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This chapter aims at reviewing the significant and relevant areas of existing knowledge on change in organisations. The main purpose is to review various theoretical assumptions, proposals and recommendations in effectively managing change.
Thus, this chapter will be evaluating what change means to an organisation and why is taken as a strategic decision, the various change models an organisation can adopt in implementing change and the success of this implementation being a dependent on the existing organisational structure and leadership style. Consequently, various reasons why employees or people in an organisation change and the impact this may have on the performance of the firm
As the success of a change in an organisation is dependent on the level of acceptance by all the parties involved, ways an organisation can best manage this resistance will also be reviewed alongside the performance measurement matrix that can be used in assessing the effectiveness and relevance of the business change
2.2 Concept of Change
Kanter et al (1992) defined change as a consequence of the inherent potential for development associated with every entity. WordNet also defined change as, ‘an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another.' Change in its general term tend to define people's behavior, it is the only inevitable thing about life that is a hundred percent likely to happen in people's lives at any point in time. Change is all about relevance and reflection of one's being. However, much as it is expected and unavoidable, it is sometimes frowned at and dissented.
The level of acceptance people give to change is often determined by the everyday behavior of individuals, their perception and values they uphold, thus influences their attitude and interaction with people. It is also determined by the tone of voice that is being used to effect these changes, how an individual is recommending a change with regards to choice of word or language tone will shape the level of acceptance or resistance by the other individual and invariably, either pressure or relief may be transferred. This makes change a learning experience.
2.3 Change in organisations and as a strategic decision
Tichy (1983, p.17) defined organizational change as the ‘induction of new patterns of action, belief and attitudes among substantial segments of a population.' In the business world today, organisations continue to change, adopting new policies, responding to government or industry regulations, and tend to evolve their modes of operation continuously as a reaction to an internal or external event or occurrence.
2.3.1 TYPES OF CHANGE
The type of change taken by any organisation may depend on the extent of the environmental changes. Finlay (2000) explained two types of change:
Ø Incremental Change
Ø Transformational Change
This happens to be the most frequent change in firms. According to Finlay (2000, p.402), ‘Incremental change alters the outer ring of the cultural onion, the behaviours, and doesn't disturb the more deeply held beliefs in an organization.' This may take the form of more production of products, doing something slightly different or better. An organisation is said to have undergone an incremental change if it portrays some of the characteristics stated below outlined by Finlay (2000, p.402);
Ø “The change may be initiated by leader-managers, but much of it is originated by those directly linked with the organisation's processes and customers, as if empowered, they could bring about the change themselves.
Ø Tends to be reactive or proactive with a short time horizon
Ø Incremental change doesn't lead to a change in the implicit underlying assumptions of the organisational paradigm.
Ø In control, the task of management is to deal with negative feedback, keep an on-going situation in control.
Ø More importance is given to efficiency.”
In words of Finlay (2000, p.403), ‘Transformational change involves changing one or more assumptions in the organisational paradigm and with it the values of the organisation, this may include changes in the processes associated with doing things differently and with undertaking very different activities.' This may be used by firms facing strong competition in the market.
Finlay (2000, p.403) further outlined some characteristics exhibited by an organisation undergoing a transformation change:
Ø “It's a top-down process, possibly imposed by the top team or series of incremental changes may constitute to a transformation
Ø It's associated to leadership
Ø Leader deals with positive feedback which is driving the organisation out of control, that is , been driven out of familiar ways of business and where it's operating close to the edge of instability
Ø Emphasizes effectiveness and enlightenment.”
Balogun and Hailey (2004, p.24) also identified four types of change. One is the Incremental change, which they sub-divided in Adaptive and Evolutionary, the other is Big Bang which is also sub-divided into Reconstruction and Revolutionary, the interaction of this would either be Realignment or Transformation.
2.3.2 BASIC CONCEPT OF STRATEGIC CHANGE
Lynch (2006, p.753) defined Strategic change as, ‘the proactive management of change in organizations to achieve clearly identified objectives. It is a proactive search for new ways of working which everyone will be required to adopt, thus involves the implementation of strategies that involve substantive changes beyond the normal routines of the organisations.'
Identifying groups or individuals on the formal organisation structures constitute an analysis of the demand levels for strategic change which is more or less the pressure points for influence in the organisation. These group levels of individuals provide the important links between the people involved and basic strategic change process.
