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In today's competitive and dynamic world, everything gets changed with a swift pace due to a rapid change in technology. Organizations need to be more proactive and competent as this is a world of globalization and world has become a global village. In this global village, organizations who do not possess a competent workforce, usually are not able to make a remarkable progress in the industry (Dessler, 2010).
For the purpose of having a competent workforce, an organization need to opt best HR strategies with the help of great HR professionals. Companies having fully functional HR departments are known for their success. Some examples are Dell, HP, Amazon.com, and Apple. These organizations, and many others, know and understand the true importance of competent workforce and thus allows their HR departments for making their own strategic decisions.
The HR departments in organizations make a significant impact over the performance of organizations. This is due to multiple tasks an HR department does in an organization. These tasks include recruitment and selection, orientating new employees, training new employees, HR planning, making HR budgets, performance management and compensating employees. All of these functions have their importance at their own place. And, by default, all of these activities are interlinked with each other. If one activity is not performed well then it affects the whole chain of works in HR department and thus affects the whole organization (Harris H., 2003).
The functions of HR department start from recruiting and selecting best employees. Recruitment means creating a pool of potential candidates for a particular job and then to select from them using various selection tools and techniques. Such techniques include interviewing candidates, written tests, medical tests, group discussions and reference checking. All of these or some of these activities are used by the organizations that have fully functional HR departments (Dessler, 2010).
As discussed above, activities of HR department are interlinked with each other. If one function is not done properly then it affects the others. As recruitment and selection is the first and most important pillar of an organizations HR department not performing this activity in a well mannered way results in disastrous happenings. So it can be easily said that recruitment and selection is the first and most important pillar of HR and disturbing this pillar will disturb the actions and strategies of whole building of HR department (STEPHEN C., 1995).
The question arises how can recruitment and selection activities become less effective? When the above discussed methods of recruitment and selections are not planned, executed and evaluated well, the problems arise. Such problems include low employee morale, high turnover rate, inability of organization to meet its goals, high absenteeism, and many others. So it is important for any organization to make its recruitment and selection more effective and efficient so that it can have a competent workforce that would ultimately lead the organization to higher standards of success and achieving the objectives of organization (Dominic Cooper, 2009).
1.2 Aims and Objectives of Study
This research has its focus on the techniques used for recruitment and selection of Compugra Systems Inc. There are several aims and objectives attached with this research that would make it a perfect research for other followers. These objectives are stated below:
Critically analyzing the recruitment and selection activities in Compugra Systems Inc.
Pointing out the drawbacks in recruitment and selection activities in Compugra Systems Inc.
Determining the reasons for these drawbacks
Providing solutions to these problems.
There would be a detailed and critical investigation of recruitment and selection policies adopted by Compugra Systems Inc. This is to identify that what are the pitfalls which exist in recruitment and selection activities being done in Compugra Systems Inc.
1.3 Research Questions
Following are our research questions for our research.
What are recruitment and selection methods adopted by Compugra Systems Inc?
Does Compugra Systems Inc. hire workforce internally or externally?
What are drawbacks in recruitment and selection activities of Compugra Systems Inc?
How to reduce the inefficiency of recruitment and selection activities of Compugra Systems Inc?
1.4 Limitations of the Study
Like all other research and studies, this research also does have some limitations that can make an impact over its results. Some of the limitations for this research are discussed below:
The study is confined to the recruitment and selection activities being done in one organization that is Compugra Systems Inc.
Access to the company's policy documents is difficult
The answers of respondents cannot be controlled
The employees of organization might not be willing to provide the required information
All of the above limitations can make an impact over the research findings, data collection, and data analysis. But the researchers would try their level best to ensure that all the limitations of research are handled carefully and have minimum impact over the research.
2.1 Literature Review
Following is the literature review related to our research.
Better recruitment and selection strategies result in improved organizational outcomes. The more effectively organizations recruit and select candidates, the more likely they are to hire and retain satisfied employees (Rioux & Bernthal, 2010).
The first step involved in the procurement function is to plan and aim the Human Resources of organization in terms of attracting both right person and right kind. Once the determination of the human resources, the plans and aims has been made, the process of Recruitment and Selection forms the next phase of procurement function. Although Recruitment and Selection is one of the most routine, yet it is one of the most important functions of any organization. Procurement of efficient and capable employees will contribute to the success of an organization. In order to ensure smooth implementation of plans and policies and to achieve the success of an organization, a sound Recruitment and Selection procedure has to be carried out by the personnel department of the organization.
