The Use Of Recruitment And Selection Business Essay

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Effective recruitment is important for organisation success (barber 1988).key decision is that whether to recruit internally or externally. Recruitment is a process of attracting individuals who might meet the specifications of job and selection is the process of finding the candidate who has profile which best matches the job specifications. Recruitment and selection is about discriminating the candidates based on fair criteria like technical skills and attitudes rather than criteria like gender, disability, age, race etc selection should be done as broader process of organisational socialisation (Anderson 2001)

In traditional approach tends to assumes that one best way to do a particular job is candidates are selected according to specifications, selection should be done as broader process of organisational socialisation

UK chartered institute of recruitment states that care should be taken in selection of techniques for a relevant job and business objectives of organisation. All tools should be validated constantly reviewed and validated to ensure their fairness and reliability (http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/recruitmen/general/recruitmt.htm)

Effective recruitment is essential for organisation success (barber 1998) the key decision is that how to recruit people whether internally or externally.

Internal sources: internal resources include present employees who become candidates for promotion, transfer, job rotation as well as ex employees, who are available for rehires and recalls.

Schools, aliens (randal and schuler 1993). (personal and human resource management 5th edition randal s. Schuler vandra L. Huber 1993 united states of America pp 189 to 201)

Internal recruitment:

Recruitment is made internally by job posting skills inventory by promotions of the existing employees due to which their will be no further problem in understanding how organisation operates so socialisation and learning may be reduced. Internal recruitment is quiet common in most of the organisations that are keen to develop and nurture their own internal talent

Problems with internal recruitment are that it prevents the fresh blood from outside entering into the organisation it is discriminatory since it tends to encourage the existing talent. Internal recruitment is common in private sector where the discrimination tends to be higher priority than an private sector (Harris 2000) (Stephen bach 2004)

External sources: employee referral program, walk ins, employment agencies, other companies, temporary help agencies, trade association and unions schools, aliens(randal and schuler 1993)

External recruitment:

External recruitment is recruiting people from outside in general all the advantages of internal recruitment are the disadvantages of External recruitment

Consider an Example consider a person who is working as a contractor outside for several years is appointed by the organisation since he had experience in the same job is external recruitment

Since internal sources are not sufficient sometimes to supply required some of candidates most organisations uses external sources Radio and television, newspapers and trade journals, computerised services, acquisitions and mergers.

Employee referrals: this is merely asking them to inform relation friends, acquisition in simple terms giving recommendation of the candidate such that the responsibility is taken over by the work force who have given recommendation such that ensuring effective performance by the workers (Manwaring 1984).

Walk-ins: walk-ins is where the employee simply walks into the employee premises by seeing the advertisement of vacancy, many fast food outlets recruits the workers in this way, this is quick cheap and very effective in terms of retention.

Employment agencies: employment agencies has been a popular source of recruitment, frequent use of the employment agencies were to employee the staff with specialist skills and to fill temporary vacancies or in situation where there is need to fill vacancy immediately(rankin 2004).many recruitment agencies are web based such as monster.com (www.monster.com) there are also other online based agencies where one can post the CV or resume to let the employers search candidates and also seek the careers advices

Education institutions:

The companies recruits the graduates from university or college by having campus placements such that where the market is fiercely competent such as accountancy, software engineers this helps them to advertise their company and also to position the company with best and efficient talent in first.(Stephen bach 2004)

Selection:

Selection is the process in which managers choose the required applicants by using specific methods to such that the candidate likely to meet the required organisation goals and legal requirements

[john bratton and Jeffrey gold 'human resource management' 3rd edition in 2003m printed in great britain by bath press,bath]

Selection methods(stephenbach)

Selction is made through different methods out of which interview is common methd which is used in comnbination with other methods .First stage of selection is based on studying information provided in the candidates CVs and also biographical data such that by which the candidates past experiences and achievements are analysed

Selection methods:

Choice of right selection method is important for any organization generally combination of two or more methods are used and choice of this selection tools depends on job specifications and goals of organization

Some of selection tools are

Application Forms

Application forms are very popular 93% of UK companies using it,(Shackleton & newell 1991) by application form employer can get the relevant information about the job rather then what applicant want to say. Among all the tools application forms is most maligned and misused tool but with proper attention and careful design it can become the effective part in overall design of selection process(gareth Roberts)

Limitations of application forms:

Some of the limitations of application forms are online application forms are misused and they are self report so they may results in false information and also long forms may sometimes put off the candidates

Interview

There are many selection methods out of which interview is the common method used often and alone and also used in combination of other methods (Shackleton and newell 1991).it is very unsual in people to hire in selection process without using interview. Interview is structured semi structured and unstructured. Here the applicants are personally accessed to reveal the applicant qualifications oral and social skills such that applicant fits the organization

Limitations of interview:

Most of the candidates are failing in interviews due to lack of preparation on part of interviewer. It is difficult for interviewer to maintain the same attention throughout the interview sometimes interviewer may remember the first and last stages of interview and are difficult to maintain with large number of applicants(gareth roberts)

Psychometric Tests

Psychometric tests gained more popularity in recent years psychometric tests are mainly two types ability tests and personality tests. Ability tests measures aptitude like vocabulary, special awareness, numeracy, typing speed and accuracy while the personal test measures the personal characteristics like values, attitude and beliefs of a person which reflect one's beliefs and behavior.