Informal organisation structure and processes
* Reporting Relationships
* Decision making
* Reward structures
* Control structures
* Cultural styles
* History & background
* Industry & organisation technology
* Work to be undertaken for strategies
* Social activities
* Not planned
* Informal communication
22.214.171.124 Importance of Strategic Change
More often than not, a certain degree of risk and uncertainty usually accompanies any strategic change, nonetheless, risk assessment can be conducted to measure the level of risk at the corporate level and uncertainty, can however not be assessed in the same way. Individuals in some organisation culture may not like the impact of the change and would resist any proposed change that can cause them problems, as a result of these objections against strategic change, implementation becomes more difficult. However, some organisations have open communication culture in their processes, change may be embraced her, though may involve careful thoughts and actions.
Therefore, to be able to handle resistance to change, more consultation, explanation and monitoring of reactions may be required in these circumstances. Hence, in the words of Lynch (2006, p. 754-756) ‘Strategic change is important because even successful change has an implementation cost for the organisation to set against the direct benefits identified from the new strategies.'
126.96.36.199 Causes/Triggers of Strategic Change
The success or continuing existence of an organisation is dependent on various elements that surrounds and elements that make up the organisation. Thus, any change occurring in any internal or external factors affecting an organisation can cause it to react. Tichy (1983, 153) however identified four main triggers of change:
v Organizational or strategic change
v Diversification and Business relationships:
Internal triggers of Change:
A range of internal factors can act as a spark which an organisation would react to and thereby causing it to make certain changes. These factors have been highlighted by Leavitt (1965) these factors include Technology, People, Tasks and Administrative Structure. These factors are formed into a model which he called the Leavitt's Diamond as depicted in the figure 2.3 below. Collins (1998, p.58)
According to Collins (1998, p.58), ‘these factors are grouped together in a diamond structure to show the links between these factors in order to communicate the idea that a substantial change in any of the factors may cause knock-on effects to the internal organisational factors.'
External triggers of Change
External factors are what is called the PEST factors which was proposed by Johnson and Scholes (1999) The PEST refers to the Political, economic, Socio-cultural and Technological factors in the environment that has impact on any organisation, therefore, any changes in any of these factors may cause an equal or more changes in an organisation.
POLITICAL FATORS ECONOMIC FACTORS
SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR
Source: Senior and Fleming (2006, p.17) ‘Organisational Change, 3rd Edition'
In organisations, the level of resistance or acceptance employees give the changes embarked upon are most often influenced by the change model or method that is being used to implement the necessary adjustments or restructuring intended as well as the leadership style present in the organisation which influences how decisions are made and information transfer to all the parties in the organisation, most importantly, the employees.
2.4 Leadership style and management structure
There exist a strong relationship between the effectiveness of change model or strategy adopted by an organisation and the existing structure that guides the decision making process and mode of operation within the organisation. This invariably moulds the management structure which determines the leadership style that exists in the organisation.
The structure of an organisation determines how resources are organized and deployed across all areas of the business; it helps in defining the job activities, accountabilities and responsibilities. Also, the structure of a business also establishes the power structure, thus, providing for the decision making process and the flow of information across all parties that has a stake in the organisation including employees and customers. The degree of acceptance of this structure establishes the people's attitude t a certain extent and this influences the identity and corporate image of the organisation. Carnall (2007, p.12)
Carnall (2007, p.12) outlined six major management model structure that could be operational in any organisation. The weakness or strength of these strategy, structure and control does have a high impact on the relationship between then employees and management and the attitude to the general affairs of the organisation. “These structures are:
v Entrepreneurial or Simple Structure
v Functional Structure
v Product Structure
v Divisional Structure
v Matrix Structure
v Federal Structure.”
The Entrepreneurial Structure:
According to Carnall (2007, p.13), the following characteristics are typical of an organisation that operates and entrepreneurial structure;
v ‘Everything in the company depends on the owner of the business who makes sole decision and takes charge of most of the work.
v Non existence of defined departmental structuring making the organisation flexible.'
