Theories And Some Related Studies Of Job Satisfaction Business Essay


There is no doubt in saying that Ludhiana is the leading hosiery house of north India. Ludhiana did not become the leading hosiery house of north India in a day; it has taken decades. From the time of the Mughals or say before them, the people of this region engaged in weaving clothes. Today every type of agents, ladies and kids garments is manufactured in Ludhiana. The garments are found in up-to-date in fashion and shades.

Business inquiries over Rs. 600 Millions were generated using Garment-tech international Expo-2003 which is a sign for the changing national situation in view of the forthcoming dismantling of the proportion regime by the year 2004. The exporters & garment production's have realized that the only route for continued existence in the open marketplace is the technology up gradation or an mixture of the latest machinery. Ludhiana was the focus town. To face the worldwide threat, the domestic garment trade should show a united face and use this transition period for the up grad. Thus, we can call Ludhiana as the heart of hosiery in the north Indian region. 

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Launched in 1973, as a very small scale knitwear manufacturing company, the Osters Group of companies established Osters in the marketplace. Growing in fame each year, the group entered the worldwide Market by 1986 and established Osters in CIS Countries. Osters proved a successful brand once again. Their expansion over the last four decades stands testament to the will of their team and the leadership of their board. Here is the snapshot of Osters Group which started as new-fangled and today is as a successful company., Resources :

History Years


What do they produce?

Sweaters for men and women. Domestic home furnishing includes Bedcovers, Blankets, Duvet Covers and Quilts. Export home furnishing consists of Throws, Bedcovers, Blankets, Cushions, Duvet Cover, Fabric Material and Men' Trousers and shirts.

What is their infrastructure?

To produce a successful brand, they have remarkably advanced machines of worldwide famous Organisations like Universal, Stoll and Aries. In addition the world's most sophisticated machines, Machines, Manual, Quilting and Automatic Printing, Embroidery, Shearing, Raising , Stunter, Azer, Linking and Industrial Dry Cleaning Machine alongside so many others. These production services are available in five factories.

Their royal market & customers

They are pleased to inform us that among our high profile customers one of Target Corporation and Spring of U.S.A., Mother Care and Tesco of United Kingdom, Carrefour of France, Metro of Europe, CIS Countries, Russia, Ukraine, Khyrghistan, Turkmenistan, UAE and of course their very own Indian Market.

Strategic approach 

Osters Knit Pvt. Ltd. Continues to make products that are value for money and has created loyal customers who will settle for nothing else.

This company does believe that the buyer and the ultimate consumer must get the performance of the product, they have paid for. The quality should not be less than they spent but even more than they pay.

Osters Group of companies has a strong policy to make quality products. Precise regulatory & performance tests ensure that their product is accepted at the right places and time. Being in the home furnishing business, they know the value of functionality, comfort, color fastness, care labeling and above all appearance. They ensure the quality of product & shipment and adherence to ethical norms. Their focus is fast, accurate and friendly service with right quality products.

Their expertise

At Osters they have maintained very high quality standards through in house tab and metal free zone. Dedicated R&D block serves as the inventive engine of the company for which we even focus on customer's feedback. Their dedicated staff is well equipped to look after the flawless production process and on time delivery.

At Oster, they believe in Teamwork, and as Managing Director, They have been fortunate and honored worked with an exceptionally talented, proficient, extremely trained, hard working and innovative team that is determined to remain moving on the pathway towards providing their stakeholders with superior value & a better product than any of their competitor in the marketplace. Training, encouraging and developing human assets has been at the forefront of Oster Limited evolution. It is because of this savings that they have grown from strength to strength and being able to win the hidden trust of all their customers; because for them every piece and every customer are extremely important.

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In just 40 years, they have a very strong market presence and effect in all 28 states of India & 25 countries in 4 different continents worldwidely. As they continue on this trailblazing journey, every member of the Osters Team re affirms the idea that serves as the organisation's foundation- top of the line excellence and affordability produce in full fulfillment manufacturing amenities backed by expert and efficient customer service, because Osters Ltd. in 'the way of smart source of revenue'.,,

Environment friendly

Saving Water.

Modern Washing Machines with automatic dosing of Water and Chemicals to control the wastage of water up to the maximum level.

Rain water harvesting is practiced to return the valuable resource to nature (water).

They encourage Green Belt Area on Top Priority. We have acquired 5 Acre of Land and planted more than 3000 trees to ensure a healthy future for our younger Generation.

Water Treatment and Recycling.