Limitations of psychometric tests:

Some factors like environment, language, gender and age can affect the candidates while taking the tests like candidate whose mother tongue is not English may face a difficulty in vocabulary tests. Misinterpretation of test results and taking the test in absence of rules and regulations are some of the limitations in psychometric tests

Curriculum Vitae

Curriculum vitae are commonly used in short listing the candidates. It demonstrates the ability of the candidates and assemble their thoughts and put in clear piece of paper it is the summary of personal history

Limitations of CV:

It is difficult for the recruiter to filter the good CV sometimes strengths are mentioned and weakness of candidate may be omitted in preparing CV. it may contain the irrelevant information sometimes. At times professional applicants may print many copies and send them to organizations which will test their resolve and therefore their seriousness

Recruitment strategy:

Recruitment strategy is essential in effective contemporary organisations for recruitment, selection and development of the staff. human resource strategy is linked to the overall strategy of organisation such that they can utilise people as competitive advantage hence this in itself requires the needs to analyse the strategy which could take the form, such strategic approach of an organisation has two key assets they are

Organisation ensures that it identifies, develops, utilises potential of the every individual of workforce

It also uses its finances on its people who directly contribute to achievement of the strategic goals (Linda maund 2001)

Recruitment process:

Recruitment is made when a specific employee leaves the job or in case of company expansion recruitment process is attracting candidates who might fill the role or job of the organisation. Recruitment process is carried in different stages

Job analysis: first stage of recruitment process is job analysis which is carried through different techniques like interview, questionnaires and diaries. job analysis is essential in those situations where the employee is been replaced the job requirements may also change hence systematic review of job requirements is made as a part of recruitment such that it helps organisation to fill the vacancy with the better talent and according to the job requirements. (Stephen bach 2005 edition 4 'managing human resources' personal management in transition.printed in UK)

Job description and job specification:

Once the job analysis is done the next stage is to develop job description which describes the demands of job which are essential for success such as it describes what job involves, purpose of job that need to be undertaken, responsibilities, duties, expected performance standards. Job analysis is job oriented focusing on work itself while the job specification is the workers oriented focusing on psychological and behavioural requirements of job. Both are essential in recruitment process they are common in UK recruitment process(see IRS 2003a). Both job description and job specification provide the required information which is necessary for the next stage of recruitment process that is person specification

Person specification:

Person specification is about the personal qualities that are required to perform the job successfully such as education, training or experiences and qualifications and person specifications should not be in terms of age, sex, religion custom the organisation should follow certain equal laws. When it comes to employee retention the employee should work in team with organisation team hence he should also posses all this attributes in spite of fitting job.

(Management and organisational behaviour by laurie j.mullins prentice hall 8thedition)Organisation goals are important to any organisation they are the key factors which determine the success and performance of any organisation. Organisation goals determine the nature of its inputs and outputs and series of activities through which it achieve the outputs. inorder to achieve the goals some structure is necessary for any organisation to framework the pattern of management

Primary purpose of design is to divide and allocate work and then coordinate and control the work such organisational goals are attained (Kelly)

Combining HRM systems to the business strategy is considered as vertical fit. Vertical integration is traditional view of things with top to down approach in which organisational strategy is first translated into human resource strategy which is then translated into different human resource activities which are in practical. In this approach HR department is given a role of looking after training and staffing in personal , importance given to organisational goals and HR is used as a tool to achieve this goals

The main focus is to develop the competencies and skills required to understand the organisational goals which helps to observe the internal flow of personal in order to match the emerging business strategies.

This can be explained by the following diagram:

In this approach transportation charges are reduced and organisation keeps tight control over the workforce and due to common ownership results in closer geographic proximity. In vertical approach in recruitment and selection the main concerns are matching the selection strategy to overall strategy it also matches the interpersonal flow to selection strategy and key personal to the business strategy.

Pay:

Pay is essential for any job it has significant influence in job attractiveness and subsequent job choices decisions according to (Rynes1987).pay is biggest motivating factor in traditional approach example Microsoft pays high salaries which follows traditional approach.