The Functional Structure:
When organisations grow, they tend to become more functionally structured, where related activities are grouped into units or various departments such as Human Resources, Sales, Administration, Operations and so on. Carnall (2007, p.14)
Here, organisational activities are grouped around products, services or the market, each with its own area of specialization, thus, providing the basis for an efficient response to markets needs by each product group. Carnall (2007, p.14),
This structure symbolizes the term, divisionalization which entails breaking an organisation down into smaller divisions or units which have relative autonomy by having. These units or divisions may be functionally organized or based on product lines and managed by its own unit head and board.
v This structure allows for each division to respond to its own markets demands appropriately though within the framework of the overall business strategy. Carnall (2007, p.14-15)
In matrix structure, both market and functional foci are given importance throughout the organisation, these kinds of structures are established in for example, construction and technology projects. The matrix structure is most useful when there are two or more complex projects that need to be coordinated in an organisation because it identifies project management and functional structures accountable for each activity for example operations. Carnall (2007, p.15)
The federal structure runs a decentralization system for managing the divisional structure. Here, the organisation establishes different strategic business units for each market, product or service and control is done from the centre without the divisional structure interfering. There is a defined and clear accountability at unit level and divisional level doesn't use up all the resources. Carnall (2007, p.16)
The organisation structure and leadership style of a firm often have huge impact on the success of any business change, they act as support for the change models and strategies that may be used to implement the business change which determines the effectiveness. Various authors have ascertained that an appropriate leadership style is a key factor to determining the level of acceptance of change by employees.
2.5 Managing Change (Strategies and Models)
Understanding how to effectively manage strategic change would outlining the various elements of strategic change that are important in achieving the organisational goals and objectives.
2.5.1 APPROACH TO CHANGE
Lynch (2006, p.753) further added that, ‘some researchers have seen the management of change as been clear and basically predictable (Prescriptive Approach), others have the opinion that change takes on a momentum independently and its consequences are less predictable (Emergent Approach)'
188.8.131.52 Prescriptive Approach to Managing Strategic Change
In the words of Kanter et al (1992, p.10), ‘Lewin's model was a simple change approach with three stages, Unfreeze, changing and Refreezing…..This sees an organisation as an ice cube and widely inappropriate and as such, organisations are never frozen much less refrozen, but are fluid entities with many ‘personalities', there are stages which overlap and interpenetrate one another.'
Invariably, Kanter et al (1992) identified three major forms taken by change process which are highlighted by Lynch (2006, p.763-765):
Ø ‘The changing identity of the organisation
Ø Coordination and transition issues as an organisation moves through its life cycle
Ø Controlling the political aspects of organisations.'
There are however criticisms on this approach one of which is that, it may be possible to move from one state to another where this is not always possible especially if the external environment is turbulent, thus making the new proposed state unclear.
184.108.40.206 Emergent Approach to managing change
According to Lynch (2006), ‘ there is no single approach under the emergent theories as some emphasize the need for responsiveness in an increasingly turbulent world while others concentrate on longer-term need to change organisation's skills, style or culture over long period of time.
220.127.116.11 Planned and Emergent approach to Change
Senior and Fleming (2006, p.52) explained that, ‘Fine-tuning and Incremental change are features of all organisational life and while they can be planned, are frequently associated with change as it emerges. Fine-tuning is aimed at doing better what has already been done well and Incremental adaptation involves small changes in response to shifts in the environment in which the organisation operates.'
Theses shifts may bring about major changes in strategy, process, structure and people. In response to these shifts, the changes that occur in an organisation could come in different forms and different pace. Senior and Fleming (2006, p.52) further argued that the process of strategic drift forces organisations into more conscious deliberate planning of change and different models have been developed on planned approach to change but this research will be assessing the four-phase model of planned change outlined by Bullock and Batten (1985).
18.104.22.168 Emergent Change
Burnes (2004, p.312) argued that “Organisational change is a continuous process of experiment and adaptation aimed at matching an organisation's capabilities to the needs and state of the changing environment. The emergent change proposes key organisational activities like information-gathering about the external environment and the internal objectives and capabilities that allow, ability to develop new skills, identify appropriate responses and draw knowledge from their own and others' past and present actions.”