Encouraging environmental improvements with the installation of modern E.T.P with automatic Chemical dosing, Aeration, use of environmental friendly chemicals.

They have dedicated team to abide by all the norms and standards of the state.

They have well installed and in practice fire Safety systems like fire Extinguishers, Manual Call Points, Smoke Sensors, Fire Alarms and Hydrant System.

The fire brigade is also placed on our unit to secure their unit against a Disaster.

There are effective worker safety trainings conducted to encourage for safe & secure working condition.

They have provided suitable Personal Protective Equipments and trainings to avoid any incident and conform ability of the workers.

They have also insured all the workers against any major accident. They have placed 24x7 Ambulance all their units. 

Organisational structure


















Design and Structure of the research

An investigation design is a plan that guides the researcher in the


Chapter one is basically the introduction of the research study. In this chapter I have included background and the purpose of the study.

The second chapter is of literature review in which I have included definitions and findings from different authors along with the relevant data from various articles, journals and books to support the relevancy of the all discussion.

Chapter three is about design and methodology of the research.

Chapter four is about data collection methods and the analysis of this data. In this chapter I have described the significance of primary, secondary and exploratory data research techniques.

Chapter five consists in-depth analysis of research findings based on the discussed issues.

Chapter six includes the conclusion of the research, recommendations for the situation along with valid references and citation.

  Objectives of the study

To find out staff job satisfaction level in Oster knit Ltd.

To study the staff perception towards the Oster company.

To find out the attitude of the employees towards their job.

To recognize the factors that motivate the employees.

To give some suggestion for the growth and outlook of the company.

Scope of the study

Job satisfaction is a important output that workers work for the organisation.

It comprises of extrinsic and natural factors and helps maintainable and agreeable work forces.

It is a very exciting and significant area for conducting research.

The study made on the topic of job satisfaction will expose the factor of feeling of the workforce.

This statement is useful to the management of the business to know the satisfaction level of workforce and they can take measures to increase efficiency.

This report may be helpful for management students for reading & may be helpful in preparing their report on the work satisfaction "In business concerns, community organisation etc.

Problem of the study

The particular topic was "a study of job satisfaction"

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It is said that satisfied workforce are a productive employee, any kind of criticism relating to organisation or person to a greater extent pressure on

the work.

So every company is given a higher priority to keep their workers with satisfaction by providing numerous facilities which improves satisfaction and which reduces happiness.

Job satisfaction is measured as a key matter by the tycoon where efforts are taken and programs are initiate.

If the member of staff is not satisfied with the job there are chances for low turnover,absenteeism, low productivity, commit mistakes, diverting power for separate types of conflicts keeping this thing in view all companies are trying to identify the area where satisfaction to be enhanced to get out the above danger.

In this association a survey was conducted on behalf of Oster to identify the level of contentment in terms of strongly agree to strongly disagree on a variety of job related factors.

Review of Literature

Review of the related literature

It has been estimated than since the 1930's, more than 5,000 studies of the job satisfaction have been published by behavioural research (Cranny, Smith& Stone,1992). Educational researchers have also displayed a substantial amount of interact in the study of job satisfaction (Thimpson, Mc Namara,&Hoyle,1997). The finding of the thousands of studies has varied, but among researchers, there appears to be general agreement on the definition of job satisfaction. Hoppock (1935) defined job satisfaction as the individual's overall feeling about the job expressed in liking or disliking.

Smith, Kendall, and Hulin( 1969) define it as "the feelings the workers has about his job." Spector (1997) has defined job satisfaction as the extent to which people like their job. Locke(1969) defined total job satisfaction as "the achieving or facilitating one's values". He also noted that one must take into account the congruence of these values with one's needs.

Maslow (1954) considered satisfaction in terms of meeting human needs. Vroom(1964) pointed that satisfaction arises from the product of a valence of work outcomes and the perceived instrumentally of job in producing these outcomes. In Dawis, Lofquist & Weiss (1968), satisfaction was the result of the worker's appraisal of the extent to which the work environment fulfils the individual's needs.

Lawler (1973) explained job satisfaction in terms of the difference between what people believed they should received and what they perceived that they actually did receive .Dawis (1984) opined that definitions such as the above are essentially similar and complimentary, although they may differ in their emphasis.

