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Early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. These people were often from the aristocracy, as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. It also based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders.
We can include some leadership theories as per relevance, namely the Theory of Organizational Learning, transformational Leadership.
In recent years there has been a lot of talk of 'organizational learning'. Here we explore the theory and practice of such learning.
In order to start thinking about learning we need to make the simple distinction between learning as a product and as a process. The latter takes us into the arena of competing learning theories - ideas about how we might gain understandings. The former takes us to learning as either a change in behavior or a change in our mental state. To explore these areas go to:
The behaviorist orientation:
The behaviorist movement in psychology has looked to the use of experimental procedures to study behavior in relation to the environment.
The cognitive orientation:
Where behaviorists looked to the environment, those drawing on Gestalt turned to the individual's mental processes. In other words, they were concerned with cognition - the act or process of knowing.
The humanist orientation:
In this orientation the basic concern is for human growth. We look to the work of Maslow and Rogers as expressions of this approach.
The social/situational orientation:
It is not so much that learners acquire structures or models to understand the world, but they participate in frameworks that that have structure. Learning involves participation in a community of practice.
Learning in organizations:
As Mark Easterby-Smith and Luis Araujo (1999: 1) have commented the idea of organizational learning has been present in the management literature for decades, but it has only become widely recognized since around 1990.
Two developments have been highly significant in the growth of the field. First it has attracted the attention of scholars from disparate disciplines who had hitherto shown little interest in learning processes. A consequence of this is that the field has become conceptually fragmented, and representatives of different disciplines now vie over who has the correct model of organizational learningâ€¦. The second development is that many consultants and companies have caught onto the commercial significance of organizational learningâ€¦ Much of the effort of these theorists has been devoted to identifying templates, or ideal forms, which real organizations could attempt to emulate. (Easterby-Smith and Araujo 1999: 1-2)
The central template or ideal form in the 1990s and into the twenty first century was the notion of the learning organization. A helpful way of making sense of writing on organizational learning is to ask whether writers fall into one of two basic camps. The dividing line between them is the extent to which the writers emphasize organizational learning as a technical or a social process. Here we can again turn to Easterby-Smith and Araujo (1999: 3-5):
The technical view assumes that organizational learning is about the effective processing, interpretation of, and response to, information both inside and outside the organization. This information may be quantitative or qualitative, but is generally explicit and in the public domainâ€¦. The social perspective on organization learning focuses on the way people make sense of their experiences at work. These experiences may derive from explicit sources such as financial information, or they may be derived from tacit sources, such as the 'feel' that s skilled craftsperson has, or the intuition possessed by a skilled strategist. From this view, learning is something that can emerge from social interactions, normally in the natural work setting. In the case of explicit information it involves a joint process of making sense of dataâ€¦ The more tacit and 'embodied' forms of learning involve situated practices observation and emulation of skilled practitioners and socialization into a community of practice.
People will follow a person who inspires them.
A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.
The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.
Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed.
Developing the vision
Transformational Leadership starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a broad series of discussions. The important factor is the leader buys into it, hook, line and sinker.
Selling the vision
The next step, which in fact never stops, is to constantly sell the vision. This takes energy and commitment, as few people will immediately buy into a radical vision, and some will join the show much more slowly than others. The Transformational Leader thus takes every opportunity and will use whatever works to convince others to climb on board the bandwagon.
In order to create followers, the Transformational Leader has to be very careful in creating trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part of the package that they are selling. In effect, they are selling themselves as well as the vision.
Finding the way forwards:
In parallel with the selling activity is seeking the way forward. Some Transformational Leaders know the way, and simply want others to follow them. Others do not have a ready strategy, but will happily lead the exploration of possible routes to the Promised Land.
The route forwards may not be obvious and may not be plotted in details, but with a clear vision, the direction will always be known. Thus finding the way forward can be an ongoing process of course correction and the Transformational Leader will accept that there will be failures and blind canyons along the way. As long as they feel progress is being made, they will be happy.