Luecke's Seven Steps (2003)
* Analyse the organisation and its need for change
* Create a vision and a common direction
* Separate from the past
* Create a sense of urgency
* Support a strong leader role
* Line up political sponsorship
* Craft an implementation plan
* Develop enabling structures
* Communicate, involve people and be honest
* Reinforce and institutionalise change
* Developing a vision and strategy
* Establishing a sense of urgency
* Creating a guiding Coalition
* Empowering broad-based Action
* Communicating the change vision
* Anchoring new approaches in the culture
* Generating short-term wins
* Consolidating gains and producing more change
* Mobilise energy and commitment through joint identification of business problems and their solutions
* Develop a shared vision of how to organise and manage for competitiveness
* Identify the leadership
* Institutionalise success through formal policies, systems, and structures
* Focus on results, not on Activities
* Start change at the periphery, then let it spread to other units without pushing it from the top
* Monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the change process
Source: Todnem, R (2005, p.376) Journal of Change Management Vol. 5, No. 4, 369–380, Organisational Change Management: A Critical Review.
2.5.2 CHANGE PROCESS MODELS
There are various change models applicable to different organisations dependent on variable triggers but the most relevant to this research is the Network Model, Tichy (1983)
22.214.171.124 Network Model
Tichy (1983) stated, ‘In network model, organizations are conceived of as clusters of people joined by a variety of links. These clusters transmit goods and services, information, influence and exchange of friendship among individuals.'
The significant features as outlined by Tichy (1983, p.71-72) include:
a. “Focus on formal organization (prescriptive) thus incorporating the classical/mechanistic organisation model. Also, individuals have links to each other and the external environment.
b. Information, affect, influence, goods and services are potential modes of exchange between individuals.
c. Clusters within the network are identifies by who is linked to whom
d. There is clear need for methods to formalize the interrelationships.'
The interrelationship among various part of the organisation and the extent to which the organisation aligns with the external environment affected which must answer the question, ‘how well are the parts of the organization aligned with each other for solving the organization's cultural, technical, and political problems?' Tichy (1983, p. 80-83)
126.96.36.199 Planned Change Model
It has been argued that the planned change was first used by Kurt Lewin to distinguish between change was consciously embarked upon and the organisation planned, as averse to types of change that might be accidental, on impulse or forcefully imposed on an organisation. French and Bell (1995) also stated that the Planned approach to change is now most closely associated with the practice of Organization Development (OD) and indeed lies at its core. Burnes (2004, p.1-2)
Lewin's Three-Step Model
Burnes (2004) criticized the Three-step model as a model which doesn't consider organisational issues and may not have intended to separate the model from his other three elements of planned approach, Field Theory, Group Dynamics and Action Research, however Lewin (1947) argued that the four concepts form an integrated approach to analysing, understanding and bringing about change at the group, organisational and societal levels, thus claimed a successful change project involves three step:
Unfreezing: Here, Lewin (1947) argued that ‘equilibrium needs to be destabilized (unfrozen) before old behaviour can be discarded (unlearnt)'
Moving/Changing: This is learning approach promoted by his Action Research
Refreezing: Lewin (1947, p. 272-275) claimed that this stage seeks to stabilize the group at a new quasi-stationary equilibrium in order to ensure that the new behaviors are relatively safe from regression.'
Phases of Planned Change
According to Burnes (2004, p.277), Bullock and Battern (1985) outlined the four-phase model of Planned Change which are:
v “Exploration Phase:
At this stage, an organisation will have to explore and decide whether there's need for specific changes in its operations and if there are, commit resources to planning the changes.
v Planning Phase:
Upon the completion of the Exploration phase, the planning phase takes effect which involves understanding the organisational problems and needs.
v Action Phase:
At this phase, changes originated from the planning are implemented in the organization. These changes are designed to move the organisation from one state to a desired future state thus the process.
v Integration Phase:
This phase kicks off once the changes have been successfully implemented. It involves Consolidating and stabilizing the changes so they become the organisation's day to day normal operations.” Burnes (2004, p.277)
2.6 Impact of change
At different levels in an organisation, the impact the change has on the people may vary from one business unit to another and from one individual to another depending on values, perception and attitudes each person holds towards the change and the company. When there is a change in an organisation, people are required to learn new skills and tasks, which may be transferred, however, once the change is fully implemented and operational, people learn to adjust as individuals.
The impact of change does reduce people's confidence and their general attitude may change, losing confidence in the task they do or the skills they possess that may not be required again, this to a certain extent does impact on people's self esteem. Carnall (2007) proposed a framework which helps organisations and the people in coping with change and thereby gaining their self esteem back which consequently provides a positive approach to change. According to him, “there are four categories of need that is required of an individual in helping to rebuild their self-esteem during the period of the organisational change. They need:
1. Empathy, which is simply understanding and this, is the most important issue. Carnall (2007, p.236) defined empathy as ‘the ability to see and understand how people construct reality, or more specifically how they perceive, discover and invest the inner and outer worlds.'