Theories and Some related studies of job satisfaction

Towney et al.(1999) theorized that from the early 1900s onwards there were three movements that shaped personnel practice in both industry and education. These advances lead to theories of job satisfaction .The first of these developments was the scientific management movement. Frederick Taylor (1911) , known as the progenitor of scientific management, emphasized concept such as each major task should be divided into series of small tasks, and then each of small tasks should be studied so that it may be accomplished in the most cost efficient manner. Further, the approach required an incentive system to reward high production and "punish" poor efficiency or production .Taylor's ideas generally are regarded as too harsh for today's work environment. The concept, however, remain as a foundation for many personnel system in industry and education.

The second development was known as the human relations movement. Elton Mayo (1993) studied matters such as employee motivation, work incentives, and working conditions. He also conducted the Hawthorne studies the effect of various amount of lighting on the employees. The study however , discovered that the amount of the illumination was of marginal importance, and that paying attention to the workers was the factor that yielded higher production, regardless of the amount of light. This finding is also known as the "Hawthorne effect."

Hoy and Miskel (1991) summarized other findings of the Hawthorne studies by noting that employees sometimes judge their production level by the social norms of the organization, rather than by the dictates of management .Also salary is not the only incentive significant to employees. Additionally, the employee's values, beliefs, and emotions influence behaviour.

The third development, the behavioural science, drew on both of the above approaches, and subsequently super ceded them. Some of the major theorists in this area included Hoppock (1935),Herzberg (1959), McGregor (1960), Likert (1961), Maslow (1954), and Argyris (1957).

It is noted that a fourth, emerging development has been identified by other contemporary authors such as Tyrell and Stine (1997).They have observed that organizations are akin to systems, and principles from the behavioural sciences are relevant to improving corporate culture and developing leadership approaches based on the understanding of human nature. In this area, the idea of Derning (1986),Peters and Austin (1985),and Senge et al.(1985) all emphasize cooperative and team approaches to problem solving .Some authors ,such as Kettl (2000), have opined that globalization trends will dramatically transform government organizations, operations and personnel interactions in the 21ST Century. The leadership concept of Senge (1999) and others are essential to meeting emerging human relations challenges in organizations at all levels and service area as collaboration and coordination skill requirements become more predominant.

With the above foundation elements in place concerning definition and developmental matters, the cause of the job satisfaction can be reviewed by observing some of the leading behavioural science concept. It the causation area. There is much less agreement. Various theories have been developed, presented and ultimately supported or questioned by others in the field.

Hoppock (1935) and Maslow (1954) are two eminent and conventional theorists that suggest that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction share a single continuum. Further, they reasoned that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors have the capacity to create satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Intrinsic factors include salary, working conditions, supervision and administrative policies.

Hoppock (1935) conducted some of the earliest studies about job satisfaction .In his study ,he concluded that if the presence of a certain variable led to satisfaction ,then its absence led to dissatisfaction. Thus, job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction shared the same continuum. Midway between satisfaction and dissatisfaction was a feeling of neutrality in which the individual was neither satisfied nor dissatisfied.

Maslow's work, which began in the mid-thirties, centred on what people need in order to grow or develop. the basic premise of his theory had two parts 1).needs are arranged in hierarchy based on their dominance, and 2).the less dominant needs will not be desired or even sought until the more dominant needs are met (Locke,1976).In other words ,once a need is generally satisfied, others surface in a predictable manner (Kreitner.1983).

Maslow's hierarchy consists of five levels. At the lowest level (the most dominant of the five) are the physiological needs, those which the body needs to stay alive or survive. These include air, food, water and sleep. Maslow(1954) noted that because these are the most basic of all needs, they must be met before any of others will emerge.HR reasoned that if a person lacks everything in life, food is what that person will certainly seek. These base needs are what enable us to survive, so if they are unmet, nothing else matters (Kreitner 1983).

Once psychological needs are essentially met, then second level needs, which Maslow named safety needs, emerge. Safety from physical harm, the elements, enemies, the unexpected, and economic hardship all are categorized here. As most adults in our culture have these needs fulfilled, Maslow pointed to neurotic individuals as exam plus of those who lack them. These neurotic adults often fear the unknown, and they act as though catastrophe is always near (Maslow 1954).

With survival and safety needs fulfilled the needs for love, affection and a sense of belonging arise. At this level people strongly desire to be part of a group and will labour to attain and retain status. Maslow (1954) emphasized that this need for love is not synonymous with the need for sex, which is physiological need. The need is not fulfilled unless love is given as well as received.