Training:

Training is given to ensure the productivity. In vertical approach organisation training should be in such a way to increase the competencies and skills required for the organisation training is made through evaluation, development and assessment.

Leadership:

Leadership is about providing moral and strategic vision that defines the collective work and binds the individual together, it is more effective and helps in motivating and attaining the goals of an organisation to maximize the productivity of the workforce tight control is made and deadlines are kept .(management and organisational behaviour by laurie j.mullins 8th edition prentice hall)

[Human resource management a strategic introduction by Christopher mabey, Graeme salaman ,john storey 6th edition 1998 USA] International recruitment and selection manager focuses on international strategies, international orientation and cultural diversity .when recruitment and selection is carried out across borders they may feel that selection system used in recruitment is ineffective. Example British graduates may find it insulting to be rejected in interview by French government on their hand writing. French government may find equally insulting to undertake psychometric tests and group exercises in assessment centres. Hence manager should take necessary care in international selection and recruitment process, external recruitment many organisation have engaged the international recruitment and selection to meet the staffing needs of foreign subsidiaries and joint ventures and labour shortages in recent times companies started using the international assignments to develop the international exposure and potential of individual and experience of big job motive behind the international assignments is to develop the organisation with new ideas and fostering organisation learning. shortage of experienced mangers results in. failure to recruit retain and develop the host country is one of the factor for globalisation such firm are lack of knowledge of labour market ,training, qualification, local education and cultural problems hence adapt the domestic recruitment process to the foreign countries .globalisation external recruitment is used often to fill the international management position however there may be some difficulties of interruption in international recruitment and selection of managers in issues like reward package unwillingness to disrupt children's education and dual carrier family issues, quality of life issue and increase in reluctance of individuals to leave their own job partners and carriers due to this most of the international MNC's are planning to take the women in management position

Diversity strategy: (leadership: research finding practice and skills by Andrew j. Dubrin 6th edition 2009 USA]

A true diversity strategy should encourage the skills talents of the employees and encourage their contributions to the organisation irrespective of their race gender ethnic background or any other definable differences. Now a day's most of the organisations are focusing on diversity strategy to have the best person with cultural fit but it sometimes discriminate the protected class of workers minority people. Since recruiters focuses on the physical appearances the persons who look alike and act alike conflict with the diversity strategy. Managing the diversity brings the competitive advantage to the firm in several ways like turnover and absenteeism may be lower to the minorities satisfaction and marketing may be increased due to representational workforce selling goods and services good reputation to the managing diversity may attract the customers and in recruiting and retaining the talented minority group of candidates. Elaine fox a labour and employment attorney cautions that "one of the biggest problem that can occur when hiring based on culture is if the culture you r comfortable may doesn't open the way to the women and minorities"

To increase retention rates the diversity consultant's advice to strengthen cultural training programs and improve the hidden skills and talents of employees

[The diversity tool kit William sonnenschein USA 1997)As example of IBM the company has downsized it employed the diverse staff to assure that it workforce diversity remains intact it believes that diversity is understanding and appealing to the customer base the IBM chief Louis V.Gerstner says" our market place is made up of all races, religions and sexual orientations and therefore it is vital to our success that our workforce also be diverse"

Cross cultural competence.(kelly)

Cross cultural competence is effectiveness of individual in drawing things like knowledge, skills and personal attributes with different cultural backgrounds and work successfully in home or abroad. Many international business failures is due to lack of cross cultural competence on the part of business practitioners argues Johnson, lenartowicz and apud(2006).

Cultural knowledge is essential in developing the cross cultural competence; culturally competent manager should be able to apply the knowledge as well. Certain individuals have an aptitude for developing cultural competence while others do not, Openness to new ideas and tolerance to ambiguity are required for the learning of cross cultural knowledge and skills. Consequently organisation may attempt to screen applicants see methodologies of cross cultural assessment for certain international business positions (Johnson,lenartowicz and Apud 2006)

In international business model of cross cultural competence, Johnson, Lenartowicz and apud(2006) discusses three dimensions of cultural competence

1.Personal attributes such as values, beliefs and personality traits

2.Personal skills

3.cultural knowledge

According to Johnson,Lenartowicz and apud(2006) two environmental factors such as institutional ethnocentrism and cultural distance also impede the cross cultural competence in international business context

Competency framework provide the balanced view of things it provides the balance of targets and behaviour and accommodate the differing nature of juniors and seniors at work

It typically involve the following things like

1.Setting up targets or goals interms of subjects or objects like customer served sales achieved measurable volume of performance

2. competencies that is behavioural description of standards expressed in fulfilling the role as agreed statements of behaviour of both in advanced and expected level

3 development plans in achieving the targets and competencies by training and any development activities which can be drawn from above stages which supports the employee in achieving targets and competencies.