2. Intelligible Information on the change and what it brings
3. New Skills, this may mean skills that may help in dealing with new management or colleagues.
4. Support in dealing with problems, encouragement to try new process or systems, providing short workshops to help people, technical support to provide solution to problems, and a free and direct access to people who can be of help. Carnall (2007, p.235-236)
Making intelligible information means organisations need to be able to see things as the people in the organisation see it in order to be able to communicate effectively. Introducing change in an organisation without encouraging learning is most likely to institute ore negative attitudes to the change because when people learn from the experience of change, it helps in achieving and sustaining effectiveness. Carnall (2007, p.236-237)
Various steps and ideas are integrated which provides effectiveness in managing transitions and that is when learning and change can happen. Effectively managing change helps in reducing anxiety and better management of stress as a result of the change. According to Carnall (2007, p.237) who proposed this framework called ‘Managing major changes by synthesizing the management of transition, dealing with organisational cultures and handling organisational politics constructively can create an environment where creativity, risk taking, learning and rebuilding self esteem and performance can be achieved. Thus, by creating conditions for extensive problem solving and positive attitudes to change, increased organisational performance is guaranteed.'
Source: Carnall (2007, p.237) ‘Managing change in Organisations'
2.6.1 IMPACT OF CHANGE AND PERFORMANCE
As earlier discussed, the process of change in an organisation does impact on the self-esteem of individuals in the organisation, and the process of adjustment takes time, this is what Carnall (2007, p.237) calls the learning-curve effect which people are able to build up their performance through learning. Also, when new systems, structures and processes are introduced in an organisation, certain adjustments are required to be made that will suit the existing culture and organisational structure in or order to maximise efficiency of the change, this is what he called progress-effect, that is, when new systems are implemented, modifications are made to enable improved performance. In addition, since organisational changes reduces the self-esteem of most individuals who affected by the change, this invariably has an effect on the performance, which is called the self-esteem effect.
Therefore, the combination of the learning-curve effect, progress-effect and the self-esteem effect does have a potential impact on performance, thus, Carnall (2007, p.240) proposed that, ‘driving force for rebuilding performance subsequent to a major change will be to rebuild self-esteem and this is called the Coping Cycle.' The Coping cycle comes in five stages which are Denial, Defence, Discarding, Adaptation and Internationalization.'
2.6.2 IMPACT OF CHANGE AND THE RESISTANCE
To start a new thing, what used to be would have to end and thereby letting go of an old identity. Before people in an organisation learn a new way of doing things, they will have to unlearn the old but the problem is people don't like endings. Change ends and starts another causing a transition but people are not always willing to let go because, transition is the psychological process people go through to be able to come to terms with a new thing. Bridges (1998, p.3-19)
188.8.131.52 Resistance to Change
Huczynski and Buchanan (2007, p.598) defined resistance to change as an inability, or an unwillingness, to discuss or accept organizational changes that are perceived in some way damaging or threatening to the individual.”
Cummings and Worley (2005, p. 158-159) explained, ‘Change can generate deep resistance in people and in organisation, thus making it difficult, if not impossible, to implement organizational improvements. On individual level, people are unsure whether their existing skills and contributions will be valued in the future, on organizational level, resistance could come from three sources:
Ø Technical Resistance
Ø Political Resistance
Ø Cultural Resistance
In effectively transforming an organisation, certain strategies has been proposed by Carnall, C which helps in reducing the level of resistance that may be faced from the employees and also reduces the level of stress both the management and employees may be subjected to during the course of the change.
According to Dawson (2003, p.19), “Employees may want to maintain the status quo and resist changes intended by organisation.” He identified sources of resistance which could be one or a combination of the following outlined below;
v “Substantive change in job that is, change in skills requirement
v Fear of job displacement of fall in economic security
v Psychological threat which could be perceived or actual
v Disruption of social arrangement, this could be sitting arrangement
v Lower status which could be that authority relationships are being redefined.” Dawson (2003, p.19)
Broady-Preston (2009) adapted some causes of resistance to change from Bedeian, 1980 which was quoted by Huczynski and Buchanan (2007, p.597-599).
v “Parochial self-interest (“I don't want to be pushed out of my comfort zone”)
v Misunderstanding and lack of trust (“Why are you asking me to do this?” Conspiracy theorists?)
v Contradictory assessments (You might think this is good, but I don't”)
v Low tolerance for change (“I can't cope with the uncertainty/anxiety”)”
Cappelli (1997, p.62) argued, "Despite the fact that the changes in employment associated with restructuring seem to make employees substantially worse off, at least in the short run, resistance by employees seem to have been virtually nonexistent.”