The fourth level need is desire for esteem. Maslow subdivided esteem needs into two categories. The first has to do with achievement, mastery and competence. Those with self esteem have a sense of worth, self confidence and usefulness. Those without it feel weak, helpless and inferior. Because Maslow(1954) believed that such esteem necessarily needed to be based on real competence rather than the perception of others he regarded deserved respect rather than celebrity as the "most stable and therefore most healthy self esteem."

At the apex of Maslow's hierarchy is the need for the self actualization. Maslow argued that if even all the other needs were met, an individual might not be content unless the person is doing that which he or she was meant to do.

Lawler (1973) pointed out that in later revision of this theory, Maslow proposed that the notion of a need decreasing when it was sufficiently satisfied holds true until the self actualization level is reached. At that level, the opposite occurs. In other words, increase satisfaction leads to increase motivation, increase desire for the need to be more fully met. Indeed Porter's1964 study (cited in Lawler,1973) concluded that manager rated self-actualization as their highest need, and evidence exist of workers changing jobs only to further develop themselves (Lawler,1973).This supports Maslow's revised thesis.

Despite its wide acceptance and continued use, Maslow's theory has many critics. Scheider and Alderfer (1973) were critical of the theory because the lack of empirical proof to support the existence of a hierarchy or even or some of the needs themselves. Hall and Nougaim's study (cited in Kreitner .1983 and Locke.1976) which attempted to test the theory found little support for it.Argyris(1964) opined that job satisfaction increased as the job's status level increased. He stated that; "we can infer that the higher up the organisation ladder and /or the greater the professionalism, The higher probability that people will report intrinsic work satisfaction." Centres and Bugental's(1996) study revealed that workers in higher level jobs appeared to have a large interest in fulfilling higher order needs. Chambers (1999) in a study of 459 women in private sector Company found that women at executives level had greater overall job satisfaction than those at (lower) managerial level.

Lawler (1973) concluded that beyond the first two levels in the hierarchy, "which higher-order needs come into play after the lower ones are satisfied and in what order they will come into play cannot be predicted. If anything, it seems that most people are simultaneously motivated by several of the same -level needs." Furthermore, he pointed to his own 1971 study to illustrate that certain outcomes, such as money, can satisfy psychological needs as well as safety and esteem needs. However, Locke (1976) was even more critical of Maslow's work for these reasons.

Maslow did not prove that the needs exist and confusingly combines needs as diverse as safety from physical harm and freedom from economic hardship in the same category.

Maslow's definition of self -actualization was weak at best because a person cannot become more and more than the person already is and because to become everything a person is capable of becoming is impossible, since people can become any number of things.

Maslow confused needs and values. Needs are, by definition, universal, while what people value varies from person to person and culture to culture.

Maslow confused action and desire by sometimes saying met needs lead one to act while at others times staying they lead only to a desire to act.

Maslow (1954) claimed that " a satisfied need is not a motivator. But needs are rarely permanently fulfilled, So they must be satisfied again and again."

Despite this criticism, Maslow's theort was, and is, one of the most significant influences on motivation research in organization .The other is Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation.

In 1957 Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson and Campbell published a review of existing literature on job satisfaction. The primary authors characterized the existing literature as "disappointing to fruit full theorizing" (Herzberg et at ,1959).Their book entitled the motivation to work was intended to answer this lack. They utilized Flanagan's (1954) .Critical incidents method to determine a respondent's psychological state during on-the job event.

The respondent were 200 accountant and engineers in a study done by the authors .Herzberg and his association found that certain events were frequently associated with satisfaction while others event were more frequently associated into two categories which they called "hygiene factors were described as follows:

When feelings of unhappiness were reported, they were not associated with the job itself but with conditions that surrounds the doing of the job...when there are deleterious factors in the context of the job, they serve to remove the impediments to positive job attitudes. When hygiene factors deteriorate to a level below that which the employee considers acceptable, then job dissatisfaction ensues. (Herzberg et al., 1959.p.113)

Herzberg labelled extrinsic factors as hygiene factors because the factors are used for preventing job dissatisfaction, an analogy to the concept of preventive medicine (Iiacqua,et al.,1995)

Motivation factors as seen as those which satisfy the person's need for self actualization .Cummings and ElSalmi (1968) characterized these as "feelings that the individual has regarding the content of his job. They reflect the individuals active search for psychological growth." In stark contrast to the Hoppock continuum related to the presence or absence of motivators. Depending on the motivators , a person could move from neutrally satisfied (no particular feeling one way or the other-"no job satisfaction")at the extreme left of the continuum to total "job satisfaction" at the extreme right. The second continuum used hygiene items to describe in a parallel manner the concept of dissatisfaction , moving from neutrally dissatisfaction on the extreme left (i, e, "no job dissatisfaction") to total "job dissatisfaction" on the far right. Newstrom & Davis (1977) developed a similar depiction of Herzberg's theory.

