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* The integrated wholeness of the organism must be one of the foundation stones of motivation theory
* Such a theory should stress and centre itself upon ultimate or basic goals rather than partial or superficial ones, upon ends rather than means to these ends. Such a stress would imply a more central place for unconscious than for conscious motivations.
* There are usually available various cultural paths to the same goal. Therefore conscious, specific, local-cultural desires are not as fundamental in motivation theory as the more basic, unconscious goals.
* Any motivated behaviour, either preparatory or consummator, must be understood to be a channel through which many basic needs may be simultaneously expressed or satisfied. Typically an act has more than one motivation.
* Practically all organism states are to be understood as motivated and as motivating.
* Human needs arrange themselves in hierarchies of pre-potency. That is to say, the appearance of one need usually rests on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need. Man is a perpetually wanting animal. Also no need or drive can be treated as if it were isolated or discrete; every drive is related to the state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of other drives.
* Employees play a major role in success of an organisation, it is because of an employee's hard work and responsibilities which lead a business to reach its target, goal and to stand strong among their competitors.
* How important are the employees satisfaction at work?
* Employees are the strong root for a business survival, in any kind of a business among the whole world. It is very important for a business to be satisfied by the employees. As a satisfied worker does their work satisfy?
* How an employee could be motivated in an organisation?
* Employees cannot be motivated very easily unless they demand are given, this happens in every organisation among the world. Some employees are motivated for the money, some are for the position, some are for the place, and some are for the time. etc.
* Many theories explains about the motivation and many of them are varies from other.
* For example an organisation like Tesco the employees are always linked with the hierarchy of need theory. It's probably safe to say that the most well known theory of motivation is Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs.
* Self actualization
* As Tesco is one of the largest organisations in United Kingdom and Northern Ireland, which has thousands and thousands of employees working for them.* What would be the reason for Tesco to run successfully their business and survive within their competitors. Tesco's believe is there employees and the customers.
* How could an employee make a organisation like Tesco to be more successful and to be survive in within the competitors?
* Its all because the employees are given correct energy as motivation, same opportunity is given to every single person no differences in-between male employees and female employees, self respect is given to all employees , everybody maintain a good relationship with others .which is correctly said and described in Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.
· Physiological: includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs.
· Safety: security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
· Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
· Esteem: internal factors such as self respect, autonomy, and achievemnt, and external factors such as status, recognition and attention.
· Self actualization: drive to become what is capable of becoming includes growth achieving ones potential and self fulfilment
* Need no longer motivates.
* If motivation is driven by the existence of unsatisfied needs, then it is worthwhile for a manager to understand which needs are the more important for individual employees. In this regard, these are the main reason for employees to be more motivated in Tesco than other.
* As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied. The next need becomes dominant. In terms of exhibit the individual moves up the steps of the hierarchy from the stand point of motivation. The theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified a substantially satisfied Abraham Maslow developed a model in which basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfilment are pursued. In this hierarchical model, when a need is mostly satisfied it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place.
* Even though Maslow's hierarchy lacks scientific support, it is quite well-known and is the first theory of motivation to which many people they are exposed. To address some of the issues of Maslow's theory, Clayton Alerter developed the ERG theory, a needs-based model that is more consistent with empirical findings.
* As the Tesco employees are satisfied through the hierarchy of need theory of motivation. It is very essential for every type of organisations management team to be act with the motivation to get a good job from their employees.
* The management team should be fully responsible for the motivation of the employees.
* While Maslow's hierarchy makes sense from an intuitive standpoint, there is little evidence to support its hierarchical aspect.
Stereotyping means analysing a fixed image about a certain group of people based on the race, colour, and religion without having more knowledge about the person or community as a whole. Generalizing about people having limited or no knowledge about them can be misleading and unfair some times. Assuming about people based on their race, colour, and religion can be dangerous. It can be both negative and positive but it is unfair to judge people without having knowledge about them is unfair all the times as human mind can be complex all the times for example if at late night we are walking in a lonely street and we see two old men in coats and with sticks we will believe that we will be safe as we have a stereotype image that they will not cause any problem, women are talkative, all politicians are corrupt etc. Thus stereotype has very negative implications on a race, religion, humans etc.
