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Leadership and management, Motivation and Communication will be the three areas of Organizational behaviour I will study within my assignment. I will discuss the challenges surrounding these topics linking them to everyday and modern day organizations.
Leadership and Management:
The first key area I am going to study is Leadership and Management, Peter Drucker believes that management is the central process through which organizations can achieve a common ground between the workforce and business activities.
Leadership and management is one of the many resources a successful manager must possess within the working environment. The main aim of a manager is to maximise the output of the organisation through administrative performance this mean that managers must undertake planning, staffing, directing and controlling. Leadership is a purpose that allows managers to produce goods and services. Management and leadership are both important roles as management helps to meet existing obligations and leadership provides motivation, inspiration, adaptation and change. Typically, the manager s role is to organize the workforce environment within the organization, they must make sure that they control the working environment according to rules and regulations. Management usually consists of people who are experienced, and have worked their way up the company. A manager possesses good technical knowledge and knows how each level of the system works. On the other hand a leader may not have experience and wisdom but may have new ideas to offer.
The Path goal theory formed by Robert House is based on theory of motivation. The theory is related to different leadership ideas that enable people in the work force to follow in situations surrounding the organization. The theory was developed to describe the way leaders encourage and support their followers in order to achieve the goals they have been set making it clear and easy to understand.
There are four leadership styles including, directive, supportive, achievement oriented and participative, these all have an impact or organizations behaviour and performance. The supportive style is basically designed for leaders who are willing to create a work environment in order to demonstrate support and show concern towards employees. The participative style means that decision making and sharing decisions within the group, for example, At Sweta Vajir, professional bridal services, her daughter would be given responsibility in absence of the manager i.e. her mother. Directive leadership is when employees are told what needs to be done with appropriate guidance; it includes giving them specific schedules and specific times for work to be done. This is usually used when the employee is inexperienced in order to increase security and control the situation. Finally, achievement oriented leader ship is setting challenging goals in the work force and self improvement. The perspective means that the leader shows self-confidence in the follower to succeed.
Figure 5.6 the path-goal model (John Bratton 2007, Work and Organizational Behaviour p5.6)
The four major perspectives of management illustrated by John Bratton are the political, science and practice perspective. The political perspective analyses ways in different political thinking within the workforce, for example managers supporting different parties would have different thinking influencing and building the organisational behaviour. The control perspective works towards controlling workers and their dedication to the job. The science perspective means that managers perform a set of general skills that are self regulating within the workforce, for example a manager making decisions without consultation. The practice perspective suggests continuous improvement within the workforce and to include science, political and control perspective in order to influence organisational behaviour, for example in IKEA the workforce is friendly and therefore management is more likely to be independent towards their workers whereas in a building society managers would be oppressive and firm as they have to handle information with confidentiality and respect which means that they will handle workers with control.
Figure 4.2 Four major perspectives on management (John Bratton 2007 Work and Organizational Behaviour p105).
The above diagram shows how managers can utilize the working environment and manage its employees and behaviour. According to John Kotter if a business wants to be successful and run in the long run then they must employ managers that are able to lead the company in an effective manner, he makes us aware of the three processes that separate a good leader from a good manager. The diagram below shows how a successful leader will run a business by visualising ideas for the employees to follow.
Figure 5.1 Management and leadership compared (John Bratton 2007, Work and Organizational Behaviour p134)
Leadership and management focuses on providing direction for the organisation. Leadership includes skills such as change, promoting, energising, inspiring employees and providing clear sense of direction. Leadership basically creates changes to achieve future dreams. Management on the other hand focuses on establish plans in order to achieve plans.
Another key area of organizational behavior is Motivation. Motivation is defined as a powerful force within the workplace and means difference between successes and failure, it is vital as organizations must manage the behavior of staff in order to gain minimum productivity. According to Bratton motivation is a cognitive decision making process. The first element of motivation is effort, it maximises potential aptitude of work that is appropriate for the job. The second element is persistence this is the effort put into work related tasks that are completed over a period of time, the third element is direction this is high levels of work produced in order to benefit the organization.
Figure 9.1 Examples of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators (John Bratton 2007, Work and Organizational Behaviour p250)
An intrinsic motivator is a person s personal desire to do something, for example a person may want to swim as a term of personal satisfaction without the thought of financial rewards. Extrinsic motivators are those that are applied by those who hold a higher position in the organization and include rewards such as bonuses and promotion. The diagram above shows that independence and challenging work is the most effective motivating strategy for a knowledgeable worker.
There are many theories of motivation that have been introduced; these can be classed into two categories, Content theories and Process theories . Content theories are having the observation that employees within the industry have comparable needs, whereas alternatively Process theories presuppose that the way workers think about their work situation will affect their behaviour. There are two key theories used in today s organizations in order to motivate their working environment, the first one being Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs this theory suggests that employees have five basic needs, these are shown in the diagram below.
Figure 9.2 Maslow s hierarchy of needs (John Bratton 2007, Work and Organizational Behaviour p252)
According to Maslow the self actualization needs is the ultimate motivator, it involves psychological needs such as water, food and shelter and directs behaviour towards learning as it s an avid need. Maslow also states that once a person is satisfied to one level in the hierarchy the need is then stopped and doesn t motivate that person, therefore in order to influence behaviour the need that is a level above will motivate that person. NatWest bank is a modern organization that uses Maslow s hierarchy of needs theory as a motivator to its employees. For example, a new employee would first begin at the psychological step which means that they would be satisfied at the fact that they have a job and an income to support them. This then follows onto the safety step which means that the employee is safe and secure within the organization and can aim to use their income as a power to manage their living conditions. The next step for the employee would be the social step as they will focus on moving up the hierarchical ladder, this is basically where the employee fulfils their needs to the best level moving towards non-monitory motivators. Organizations such as NatWest would offer bonuses and pay rises in order to maintain the workforce and motivate workers so they are focused on achieving success.
The second Key theory used to motivate the working environment is Alderfer s ERG theory; this theory is very similar to Maslow s hierarchy of needs however he suggests differences between needs and work motivation and believes that needs take place together. Alderfer believes that employee needs can be separated into three categories, these are Existence, Relatedness and Growth. Existence includes nutritional, safety and material requirements; Relatedness involves individual relationship between family, friends and colleagues, and finally Growth relates to a person s desire to develop within the company. Alderfer believes that all three levels might be important and is better to think of it in terms of continuum, therefore is employee growth is not fulfilled then inner frustration will begin to grow. The ERG theory suggests that there are strong relationships between the three factors, individual personality and performance intentions. Modern organizations use this theory to categorise employees to analyse which motivation tactic is required for each individual according to their job role and how their behaviour will be influenced. These theories can be difficult to apply in today s workforce as there are many factors effecting this situation including people having different motivation factors based on their own needs. It s challenging for managers in many ways as they have to take each point into consideration as each employee has their own specific needs which makes managers aware that if they reward one employee may change the attitude of others and therefore may have a negative effect on employees as they may feel alienated and not recognised by the manager. Managers within the workforce must plan out motivation strategies and take into account racial, gender and disability factors.
Communication is basically the process whereby information is shared between two or more people.