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This research paper aims to examine the various procedures and issues that related to global leadership skills in a multinational organization. This research paper clarifies the how the research has been done, step by step procedure of the research phases carried out and the entire track that researcher followed for conducting this research. This report presents various characteristics of research that includes a brief literature review, aim & objectives of the report, the research methodology used here, how data collection & analysis performed, limitation of research, and various ethical issues that affects the research.
This is the era of globalization as well as rapid internationalization; here comes the significance of the concept 'Global Leadership Skills in Multi-national Organizations'.
It is important to consider the necessity of Global leaders since both this facts globalization and internationalization depends on the achievement of enterprises varying from small, medium to multinational enterprises, which in turn relying on the capabilities of competent global leaders. Most of the multinational organizations focussed on the global leadership skills improvement generally and takes it as the main Human Resource concern. Behind every successful organization there will be a competitive leader. The main merits of leadership are power, influence on others, vision, motivation, performance, and ability to communicateÂ with subordinates and other people.
To be a professional global leader, one should need global leadership skills. Past history shows that the successful story of each global leader describes developmental level of Emotional Intelligence (EI), emotional energy, edge and more on Cultural Intelligence. Both Emotional & Cultural Intelligence effects the development of leadership skills greatly. Emotional Intelligence has wide sense and it is scientifically difficult to measure by valid terms. A successful global leader with achievement is blessed of adequate level of both Emotional and Cultural Intelligence. The new phase of globalization, economic integration of nations through the multinational organizations & internationalization are bringing growing trends in the world today. These all made the achievement and increased productivity in results. Besides the success there also arise the problems with efficient management strategy which depends on the global leadership skills progress.
2: AIM & OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
Aims & Objectives are the significant factors on research since it determines how to conduct the successful research on based topic and setting goals for the project according to that. Based on the pre-stated aim & objective, the research will carry out. So the first module of research, that is setting aim and objective should be precise and encouraging for further work.
Examining and gathering more knowledge about varying global multi-national environment and its prospective out come on their organization.
Also to learn the effect of global leadership skills on organization and how companies are making benefit out of it.
Study of Global Leadership Skills in a multi-national company.
Examining personal leadership styles and roles through different experimental activities.
Learn strong concepts and performances of global leadership.
Understand the similarities and differences in leadership styles and their communication styles among the group.
Gain knowledge of effective leadership skills & to know how to improve leadership skills.
3: LITERATURE REVIEW
Literature review explains about the research topic in detail by referring the secondary resources. To write the literature review for a research first we should retrieve the regarding data from reliable sources. A literature review shows the genuine importance of the research document here. Literature review considers the previous books, research papers and articles on the same topic to understand the different viewpoint.
A well competent global leader aims well defined global leadership skills. Leadership skills not in management only, mainly it deals with handling the changes occurred. This applied research paper intended to explain the trends, terms, & associated problems that I faced during the project period from a multinational company. Also this paper incorporates limitations of my research and various ethical issues that I faced in this duration.
According to Karen Sobel Lojeski (2008, p.99), a global leader should be able to motivate, influence and enable others to contribute towards the usefulness and victory of the organizations to which they are attached. There is distinction between global managers and global leaders in a multinational process, manager deals with the domestic management of project; on the other hand global leaders have to deal with the project internationally (Watson Wyatt 2001, p.122). Global managers require much more global leadership skills to become a successful global leader. Leadership carries out through out the project life cycle. Leadership is the process of motivating and influencing others, so a global leader should be flexible & adaptable to changes in the surroundings. Leadership is the process in which leadership behavior and style is most effective in achieving the goals. It is significant to consider the relationship among leaders and his subordinates and how the global leader accomplishes the expectations of his followers.
According to Ann Howard and Richard,S. Wellins (2009, p.343), an efficient global leader should posses certain qualifications like capability, self confidence, positive attitude etc in today's world to be a successful leader. They should be well focused and motivated towards what they want to do & how to reach the target to achieve the goals. Their self motivated performance results in outstanding outcome and increased operational performance of entire organization Ed Cohen (2009, p.34). There are certain criteria and techniques that global leaders must follow to develop their performance in an efficient way. 'Leadership' & 'Team Management' are the two significant words which have specified roles in every successful multinational organization. Team management derives its roots from the fundamentals of organizational management.