MY OWN PRACTICAL EXAMPLE OF STEREOTYPING
I had been to US a nice and big country but when i use to meet people most of them believe we are from the third world country. One day I met a guy he was talking all bad things about India and when he came to know that I am from India he started saying that you are also from a third world country which has lot of poverty, corruption to name a few as he had preset in his mind about all Indians but when I explained him about the achievements India and Indians have made like going to moon, growing economy, third largest army in the world, one of the largest numbers of doctors, engineers etc he was shocked and then believed that India and Indians are not what he believed.
Halo effect can be defined as having a certain positive image of a person or product because of the tendency they believe that it good by not judging the negative things about the person or product. A common halo effect example could be when Apple released IPod people that that its Mac book sales would also increase as IPod was selling good in the market but that dint happen, so we have a tendency to believe that if a certain product of a company is good the other product will also be good without checking much about the other product.
PRACTIAL EXAMPLE OF HALO EFFECT
In the year 2002 Pepsi released a new drink in India called Pepsi Blue, as Pepsi was at peak with its Pepsi cola, Miranda and other drinks which were doing great. It released Pepsi Blue to have a more market share. Like most of the people I though since its other products are good this one should also be nice but had a very bad experience as it was too sweet and Pepsi had to withdraw it in 2004 as it had lot of complaints about it.
* An organisation is linked with many different kind of stakeholders and it is very essential for an organisation to maintain a good relationship with them.
* A cooperate stake holders is a party that can affect or that can be affected by the actions of the business as a whole. It defined stakeholders as those groups without those support the organisation would be ceased to exit.
Employee as a main stakeholder
* Employees are the one of the main stakeholders in an organisation who even helps a organisations survival.
* Employees who are in the internal list of stakeholders the organisation has more linked with the employees than the other stakeholders.
* In many organisations the employees are not fully treated well among the stakeholders.
* More work within less time, overloaded work to be done, the responsible is more to the employees than other stake holders, sometimes less wagers or salaries given for the hard work the employees have done.
* Employee as a stake holder could help to develop the organisations strategy and even make them to achieve the target or goals of organisations
* The employees can be a very useful source of ideas. They often have a good understanding of the impact of different activities, and how customers and other stakeholders feel about your business as they are more likely to interact with them on a daily basis.
* Employees can also be an important part of executing your plans, and may in any case want to help make the business more sustainable. It's worth considering training and incentives to encourage employees to support your strategy.
* Other key stakeholders include suppliers, investors and regulators. In each case, understanding and reflecting their concerns can help you develop a more effective business strategy.
* Technology is one of the fastest growing product in the modern world, many organisation has adopt there self into a technology wise organisation rather than manual man power in the modern world.
* Technology has helped many organisation to be more successful in the market and it also have changed their style of promoting a business since the technology start to rule the business world.
* The European industrial society is gradual changing into an information society. Not only will the use of technology be different in this information society, but also the use of work organisation will change. Suchchanges have an impact on the health and motivation of workers, as well as on the skills required of them.
The Third European Survey on Working Conditions provides us with an opportunity to analyse these relationships. The comparison with previous Foundation surveys delivers some insights into the development of our industrial society.
* Technology has started ruling the organisation from its to to bottom of the business , human resource , financial , customer service , production , marketing and many other section has influenced by the technology and started change their style of working through that.
Advantages of technology in an organisation.
* Time could be easily saved by using technology in a business.
* Works could be done easily and simply rather than writing it in manual an keeping in a safe place.
* More secure to keep all the documents in the system then in a usual place.
* Could help to grow our business to its highest level.
* Make the business more efficient for the customers and the Emerging technologies in an organisation
* Modern working environment are strongly based on technology ,
* Organisations are even doing their business through "click" system which can make thier customers easier to shop and do their business where ever there are through internet.
* Online shopping has vastly increased in United Kingdom and the Northern Ireland. It has given many organisations to grow there business not only locally but also internationally.
How Zamen restaurant used five star technologies to give customers a five star service.
· Zamen restaurant wanted one system that was quick and easy to set up, worked across multiple locations, and was liked remotely in order to stream line company communication.