Leading the charge:
The final stage is to remain up-front and central during the action. Transformational Leaders are always visible and will stand up to be counted rather than hide behind their troops. They show by their attitudes and actions how everyone else should behave. They also make continued efforts to motivate and rally their followers, constantly doing the rounds, listening, soothing and enthusing.
It is their unswerving commitment as much as anything else that keeps people going, particularly through the darker times when some may question whether the vision can ever be achieved. If the people do not believe that they can succeed, then their efforts will flag. The Transformational Leader seeks to infect and re infect their followers with a high level of commitment to the vision.
Finally, Transformational Leaders, by definition, seek to transform. When the organization does not need transforming and people are happy as they are, then such a leader will be frustrated. Like wartime leaders, however, given the right situation they come into their own and can be personally responsible for saving entire companies.
Strategic performance management:
It is defined as: the process which guiding the organization to takes place through the systematic definition of mission, strategy and objectives of the organization, making these measurable through critical success factors and key performance indicators, in order to be able to take corrective actions to keep the organization on track.
The strategy development process results in clear strategic objectives and action plans for measurable performance improvement. These are based on a thorough understanding of the key value drivers that are aimed at achieving a competitive advantage. Business issues that drive organizations to improve the strategy development process are the lack of focus of the strategic plans and the low quality of the strategic targets. The strategy development process often focuses too much on meticulously calculating future financial results instead of planning for value creation. Strategic plans tend to look inward, resulting in unrealistic long-term views that do not take environmental developments into account and that focus insufficiently on competitive advantage and true differentiation.
Armstrong's Performance Management theory: Performance is process by which is designed to improving the organisational, team and individual performance and which is owned and drives by the line managers.
This discussion about the nature of PM also highlights its role in achieving strategic
This purpose is captured succinctly: 'Performance management is a strategic and integrated approach to delivering sustained success to organisations by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors.'(Armstrong and Baron, 1998: 8)
Performance management and appraisal system:
The key issue is four in a good appraisal system and performance management.
1 Set objective:
The organisation decides to set the object and manage learning linked with organisation goals on the one hand and the career development other hand.
2 Performance manages:
Give your employees the tools, resources and training they need to perform well. If appropriate, set timescales for achieving objectives.
The performance of your employees can be monitor and assess' arrange the meeting with them and convinced for the future goals. Usually collaborative between management and staff.
4 Provide rewards: consider pay awards and promotion based on the appraisal and decides how to tackle poor performance. However, there can be dangers as well as benefits of linking rewards to performance.
Performance Management term is used to improve the team performance, on the based objective, performance, appraisals and rewards. However, it demonstrates in very different forms depending on whether the aim is to further improve good performers, or deal with underperformance. It can also apply to any type of individuals, teams, groups or organisations.
SEVEN, S is a model or framework for an organization to check their effectiveness and analysis it. Its helps the managers to find the difficulties of an organization, so that the organization problem find and a strategy can be make and implement.
The seven's model of organization is the model that can immune system of whole the organization and its all variables interconnect to each other they make change, effective and address many issue .
McKinney's seven s model:
Framework for analyzing and improving organization
Strategy is the plan of an organization to achieve the future goals. How cans organization achieve the future growth, the direction of the company set in the strategy.
Structure is the base of all organizational activities that is done by its member. His is the silent feature of the seven, s and interconnects with the office.
System is the process where the organization collects the information and takes the decision on the base of that information. If the decision is effective then organization can react fast and properly to change in marketplace. If the system is not to sting the company is on risk.
Style is represent the culture of organisation, how the organisation aggressive ,it is conservative, it is happy, it is innovative. All the organisation have its on style that is set by the leadership of the organisation.
Staff is represent the number of the people in organisation. How organisation develop employees and shape them to work. This is the human resource of organisation how to trine, motive, innovate them and how to manage them.
Skill represents capability and competency in the organization. To achieve the best results they can do.
Shared values is important unit of the seven, s it is interconnects all the unit in the centre. Its can represent the organisation behaves. It tell about the idea in which business build.