Recruitment is an important part of Human Resource Planning. In all businesses organizations, people are a vital resource - and they need to be managed well. The overall aim of the Recruitment and Selection process is to obtain the number and quality of employees that are required in order for the business to achieve organizations objectives and targets.
2.1.2 Strategic Determinants of Recruitment
Recruitment is the process of attracting qualified applicants for the organization to consider when filling its positions. Two strategic determinations must be made initially before the process begins. The first is whether the organizations want to do its own recruiting or to contract it out. Organizations lacking internal expertise might want to have an outside vendor do the recruiting for them. The vendor might be used for all recruiting or only for specified jobs. Some organizations find that it is cost-effective to outsource all recruiting gaining access to expertise and efficiencies of scale. Other organizations find that using vendors to recruit for specific jobs is most effective and efficient.
There are several scenarios in which having a vendor perform the recruiting and initial screening might be advantageous to the organization. The first scenario involves hard-to-fill jobs. Recruitment firms often specialize in filling specific positions, such as CEO or research scientist. In these cases, outside vendors may be in a better position that the organization to attract qualified candidates. The second scenario deals with entry-level workers. Organizations often find it cost-effective to deal with employment and temporary agencies to find these types of workers (Phillips, 2006).
2.1.3 Sources of Recruitment
Generally there are two sources of recruitment in any organization. These are:
2.1.4 External Recruitment
In this kind of recruitment the organizations hire people from outside of organization. This is a longer process than the internal recruitment and involves more activities to be done for example giving newspaper ads for job, calling candidates for interviews, scheduling interviews and many more. But this helps the organization in a way that fresh and new blood is inducted in the organization from outside industry (Dessler, 2010). Some of the external sources of recruitment are:
The external recruitment in Compugra Systems Inc. will provide them with fresh blood. But this can also build up some problems for the company as well like high recruitment cost not having accurate methods of external recruitment.
2.1.5 Internal Recruitment
In this kind of recruitment, the organization hires people from within the organization. People are transferred from one department to another and delegated new tasks and duties to perform. Most of the organizations have the policy of recruiting the candidate from internal source promoting the candidate to fill higher level vacancies other than the lowest levels, which acts as a means of motivating the personnel of the organization. Thus, it forms a continuous process, by promoting the candidate having the lowest grade and by giving the candidate training to make them eligible for higher position in the organization. This practice also results in lowering the cost of training and maintaining healthy atmosphere in the organization. Nepotism can be problem in this kind of recruitment as people can be hired internally based on personal liking. The greatest benefit of this kind of hiring is that people remains in the same environment, they do not need to be given the orientation and they are already familiar with the organizational culture (Arne Evers, 2005).
Internal recruitment can be made more effective even if the company is not having efficient policy of recruitment. This is because the existing employees of the company are already known well by the managers so they need to spend less time to understand that which internal employee can be given another post. In order to help the Compugra Systems Inc. internal recruitment can help to reduce the recruitment pitfalls by hiring the workforce internally.
To select means to choose. Selection is a process by which the qualified persons or candidates are chosen from the applicants by collecting and assessing the information about them. It is "the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes - those who will be offered employment and those who will not be (i.e., those who will be rejected). Since more candidates may be turned away than hired, selection is frequently described as a negative process, in contrast with the positive program of recruitment.
After identifying the source of human resources and attracting the capable candidates, the management performs the process of choosing the right employees at the right time. The intention of the Selection policy is to choose the best - qualified and suitable candidate for each unfilled job. The objective of the selection decision is to choose from the pool of qualified candidates, who can most successfully perform the job, which results in choosing the suitable candidate to achieve the company's goals (STEPHEN C., 1995).
2.1.7 Steps in Scientific Selection Process
For selecting the best candidates who are thought as potential candidates for an organization are then put into various tools and techniques in order to judge their capabilities and abilities. For this purpose selection process is run. The selection process involves the following steps:
Line Manager's Decision
This is a standard process and may vary organization to organization. Some organizations skip some steps in this process. For example some organizations may not prefer to go for medical examination as the job requirement is no as critical as a person has to be physically fit for the job.
Like every research we have also sent a hypothesis to measure for our research. The hypothesis for our research has stated below.