* They had a solution for the problem the had. Cisco integrated solutions enabled Zamen restaurant to streamline communication between restaurant staffs, sales people and the main office using one centralised system. All easily connected with one cable connection.
* And then they had a challenge of secure their cash register and credit card information, protect confidential financial information, monitor tables and keep on eye on multiple locations after hours.
* The had a solution for this problem through Cisco, as they centralized the security solutions enabled Zamen restaurant to security transmit customer information such as credit card information's and other personal details . With a single VPN line and employ IP cameras to monitor restaurant through remotely day and night.
* Zamen restaurant had another challenge which they have to do upgrade their business make a good place for the customers to visit the shop and dine in. They had to create a better and more enjoyable dinning experience. They need to modernise their phone system across multiple location. Eliminate busy signals and upgrade its reservation system.
* Their solution for this through Cisco an IP based VPN connection from Cisco was offered and affordable solution. Integrating all calls into one internet based system helps ensure that every call is answered and more reservations are taken.
* According to Zamen restaurant the technology has done a fantastic work which they could increase their business capacity and make them a international hotel. In this case a technology is very most important than anything for a business. Zamen restaurant is in Netherlands.
"Technology should be our servant and not our masters"
* I would rather agree for this statement because the technology can only help a business to grow and make new modern products for the business but it cannot have a power to do a business.
* Every technology power need a human power to progress on it no technology works on it's on.
* Many supermarkets have self service machines that could help to reduce the amount of customers are queuing for the check outs but still the system needed a person for the help. It cannot make any thing by its own without a human power is implemented
* Technologies have made the work more comfortable and the business to expand it.
Disadvantages of technology
· More cost for the business.
· Only some business could afford to buy a long term.
· More skilled staffs needed to operate the technology with more employee costs.
· Opportunity for the employees to show off their talents is less.
* Sometimes could lead the business to fall under the break even point or even in the loss because of total expense increases.
* What is an organisational culture?
Organisational culture is what a culture is founded and brought up through the founder of that organisation. It is very essential for an organisation to build a culture within them and to maintain the culture till the end.
* Organisational Culture is concerned with how employees perceive the characteristics of an organisation s culture. Not with whether they like them. That is it's a descriptive term.
* Organisational Culture performs a number of functions within an organisation, it has a boundary defining role, and that is, it creates distinctions between one organisation and others. it conveys a sense of identity for organisation members.
* Organisational Culture facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than ones individual self interest.
* It enhances the stability of social system. Culture is the social glue that helps hold the organisation together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and do.
* Organisational Culture serves as a sense making and control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes and behaviour of employees.
* Organisational Culture is different from one organisation to another , one country to another.
· "According to Richard scholl a descriptive model explaining the roles and relationship of organisational culture and organisational structure in guiding employee behaviour towards strategic objectives. Using an information processing view. We propose that organisational culture and structure and direct the behaviour of the employees through the reduction of uncertainty and equivocality. Furthermore, we propose that differing levels of both culture and structural influences are implemented in different organisations type based on the skills, originality, and training required of the task being performed by members of the organization and based on the geographical dispersion of the employees themselves".
· Disney wonderland which is one of the most famous entertainment place for all adults and kids, which owned by an American, after the success of Disney in America, they started to open in euro zone Paris. American businesses make assumptions about the transferability of their business, management; marketing, economic and structural models of organizing which frequently fail to take into consideration cultural differences. An example of the consequences of such an approach to intercultural business practice can be found in the Disney Corporation's recent European venture, now called Disneyland, Paris. Lack of cultural sensitivity and the negative infiltration strategy used by the Disney Corporation resulted in a great loss of time, money and reputation for which the corporation has only recently begun to compensate. It is the primary thesis of this article that the initial losses experienced by the Disney Corporation may have been prevented if only its representatives had known then what they know now: simply put, that organizations are not distinct, separate entities capable of functioning outside their physical, social and cultural environments. That insight, of course, calls for a different approach to international business, one which begins with the most basic aspect of human organizations, namely effective, meaningful, communicative interactions between people.
* This could be a perfect example of case study which explains about organisational culture and it's important of it. This shows how important organisational culture for a company .
v Organisational behaviour
By s. Robbins , t. Judges, s. Sanghi
13th edition published in 2009 by prentice hall