By using this two factor description, Herzberg was able to secure much richer description of worker attitudes. His model offered the ability to quantify and explain worker dissonance related to the changes possible when an investigator charted either presence or absence to answer the question, "why I both am intensely satisfies and painfully dissatisfied at the same time"?

The six motivators or satisfiers identifies by Herzberg et al (1959) and Herzberg (1966) correspond to Maslow's higher order needs of esteem and self-actualization and are composed move the following:

1. Achievment include successful completion of the job, solution or problem, vindication and seeing the result of one's work.

2. Recognition is any act by supervisor, management personnel, client, peer, colleague or the general public that is perceived by the worker as a source of feeling of recognition. It can include both praise and blame and therefore encompass both positive and negative recognition.

3. Work itself refers to the actual doing of the job or the task of the job as a source of good or bad feelings. The work can be routine or varied, creative or stultifying, overly easy or overly difficult. Each of these conditions can contribute to or detract from satisfaction.

4. Responsibilty factors include personal authority for one's own work or the work of others. Issues related to " insufficient authority to carry out one's assignment" is classified under policy issues rather the responsibilities.

5. Advancement refers to actual changes in the status or position of an individual in an organisation. It also includes the probability of or hope of advancement.

6. Possibility of growth includes both the chances of further developing one's skills and abilities and the chance of moving upward. The authors also include lack of growth opportunities in the theory (Herzbers, 1966)

Hygiene factors corresponded to Maslow's lower order needs and were described by Herzberg and his associates as those factors external to the job itself. The definitions of the eight hygiene items or dissatisfaction are as follows:

Supervision deals with issues of competence, fairness, willingness to delegate responsibility, willingness to teach, tendency towards nagging and efficiency as demonstrate by the individual superiors.

Company policy and administration describes event in which some of the overall aspects of the company is a factor. Examples included malevolent policies and situation where it is unclear to whom one reports.

Working conditions can include physical conditions of the work, the amount of work or the facilities available for doing the work. Specific examples include ventilation, lighting, tools, space and so on.

Interpersonal relation plays a role in several other categories such as recognition. However this category deals specifically with interaction between the individuals and superiors .peers and subordinates. These relations can include either working relationships or purely social relationships on the job.

Status refers to some signs of appurtenance of status affecting a person's feeling about the job. Company cars, executive's washroom, and personal secretaries are examples of status.

Job security includes objectives sign of the presence or absence of job security. It includes stability of the organisation and tenure, among others. The researchers avoided subjective feeling of the respondent.

Personal life factors do not include situations where an individual's personal life affects the work; the study does consider the individual's personal life. A company 's demand for relocation would affect this category(Herzberg,1996)

It is noted that Davis (1967) also has posited that the factors in Herzberg's model compared to Maslow's need priority model to establish some commonality in the description of the elements in each paradigm. Specifically, Herzberg's salary and personal life factors equate with Maslow's physiological needs , with the working conditions factor overlapping into the safety and security needs. Herzberg's job security actors equates with Maslow's safety and security needs, with the technical supervision and the company policy and administrative factors overlapping into Maslow's belongings and social activity needs classification.

Herzberg's interpersonal relationship with supervision. Peer, and subordinates factors are also equated with belonging and social activity needs. Herzberg's advancement, recognition and status factors are equated with esteem and status needs, while the work itself, achievement. Possibility of growth, and responsibility factors are equated to Maslow's self - realisation and fulfilment needs.

Herzberg's theory has been widely endorsed. However, criticism of the theory may be found. Hinrichs and Mischking (1967) refuted the two factor theory in favour of Hoppock (1935) single-continuum theory. Rosen (1963)opined that the model should have been modified for a white-colour Vs blue collar workers .Friedlander (1966) believe that Herzberg's use of self reported data may be quite different from data obtained objectively. To somewhat counter disapprovals, Brockman (1971) commented that the criticism were made with complete disregard of the arguments and explanations Herzberg presented. However, Holloway (1991) continued the condemnation by asserting that Herzberg, in his 1968 Harvard Business review article - a reprint best seller - was "brash and populist" and may have been more commercially than academically motivated.

Resource:A study of job satisfaction among directors of classified personnel in merits-by Donald R Mc Cann-google books