2.7 Overcoming Resistance to Change
Cummings and Worley (2005, p. 158-159) also outlined the three major strategies for dealing with resistance to change:
Ø “Empathy and support. Learn how people are experiencing the change, identify who are having trouble accepting the changes and the nature of their resistance and come up with possible ways to overcome it.
Ø Communication. Rumors and gossips add to the anxiety and an effective communication on the changes can reduce any form of speculations allay unfolded fears and this will help people prepare for the change.
Ø Participation and involvement. Involve organisation members in planning an implementing change, thus they will be committed to the change.”
Overcoming resistance to change can also be done through the use of other techniques within the organisation, Kotter and Schlesinger (1979) mapped out six techniques organisations can use in surmounting the resistance they may face with the employees when going through some changes. These are:
1. Education and commitment
2. Participation and involvement
3. Facilitation and support – counselling and therapy service for staff
4. negotiation and agreement – dialogue with employee representatives or union members
5. Manipulation and co-optation – getting support of the non- resistant employees and using them as champions to persuade the resistant employees
6. Implicit and explicit coercion – transfer, demotion
A change in an organisation cause people to grieve over what they stand to lose and this translates to them resisting the change. So, it is advisable for an organisation to talk about the outcome or what impact the change would have and Bridges, (1998, p.20) proposed ways that this can be done in order to help the people let go easily before the resistance impacts negatively on the change and transition and consequently causing a performance fall. He suggested that organisations should;
1. “Identify what is actually ending and who is losing what; describe the change in as much detail as you can, describe exactly what will be different when the change is completed, thinks of people whose familiar way of doing things will be affected.
2. Accept the reality and importance of the subjective losses, learn who is facing a loss of some kind and what they are losing exactly
3. Don't be surprised at overreaction
4. Acknowledge the losses openly and sympathetically
5. Expect and accept the signs of grieving. People will get angry, sad, frightened, depressed and confused, these are not bad morale, they are signs of grieving.
6. Compensate for the losses. Give back to balance what is being taken
7. Give people information and do it again and again.
8. Define what is over and what is not
9. Mark the endings. Instead of talking about endings, create actions or activities that dramatize them.
10. Treat the past with respect, managers sometimes ridicule or talk slightly of the old ways of doing things which drives grieving people away from the direction the organisation need to take
11. Let people take a piece of the old way with them.
12. Show how endings ensure continuity of what really matters
There have been arguments and assumptions that the most crucial part of implementing change strategies in mitigating resistance is to increase employees' commitment and involvement with the company. White et al (2004, p.135-136). He outlined four components of the change strategy that the helps in controlling the negative effect of resistance to change in an organisation. These are:
* Participation and Communication:
Allowing employees to participate in change process allows them to contribute their expertise and knowledge which facilitates the prior motive of improving organisation performance and facilitate change
* Team Organisation:
This aspect corroborate the other three processes by increasing the level of participation and communication, beefing up motivation through commitment and also providing knowledge transfer between employees
* Skills development that further enhances their ability to make a contribution to the change
* Incentives, which acts as a form of motivation to show their support. White et al (2004, p.135-136)
2.8 Chapter Summary
The chapter explained the main concept of change being inevitable and continuous. It is said that the type of change that exist in an organisation could be a transformation, realignment, big bang or incremental depending on what has triggered the changes in the first place. Different theories have analysed various factors that could act as a reason for change in company.
However, when these changes occur, some are naturally going to resist and various reasons have been given by different theorists, the likes of Dawson and managing these resistance have also been supported by other theories from intellectuals like Kotter and Schlesinger .
 Johnson et al (2005, p.27), Strategic drift is where strategies progressively fail to address the strategic position of the organisation and performance deteriorates.
 OD is a set of values, assumptions and ethics that emphasise its humanistic orientation and commitment to organisational effectiveness. Burnes, B (2004, p.267)