers. For an employee, if there is any problem regarding his/ her work; he/she should first inform it to the respective immediate supervisor. So then the supervisor will discuss the matter with the top management and will come up with a solution for the particular employee's issue. Or else, if the employee wants to directly discuss the matter with the top management he/she first have to send an e-mail requesting for an appointment from the top management. The culture of the Bellvantage is more towards the eastern side. Within a formal structure, the employees seem to be nice and friendly.

Vodafone has a culture which is more like a task culture. The employees are put into teams and they have to work in that group till they achieve their objective. For an example, all the best marketing people will be put together to do a marketing campaign in Asia and it will be a project for them. So till they achieve a reasonable market growth, they will be working together only to achieve that task there will be no other project given to them till they finish the job. Less priority will be given to the job description. Person with the most expertise knowledge will have the power.

The impact, the relationship between an organisation's structure and culture can have on their performance.

Since Bellvantage is having a functional based structure, it is much easy to carry out their jobs because the employees will be focussing on only regarding their department matters. And employees from other departments will not try to peek into their irrelevant departments. And the heads of each department will only have power over that particular department. So there will be no clashes between the management. Therefore doing work at Bellvantage will be easy.

On the other hand Vodafone is having a quite different structure and a culture. Vodafone has done the right thing by decentralising the power. Otherwise it would be very hard to manage a company with such a wide span of control. If they had the power centralised to the core management in its mother company, the decision making will take a lot of time. So the chances of going forward with new ideas will delay. And also Vodafone can't stick into one common culture because cultures and working behaviour will be different from one country to another. So to get the maximum out of the employees in different countries, the company should adapt into the cultures of each culture.

How the organisational theory underpins the practice of management

Scientific management

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Fredrick W Taylor came up with this theory, and what he said was that management should be based on well recognised, clearly defined and assured principles rather than sticking into hazy ideas. The main purpose is to cut down all unnecessary physical movement inside the organisation.

In both selected organisations they are implementing this theory. Both organisations have broken down each and every job into the simplest part, where the employees will be trained to do the job in an efficient way.

Classical administration

Henry Fayol's "Classical administration" is mainly focussing on the organisation structure. And he believes all the organisations should structure properly and manage well according to standards. This theory is one of the earliest theories of management. And now most companies do not follow this theory. And the standards he had set cannot be applied to modern world organisations. One of the standards is that a subordinate should only receive orders from one boss. This cannot be applied to the modern world businesses due to the high rate of competency.

Bureaucracy

Max Weber came up with the bureaucracy. This theory is also the same as Fayol's Classical administration Except for the procedures to reduce individual initiative. And in both Bellvantage and Vodafone, they have a higher degree of specialisation of labour to get the maximum out of the employees. The theory talks about the impersonal nature. The employees at Vodafone work full time while the employees at Bellvantage work full time and as well as part time. And also he talks about the uniformity of a work. A task should be achieved regardless of whoever doing.

Different approaches of management

Human relations approach

This mainly focuses on human attitudes, values and relationships. Even though Vodafone and Bellvantage use most sophisticated systems and components to do the work, if the employees doesn't know how to use them properly the job will be done inefficiently and ineffectively. So both the companies try to make an employee-friendly environment inside the two respective organisations so the human minds will have a positive attitude towards the company and they will do their work in an effective and efficient way.

Systems approach

This was developed at the Tavistick institute of human relations in the 1950s.

According to the systems approach an organisation had its boundaries. And anything which is outside the system is called as the environment. It also says all the departments are interdependent. Up to some extent we can say that the selected two environments are more into open systems where they are interconnected with the environment. Since Bellvantage is a call centre, they have to interact with customers outside the organisation and satisfy their needs according to the clients' wish. And Vodafone also deals with people outside the organisation directly.

Contingency approach

Contingency approach is about coming up with modern world organisations with new organisational structures. It will be effective if the managers do the right things properly to manage task, people and environment according to the organisation.

Section 2

Leadership styles

Many people have given various definitions for leadership. According to Buchanan and Huczynski "Someone who exercises influence over other people" is called the leadership.

Bellvantage have an autocratic leadership style where the decision making is made only by key the board of directors and a few by the senior managers. No subordinate will be involved in decision making other than the above mentioned. There cannot be seen any good leaders at Bellvantage because the task that most of the employees should accomplish is satisfying customer needs over the phone.so during the entire shift of an employee , he/she will be dealing with the customers with no interaction with the colleagues. So no leader will be born according to the work type of the organisation.

But Vodafone has a Democratic style of leadership most of the decision making is decentralised due to its wide span of control. Vodafone Company always seeks for innovative ideas so the management let the subordinates to come up with ideas in order to bring the company to a competitive position. Employees will be put into teams to do certain projects. So the person with a better knowledge and experience will eventually become the leader in that team, not the person with a better job description.

Leadership styles on motivation due to a technological breakthrough

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With the technological breakthrough which took place in last week, the

Section 3

Different motivational theories

Once again Buchanan and Huczynski say that motivation" Is a decision making process through which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate in acquiring them".

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow suggested that human needs operate at a number of different levels, from basic physiological needs such as hunger, to higher level needs such as self-development and self-fulfilment. Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory proposes that there is a hierarchy of five human needs as shown in the diagram given below.

Figure

Physiological needs

This is the lowest level of the hierarchy and in Bellvantage the workers are being paid reasonable amount as wages. Most of the employees are working over time because the rate that they pay for over time is comparatively higher than the other organisation. So the employees will be motivated to work more hours. So gradually the organisation's goals will be also accomplished.

Safety needs

The employees at Bellvantage are concerned about their safety at the workplace. And all the employees are insured under Continental Insurance. Even if an employee consult a doctor for a small sickness like fever ,cold or cough ; employee can still claim it from the co-operate insurance that the company has provided. So the employees will be loyal to the company and will not cheat at any cost given. Also the company is a sister company of Lankabell. So the employees will have the assurance of their jobs which will not worry them.

Love or social needs

For any individual social needs are most wanted. The company has identified the social needs of the employees and the management is working hard to give a better working experience to the employees. Bellvantage have many social events lined up for a certain year to motivate the employees. Examples: Having Valentine's Day programme on the day of valentine's, Sinhala New Year festival which is organised outside the company premises and so on.

Status needs

Not all the employees, but most of them are interested in status needs. At Bellvantage the employees are given the chance to become the "Employee of the month". Every month the management evaluate the performances of the employees and the one with the highest performance rate for the given month will be given the title "Employee of the month". His/her photo will be framed and hung on a wall inside the organisation with some cash reward. This is actually a silent motivator where all the employees will work hard to get the title under their name for one month with bonus cash. So when all employees hard, eventually the overall performance of the company will go high.

Self-actualisation

Space for self-actualisation at Bellvantage is not that high because the management do not motivate the employees to involve in decision making.so only the management will be satisfied with that need.

Herzberg's two factor theory

According to Herzberg, the factors that led to job satisfaction were separate and different from those led to job satisfaction. The fundamental factors that create job satisfaction were called "Hygiene factors" .When the hygiene factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied, but they will not be satisfied either. To motivate people in their jobs Herzberg suggested "Motivational Factors", the fundamental factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation.

Motivational Factors-

Need for personal growth

Hygiene factors-

Need to avoid unpleasantness

Challenging work

Company policies

Recognition

Supervisory practices

Responsibility

Wages/salary

Achievement

Job security

Personal growth

Work conditions

Work relationships

Usefulness of a motivation theory for managers