"Inappropriate Recruitment and Selection Strategies Affects the Organizational Objectives"
Every hypothesis has two variables. One is called depended variable and other one is called independent variable. The dependent variable varies with the change of independent variable. But, on the other side, independent variable does not have any effect over itself of any other variable.
In our hypothesis we have two variables. These are
Independent Variable: Organizational Objectives
Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Activities
When it comes to the above statement, definitely an inappropriate Recruitment and Selection(R&S) techniques destroy a company. A company should have a well- defined plan of the R&S procedures before it starts the process. There is no standard R&S process that can be followed by all the companies in all the areas. Companies may follow different R&S techniques or methods depending upon the size of the company, nature of the business, kind and no. of personnel to be employed, government regulations to be followed etc.
The most general method adopted practice is to carry out the R& S function in single office. For the top management to implement the plans efficiently, all the employment activities should be centralized. First step in the process of Recruitment includes the Job Analysis and Job Description. Sources of Recruitment whether Internal/External or by adopting other sources and techniques of recruitment also play a main role in determining the efficient Recruitment techniques of the company.
Next to the Recruitment process is the Selection process where the suitable candidate for the required position is finally selected here. Selection procedure employs several methods of collecting information about the candidates' qualifications, experience, physical and mental ability, nature and behavior, knowledge, aptitude and the like for judging whether a given applicant is or is not suitable for the job.
3.1 Research Methodology and Data Collection
There are three kinds of researches which are followed researchers. These are:
Exploratory research structures and identifies new problems in research by going deep inside the problem. Constructive research concentrates on the solution to an existing problem while empirical research tests whether the solution of a problem is feasible or not by stating a hypothesis and then testing it.
For our research we will follow the research method of Empirical Research. This is because we are analyzing and testing the feasibility of an existing problem. The problem we are facing is the issues in the recruitment and selection techniques so these issues affect the organization's effectiveness. The Exploratory research is not used because there is no new problem to be identified. Also the Constructive research is rejected because it does not test the feasibility of a solution rather it just provides the solution.
Both primary and secondary data would be used for data collection and analysis. The primary data would be selected through internet, email, books, journals, and online sources. The secondary data would be collected through emails and personal discussion with organization's persons.
Quantitative methods have their historical origins in science and the approach is sometimes referred to as the 'Scientific method'. This method describes, explains and tests relationships. The diagnostic is that the techniques used always generate numerical data. The data collected is then analyzed. The analysis can be simple in mathematical terms involving the production of tables, charts and diagrams (bar chart, pie chart etc.). The data collected from the company has been analyzed through quantitative method. All the data collected would be analyzed in simple mathematical terms involving the production of tables, charts and diagrams, which is referred to as descriptive statistics. The analysis part would be done using the bar diagrams and pie charts.
The proposal is the outline of our research that has to be done by us in the coming days. This proposal identifies and drafts the overall research project. The purpose of this research is to identify the problems in recruitment and selection activities and thus to recommend the best practices in order to make recruitment and selection more effective.
As discussed above many times that those organizations which possess great and competent workforce has a dynamic presence all over the world. Their HR departments are fully functional and are working on their top level and providing the best talent to their organizations. In this way the organization runs its strategies effectively.
This is a common phenomenon that human beings have to do all the basic activities in an organization. Whether it is policy making, implementing strategies, making marketing strategies, competitive intelligence, or whatever else, human beings have to do all these major things. So the in order to complete these tasks efficiently and effectively, organizations need to have a competent workforce and this is the responsibility of HR department.
If recruitment and selection activities are fair and crystal clear then all the other functions can be run smoothly. By inducting the deserved candidates in the organization, the HR department is giving organization a chance to grow in a competent world. Now the organization and HR both can groom and develop the new talent in the organization.
Recruiting right people at right time is a task that continues on and on basis for any organization. When a person leaves the organization then who is the responsible for providing the best candidate on that vacant position? Obviously it is HR. And if, in any case, HR does not provide the best workers for the job then that organization ultimately suffers strategically.
When it comes to make the organizational structure, HR has its own importance. Like other departments marketing, finance, operations, research and development, HR is now known as the father of all other departments. What are the reasons of the success of big multinationals like Unilever, Dell, HP, Proctor & Gamble, and Amazon.com? There might be several reasons for their success but managing their valuable human resource is one thing that makes them to become one of the leading organizations of the world (Stephen, Sandra, Chiff, and Pamela, 1995).