McKinney's seven s model
In the McKinney seven ,s model all Ss are interrelated each other ,so if any change between them its effect every unit. If all the unit aligned a business will be success , prosper, innovate, and move in the right direction. When these units are not aligned the business will fail, remain stagnant, reach maturity or decline quickly, or flounder about.
The balanced scorecard
No single measures can give a broad picture of the organization's health.
So instead of a single measure why not a use a composite scorecard involving a number of different measures.
Kaplan and Norton devised a framework based on four perspectives - financial, customer, internal and learning and growth.
The organization should select critical measures for each of these perspectives.
Origins of the balanced scorecard:
R.S. Kaplan and D.P. Norton -"The Balanced Scorecard- measures that drive performance". Harvard Business Review, January 1992
-"The Balanced Scorecard", Harvard University Press, 1996.
"Kaplan and Norton suggested that organizations should focus their efforts on a limited number of specific, critical performance measures which reflect stakeholder's key success factors" (Strategic Management, J. Thompson with F. Martin)
What is the balanced scorecard?
A system of corporate appraisal which looks at financial and non-financial elements from a variety of perspectives.
An approach to the provision of information to management to assist strategic policy formation and achievement.
It provides the user with a set of information which addresses all relevant areas of performance in an objective and unbiased fashion.
A set of measures that gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the business.
The balanced scorecard
Allows managers to look at the business from four important perspectives.
Provides a balanced picture of overall performance highlighting activities that need to be improved.
Combines both qualitative and quantitative measures.
Relates assessment of performance to the choice of strategy.
Includes measures of efficiency and effectiveness.
Assists business in clarifying their vision and strategies and provides a means to translate these into action.
In what way is the scorecard a balance?
The scorecard produces a balance between:
Four key business perspectives: financial, customer, internal processes and innovation.
How the organisation sees itself and how others see it.
The short run and the long run
The situation at a moment in time and change over time
Main benefits of using the balanced scorecard:
Helps companies focus on what has to be done in order to create a breakthrough performance
Acts as an integrating device for a variety of corporate programmes
Makes strategy operational by translating it into performance measures and targets
Helps break down corporate level measures so that local managers and employees can see what they need to do well if they want to improve organisational effectiveness
Provides a comprehensive view that overturns the traditional idea of the organisation as a collection of isolated, independent functions and departments.
EFQM/Business Excellence Model
The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) created an overarching framework that can be used to assess an organisation's achievement of business excellence. In the UK the British Quality Foundation promotes the model, now often referred to as the Business Excellence Model.
The model focuses on the key elements that sustain business excellence, five of which are enablers (what the organisation does) and four of which are results (what an organisation achieves). The model gives equal emphasis to enablers and result.
The five enablers are:
policy and strategy
partnership and resources
The four areas focusing on results are:
The model recognizes there are many approaches to achieving sustainable excellence in all aspects of performance. It is used extensively by large and small organizations in all sectors, often in conjunction with other tools and techniques.
Mission statement and statement vision
These two tools helps to find out how your company is, where would like to go, and day to day rules that helps the employees there.
My organisation mission statement is where the company is ,what is dose, where is does it and for whom .It can be provide largest view point of the company mission. My mission statement says why they exit, what is the core purposes of my organization.
A vision statement tells us what a company wants to become. Vision statement describe where ,where company headed ,where keeps they moving off. Vision statement is powerful and strong motivator.
Increase the level of engagement and commitment of the team members?
Five Leadership Skills that Increase Engagement:
that there are five essential skills that leaders must have if they are going to succeed in increasing employee engagement. They are:
1. Building Trust
Trust is an essential ingredient in increasing engagement. The first thing leaders need to know about building trust is that it does not happen just because you are trustworthy
The relationship between the employee and his or her immediate manager is a critical factor in how engaged the employee will be
Whether employees feel like an insider or an outsider also impacts on their level of engagement.
Engaged employees feel aligned with their organisation's Purpose, Values and Vision. Their work is meaningful to them because their leader helps them see the connection between what they do and the success of the organisation.