As per Rhinesmith, S.H (1996, p.172), to understand well the concepts of leadership and management first one should be aware of the idea about organization. First footing step begins from the concept of organization & its related issues. An organization could be defined as large group of planned people, whom are grouped for a specific defined purpose. For example hospitals, hotels, multinational companies etc are organizations with different purposes. An organization may be profit based or non-profit based. Sam Palmisano (2001) done a speech at Global Leadership Forum, it says organization has some general characteristics
Every organization has a discrete principle.
Every organization is composed of no. of people
Every organization develops well defined structure so that members can do their work.
Ed Cohen (2009, p.231) says that the basic point a global leader should understand first is that each organization constitute different components and these components will not be constant ever. Each organization will be changing from existing phase to new phase. And the global leaders have to adaptable to that fact. Hoge, A.J (2010, p.58) speaks about Global leader is that; he is one who capable of leading and motivating his group members. He should make sure that each and every team member is all right with the work arrangements, flexible time management, efficient team members, reliable working environment, open communication among the team members, supply of needed resources etc since these are the basic amenities that decide the success of all multinational organizations. Philip Robert Harris, Robert,T., Moran and Sarah Virgilia Moran(2010, p.203) says in their book "Managing cultural differences: Global leadership strategies for the 21st century", now a day organizations are becoming more competent and for that they act as more flexible, reliable, open with issues among them, and adaptable to changes occurring surroundings. Organizations are adaptable to changes since entire world around them under goes changes in each day. And the global leader who is flexibly accepting these economic, social, technological & global changes is the successful leader. Dynamic world is fit to accept these changes happening in each second.
4: METHODOLOGY USED
The definition of research is scientific and methodological way of treating the problem. Here used applied research methodology as research technique. Every research technique stands for solving the problems by learning the unknown facts. In applied research, researcher solves the recognized problem & finds the answers to particular issues. Applied research intended for resolving the practical issues.
According to Schwab and Donald .P (1999, p.88), applied research generally helps in optimized decision making in business management, in competitive actions, customer preferences and customer satisfaction. Applied research practice has several steps described as follows.
Describe the research problem
Prepare the Research plan
Make the research design
Prepare the research report
In order to accomplish successful research researcher should follow above steps; first we should know the exact problem. Then prepare the research plan like where we would do the research, how many days' target it will take which mode of data collection should use etc. This is the outline stage. After planning stage, design the research procedures, next step is collecting the data from various sources such as conducting surveys, interviews, observation, direct communication etc. Then analyze the data that have been collected, it is done through examining, clearing, and converting the collected data in to functional units. Finally making the research report here.
As per Neil, J. and Salkind (2006, p.63) in their book "Exploring Research" applied research is for immediate practical problem solving. It searches for particular knowledge for problem solving and capturing that knowledge through data collection methods.
In this research, there used applied research techniques with various data assembling routines. Applied research in business terms is used here since the business research is more suitable to communicate with multinational employees at this point. Here used data collection from various secondary resources like articles, journals, books of some authors, survey report, and even speech at global leadership forum. Also primary data also collected through sampling survey at particular employees in a multinational organization and through the direct interview with some company management leaders.
5: DATA COLLECTION & ANALYSIS
Data collection is important phase of research since it conveys the mode of research and
the progress of research in each time period. Data collection is the process of collecting the data that is specific to each issues or problems raised while doing the project. Here collecting the data regarding the specific issue from primary and secondary resources. Data collection is usually done through conducting interviews, surveys, through direct communication, and observation. Conducting interview usually targets a particular person with sufficient knowledge in depth. Surveys done through two ways generally, first is conducting survey on whole people called census. Another method is sampling the people population and conducting survey on needed people only. Data collection can be done through direct communication and observation also.
Through data collection enough data obtained, its researcher's work to alter this data in usable forms. Obtained data corrected and transformed to facts as needed. While doing data analysis researcher should be careful in competence of data obtained, make sure that the handwriting of the writer should be understandable to others, make sure that the problem solutions should be precise and clear, and data should be arranged in uniform manner.
The analyses done here by gathering the data from some eBooks and articles written by some famous writers. Analysis shows various facts like Organization - the stage for Leadership, Overview of Global Leadership Skills, Qualities for effective Leadership, Principles of Leadership, Leadership skills in organizational settings, Research organization & its Settings and Leadership skills & its competence.
