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The purpose of this study is to review various journal, articles etc which are focused on international recruitment and selection process. It was to analyse international recruitment and selection process followed by some of the organization. The research methodology comprises of going through various journals and other relevant sources and analyse the process followed for international recruitment and selection. This paper reports on a study of strategy used in international recruitment and selection, drawing upon an analysis of recruitment and selection followed by Atlantic Canadian organization.
An organization is built by individuals, who work together for achieving the common goal; therefore the success of the organization or business depends upon the performance of those who work for the organization. Hence selecting the right candidate is one of the most important factors determining the success of the organization. Hiring the wrong individual or failing to anticipate fluctuations in hiring needs can be costly, it is very important that conscious efforts are put into human resource planning (Biles et al, 1980). Recruitment and selection are seminal topics within human resource management, ensuring that organization have the necessary human skills, knowledge and capabilities that will enable the organizations to be successful and continue in future. It is often claimed that selection of workers occurs not just to replace departing employees or add to a workforce but rather aims to put in place workers who can perform at a high level and demonstrate commitment (Ballantyne, 2009).Recruitment and selection is often presented as a planned rational activity, comprising certain sequentially-linked phases within a process of employee resourcing, which itself may be located within a wider HR management strategy. Bratton and Gold (2007, p 239).As we move through the 21st century where globalized workforce is the basis of competition the best practices in recruitment and selection is the key differentiator enabling competitive success. There is already a defined process of recruitment and selection which includes set of steps right from initial screening to hiring. The selection process varies from organization to organization, job to job and country to country. The world is moving towards globalization and organizations are consisting of employees across the globe therefore international recruitment is one of the most important and challenging aspects in today's contest.
The paper focuses on the analysis of various journals focused on International recruitment and selection process and the challenges faced in the area of the international recruitment and selection process. The paper further have analysed the recruitment and selection process followed by the organization based in Atlantic Canadian.
Analysis and summary of the various journals on international recruitment and selection process.
According to Sparrow .P(2007) A series of the changes are being wrought on a range of IHRM functions -recruitment and selection - by the process of globalization highlighting the difference between globally standardized, optimized or localized HR processes.
According to Dowling, Festing & Engle (2008), the major difference and challenges between domestic and international staffing which could severely limit firm's ability to hire right candidate are as follows:
1. Many firms have a predisposition with regards to who should hold key positions in headquarter and subsidiaries (i.e. Ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric staffing orientation) and
2. Constraint imposed by the host government (i.e. immigration rules with regard to work visa and other legal restriction.
According to Dowling, Festing & Engle (2008), issues with international staffing due to four myths about global manger which are as follows:
1. That there is universal approach to management: Manages who are hired across globe and culture continue to practice their home based work methodology into their foreign operations without knowing as to whether this is an appropriate action.
2. People can acquire multicultural adaptability and behaviours: Some individual are much better in coping with the new culture and environment compared to others.
3. There are common characteristic shared by successful international mangers: It is not always true that all international manages will share the common characteristic; there could be possibility that few successful manager might share the same characteristic but not always.
4. No impediments to mobility: Organizations are getting more global but the same doesn't hold true for employee and managers.
According to Dowling, Festing & Engle (2008), the above mentioned four myths are most important to keep in consideration when any organization has to look for international recruitment. They also mentioned that apart from the above mentioned myths, they also mentioned about expatriate failure and factors moderating performance of an international employee. As per Harzing (2004: 252) the term expatriate can be taken as any employee who is working outside his or her home country in foreign country for a predefined period. According to Dowling, Festing & Engle (2008), Expatriate failure can be termed as the premature return of an expatriate (that is, return home before the period of assignment is completed). Cost of failure of expatriate is measured in terms of direct and indirect cost. Direct cost includes airfare and associated relocation expense, and salary and training.
When examining parent-subsidiary relationships, different organizational needs for control and integration affects the strategic use of recruitment and selection (Taylor et al., 1996)
According to Dowling, Festing & Engle (2008), various factors responsible for moderating expatriate performance can be listed as follows:
Inability to adjust to the foreign culture
The process of adjustment.
Length of assignment.
Willingness to move.
Work environment-related factors.
Due to all the above mentioned issues that is expatriate failure and moderating expatriate performance the recruiting and selection process for international employee is very challenging and important filed in IHRM.
According to Dowling, Festing & Engle (2008), the various factors kept into consideration in expatriate selection are as follows:
Cross Cultural Suitability
Country culture requirement
Technical Ability: Technical ability is one of the most important factors as naturally the person's ability to perform the required task is most important. Indeed, research findings consistently indicate that multinationals place heavy reliance on relevant technical skills during the expatriate selection process A.L Hixon(1986).