5. Team Development
Effective leaders understand the potential for significant increases in performance through high performing teams.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is a "content theory" of motivation" (the other main one is Herzberg's Two Factor Theory).
Maslow's theory consisted of two parts:
(1) The classification of human needs, and
(2) Consideration of how the classes are related to each other
How does the Hierarchy Work?
A person starts at the bottom of the hierarchy (pyramid) and will initially seek to satisfy basic needs (e.g. food, shelter)
Once these physiological needs have been satisfied, they are no longer a motivator. the individual moves up to the next level
Safety needs at work could include physical safety (e.g. protective clothing) as well as protection against unemployment, loss of income through sickness etc)
Social needs recognise that most people want to belong to a group. These would include the need for love and belonging (e.g. working with colleague who support you at work, teamwork, communication)
Esteem needs are about being given recognition for a job well done. They reflect the fact that many people seek the esteem and respect of others. A promotion at work might achieve this- Self-actualisation is about how people think about themselves - this is often measured by the extent of success and/or challenge at work
Maslow's model has great potential appeal in the business world. The message is clear - if management can find out which level each employee has reached, then they can decide on suitable rewards.
Problems with the Maslow Model
There are several problems with the Maslow model when real-life working practice is considered:
Individual behaviour seems to respond to several needs - not just one
The same need (e.g. the need to interact socially at work) may cause quite different behaviour in different individuals
There is a problem in deciding when a level has actually been "satisfied"
The model ignores the often-observed behaviour of individuals who tolerate low-pay for the promise of future benefits
There is little empirical evidence to support the model. Some critics suggest that Maslow's model is only really relevant to understanding the behaviour of middle-class workers in the UK and the USA.
Herzberg two factor t
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory is a "content theory" of motivation" (the other main one is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs).
Herzberg analyzed the job attitudes of 200 accountants and engineers who were asked to recall when they had felt positive or negative at work and the reasons why.
From this research, Herzberg suggested a two-step approach to understanding employee motivation and satisfaction:
Hygiene factors are based on the need to for a business to avoid unpleasantness at work. If these factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they can cause dissatisfaction with work. Hygiene factors include:
Company policy and administration
Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration
Quality of supervision
Quality of inter-personal relations
Feelings of job security
Motivator factors are based on an individual's need for personal growth. When they exist, motivator factors actively create job satisfaction. If they are effective, then they can motivate an individual to achieve above-average performance and effort. Motivator factors include:
Opportunity for advancement
Challenging / stimulating work
Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job
There is some similarity between Herzberg's and Maslow's models. They both suggest that needs have to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated. However, Herzberg argues that only the higher levels of the Maslow Hierarchy (e.g. self-actualisation, esteem needs) act as a motivator. The remaining needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not addressed.
Applying Hertzberg's model to de-motivated workers:
What might the evidence of de-motivated employees be in a business?
Poor production or service quality
Strikes / industrial disputes / breakdowns in employee communication and relationships
Complaints about pay and working conditions
According to Herzberg, management should focus on rearranging work so that motivator factors can take effect. He suggested three ways in which this could be done:
The term 'organisational performance' is used comfortably in three time- senses - the past, present, and the future. In other words, performance can refer to something completed, or something happening now, or activities that prepares for new needs.
Profitability, for example, is often regarded as the ultimate performance indicator, but it is not the actual performance. The actual performance occurred some time back - first with decisions and then the actions that followed the decisions. Profit is therefore an indicator of previous performance. In this sense, performance is the outcome or 'end'.
If you are also interested in current behaviours that are associated with good or high performance, then you must identify and assess them as they occur. These behaviours start with the strategic planning process and continue into implementation, monitoring and assessment. In this sense, performance is the 'activity' or 'means'.
Organisations are also interested in predictors of performance - conditions and behaviours that have been shown over time to lead to better performance. In this sense, performance is a package of behaviours around strategic planning and programming.
In other words, organisational performance is a complex topic that is not addressed by the annual financial report