Survey report of UK highlights global leadership forecast 2008-09 written by Ann Howard and Richard,S. Wellins(2009) considered for analysis. In this survey Development Dimensional International (DDI) standard is considered. DDI describes the present status of leadership and leadership development in UK business community. It is based on the research progression on global leadership issues and practices. DDI reports were written by Ann Howard and Richard S.Wellins. DDI figured out points like leadership in today's environment, Development strategies of typical leader and series of development, high potential leaders and their successful leadership abilities and multinational leaders of yesterday who have forgotten. Up on the progress of this survey, it indicates that both HR professionals & global leaders in UK are more positively turned leaders than world wide.
Also IBM project (2009) 'Developing global leadership' is taken account. This project discusses what IBM done to make progress in global leadership effectively. Through this project IBM place an innovative flexible structure called Globally Integrated Enterprise (GIE). Also manipulating the full latent of GIE, Searching new ways for the growth of global leadership through GIE, Developing leadership through consistent methodology and finally structuring and supporting global expertise.
6: ETHICAL ISSUES INVOLVED
For every research there will be some ethical issue related to it. Most of the issues are related to security and privacy issues. Every organization keeps the process details and official matters confidentially. Data freedom along with privacy is important here. So when we are approaching the employees for collecting data they may not be co-operate with us properly. There will be some company policies that should be maintained correctly, researcher should follow those policies. Also the conflict between employees, conflict between management and employees, internal issues in an organization etc will affect the research badly.
According to Neil, J. and Salkind (2006, p.79), ethical issues aroused between the research phase should be carefully handled, other wise the effect of this issues will be dreadfully disturbing the research. As per Schwab and Donald .P (1999, p.187) ethical issues also relates to information creation and information functions. Both should be carefully handled to avoid issues.
In this research there are some ethical issues that come across the research. As stated above it mainly related to company's security policies and confidentiality. When doing the straight research through direct communication and direct interviews most of the employees showed chilled response to several questions. It prevents from getting the actual conclusion of the topic some times. Also the absence of employees after the starting phase made the research flow in trouble further. The presences of assisted employees are significant in each stage, so there absence some times bring to a standstill mode in project some times.
With in the organization there were groups formed by category of employees, care should be taken while we are approaching the each group here. Different groups are under different management, so supports from each of them were different. It was difficult to handle them as single group. Some of them even showed competitive nature in responses also. The conflict between different management also affected the research a few times.
Extreme care should be taken when we are dealing with some one's personal details like contact address, name, designation, location etc on research. It was a risky part of research since data collection is very difficult in this part. Every one involved in research likes to keep their data as private, so data handling is difficult here and if any mistakes happen it will influence several people in unexpected manner.
Every research method has its own limitation. Applied research methodology used here also has some limitations like data limitation, flexibility limitation, security limitation and so on. In applied research decisions should be taken quickly, so there will be lack of time due to this short period of time. The research was forced to be completed with in the small period of time allotted, so the data collection couldn't do satisfactory at all levels. Also the shortage of resources made research restricted in some aspects. There were various inevitable restrictions, even though the research achieved the aim successfully. There is some limitation for research since applied research generally deals with specific facts, at a specific problem in specific conditions. I could give suggestions for the modification of existing methods here, but it is very difficult to implement it practically. There won't be distinct solutions for problems to suggest.
Globalization & Internationalization is an anticipated outcome of future. The skills for a Global leader is not decided by enthusiasm towards work & ability to do work only, it also depends on the dedication towards organization and performance of Global leader. From my research I conclude that to be an effective Global leader he/she should be undergo series of transformation through many stages from the beginning of his career. They should show the passion towards work from the starting to ending, they should be self confidant & self motivated towards work. Also most important point to remember is that they should be ready to accept the mistakes if any happen and learn from the mistakes. An enthusiastic Global leader should always asks for feed back and modifies their work according to feed back obtained. They use the feed back in positive logic only.
A corporate Global leader should be loyal to his duties. He should maintain trustfulness to organization through out the period. He should be reasonable among "doing" and "being". A global leader should be self aware, by knowing what are his strengths & weakness, where his limitations & boundaries lies, how could he over come his limitations with his positive measurements etc. Global leaders are the persons who have to communicate widely with other persons, so their communication skill should be improved much more than others.
A global leader should optimistic & disciplined in his works. He should be well educated & well practiced to job. Even if challenges come across the work he should be ready to face it. He must be honest in his work and motivates others to do work. In one word a Global leader should be the one with all these positive aspects and ready to take & turn the negative aspects if any happen.