Cross Cultural Suitability: The success of the organization and expatriate depends upon the adjustment of the expatriate in the culture and environment where he is working. There appears to be a consensus that desirable attributes should include cultural empathy, adaptability, diplomacy, language ability, positive attitude, emotional stability and maturity P Caligiuri (2000).
Family requirement: According to Price water house cooper report companies that also interview expatriate's wife in the selection process, found better result in the overall tenure and success of the expatriate compared to others companies. As wife plays an important role, it is very important to interview and check the fit of the expatriate wife.
Country Culture Requirement: It is important that HR staff keep abreast with relevant legislative changes in the countries in which the (Multi National Enterprises) MNE is involved and about the work related laws of the country where MNE is involved.
Language: Language skills may be regarded as of critical importance for some expatriate positions, but lesser in others, but overall language place most important role and also is very critical aspect of recruitment and selection.
MNE Requirement: The most important factor is whether the expatriate is fit for the requirement as per the MNE.
Summary and Analysis of Recruitment and selection process followed by Atlantic Canadian organization (Atlantic Provinces Economic Council)
Atlantic Canada: Is the region of Canada comprising of four provinces located on the Atlantic cost. The objective of the Atlantic Canada of hiring international worker mainly focuses on increasing diversity and building connections to international markets. Atlantic Canada basically used five steps strategy in international recruitment process which is as follows
The role of international workers in meeting your labour force requirement.
Sources of international workers
Recruitment and selection of international workers
Getting authorization to work in Canada.
Integration and Retention.
As in Canadian province, numerous companies have reported difficulties filling management, professional and technical positions, whether for information technology, financial, marketing or sales departments the number of young people entering the labour market is declining dramatically and will continue to do so, for the next fifteen years at least. As the declining workforce is one of the major concerns, the Atlantic Canada province council came out with the solution to hire international worker.
Sources of international worker: In order to recruit international workers, companies looked for the various possible options available for international workers such as Immigrants already living in Atlantic Canada, International student studying in Atlantic Canada, International workers currently living overseas.
Recruitment and selection of international workers: Depends upon making sure desirable candidates are aware of your job posting, and then choosing the candidates that are the best fit for the organization. The Atlantic Canada divided this whole process into various steps which are as follows:
Defining Job Profile: clear and concise, focused on core aspect of the job, level of language proficiency required and removing unnecessary fields like work experience in Canada.
Finding international worker: various ways used are using own network, using third party recruiters, Advertising position.
Assessing Candidate's Qualification: While assessing candidate Atlantic Canadian companies were very much focused in understanding the difference in cultural or communication style, such as accents or the use of different vocabulary. Companies used various new technologies (Skype, VoIP) to conduct interviews at a distance. In order to judge language proficiency companies used various online exams such as TOEFL and IELTS. In order to evaluate education, training and experience that was acquired outside of Canada companies used UNESCO.
Assessing Adaptability: Companies were also concerned about finding about the candidate adaptability to the new culture.
Making a job offer: After assessing and finding the right fit candidate the companies make offer to the candidate, where in offer letter all the terms and condition are clearly mentioned about both the parties.
Getting authorization to work in Canada: Depending upon the nature and duration of work companies apply for the work permit, same as mentioned in offer letter.
Integration and Retention: Helping international workers integrate into workplace and Atlantic Canada. The companies provide various workplace diversity training to their employee so that employees in the company will adapt to the culture. The companies also used buddy system to keep international employee in knowing the work culture and organization better.
Analysis: Atlantic Canadian organization's overall recruitment and selection process is very well designed, various sources identified for finding international workers such as using third party agency, targeting international student studying in Canada through job fare, university career counsellors and co-op programs are very well structured. Internet recruiting is one the most important factor in the entire process as it saves both time and money. Use of various different tests available across the globe for evaluating candidate's language proficiency is one of the take away from their selection process along with the use of UNESCO to evaluate candidate's education outside Canada. The selection process can become more robust if the organizations would have tie ups with third party agencies across the globe.
International recruitment and selection is one of the most important aspects in today's world. Unlike the process of recruitment and selection followed for recruiting local employees, international recruitment and selection process needs to take care of many other factors. While recruiting international worker organization look for the cross cultural suitability of the employee which includes factors like language proficiency, family requirement, work permit requirement. Therefore recruiting international employee is more complex process and also the amount of time and money spend is more as compared to local recruitment process. The organization should focus on cheaper and more efficient options available for interviewing international candidate such as Skype and video conference. Organization should also focus on using the internationally available language proficiency test. With the increase in globalization it is very important for every organization to keep themselves abreast with the best possible practices available for international recruitment and selection process.