If a Person is sufficient with adaptable competencies but with deficient with natural competencies then another person with natural competencies are selected in selection and recruitment process consider an organisation which is suppose to recruit the legal advisor it is important to select the legal advisor who have the legal qualification and the shortfalls are being trained

Competency based approach is used in some organisations in architecture of human resource policies and practices the competencies are used as the specifications in selection and recruitment activity is subsequently made as a of competency framework and also some companies does the recruitment process by developing the people specifications by competency based approach as the basis for selection and this specifications are used to drive other HR practices [gareth Roberts]

[ human resource management a contemporary approach Julie beardwell tim claydon 5th edition prentice hall spain Competency based approach of recruitment and selection is identification of set of competencies required such as planning organising managing relationships gathering and analysing information and decision making each competency is divided into different levels and is matched on the requirements of job

According to Feltham (boam and sparrow 1992) competency based approach can contribute to the effectiveness of recruitment and selection by following ways

The competency analysis helps the organisation to evaluate what it needs from human resources and specify what role is played by selection and recruitment

Number of practical benefits are resulted due to implementation of competency based recruitment and selection

By using the competencies as the framework fairness effectiveness and validity can be increased this competencies are not just used in recruitment and selection they used in other HR practices application of this competency framework in other areas of HRM yields consistency vertical and horizontal integration. Occasionally competencies are used at national levels in attending the international calls to identify the scandals in US and UK and also used in assessment centres, competency based interviews, psychological testing competency based approach helps in making the consistent systematic fair decision making.

Competency based approach the main focus is on behaviour of job applicants not on personal qualities that might underpin behaviour(Newell And Shackleton 2001,p26)

Royle (1999) argues that MC Donald's is keen to take the acquiescent workforce to resist management control with people in weak labour market position who have minimal work experience. In simple terms the strategy is to recruit on basis of attitudes and train staff in required technical skills(Callaghan and Thompson 2002)

CALLAGHANG.AND THOMPSON P. ''We recruit attitude' ':The selection and shaping of routine call centre labour', Journal Of Management Studies,Vol.11,No.2,2002.Pp233-255.

NEWELL S. and SHACKLETON V. 'Selection and assessment as an interactive decision-action process', in T. Redman and A.WILKINSON (eds), Contemporary Human Resource Management. LONDON, FINANACIAL TIMES/PRENTICE HALL.2001

[Human resource management a strategic introduction by Christopher mabey, Graeme salaman ,john storey 6th edition 1998 USA] International recruitment and selection manager focuses on international strategies, international orientation and cultural diversity .when recruitment and selection is carried out across borders they may feel that selection system used in recruitment is ineffective. Example British graduates may find it insulting to be rejected in interview by French government on their hand writing. French government may find equally insulting to undertake psychometric tests and group exercises in assessment centres. Hence manager should take necessary care in international selection and recruitment process, external recruitment many organisation have engaged the international recruitment and selection to meet the staffing needs of foreign subsidiaries and joint ventures and labour shortages in recent times companies started using the international assignments to develop the international exposure and potential of individual and experience of big job motive behind the international assignments is to develop the organisation with new ideas and fostering organisation learning. shortage of experienced mangers results in. failure to recruit retain and develop the host country is one of the factor for globalisation such firm are lack of knowledge of labour market ,training, qualification, local education and cultural problems hence adapt the domestic recruitment process to the foreign countries .globalisation external recruitment is used often to fill the international management position however there may be some difficulties of interruption in international recruitment and selection of managers in issues like reward package unwillingness to disrupt children's education and dual carrier family issues, quality of life issue and increase in reluctance of individuals to leave their own job partners and carriers due to this most of the international MNC's are planning to take the women in management position

Diversity strategy: (leadership: research finding practice and skills by Andrew j. Dubrin 6th edition 2009 USA]

A true diversity strategy should encourage the skills talents of the employees and encourage their contributions to the organisation irrespective of their race gender ethnic background or any other definable differences. Now a day's most of the organisations are focusing on diversity strategy to have the best person with cultural fit but it sometimes discriminate the protected class of workers minority people. Since recruiters focuses on the physical appearances the persons who look alike and act alike conflict with the diversity strategy. Managing the diversity brings the competitive advantage to the firm in several ways like turnover and absenteeism may be lower to the minorities satisfaction and marketing may be increased due to representational workforce selling goods and services good reputation to the managing diversity may attract the customers and in recruiting and retaining the talented minority group of candidates. Elaine fox a labour and employment attorney cautions that "one of the biggest problem that can occur when hiring based on culture is if the culture you r comfortable may doesn't open the way to the women and minorities"

To increase retention rates the diversity consultant's advice to strengthen cultural training programs and improve the hidden skills and talents of employees

[The diversity tool kit William sonnenschein USA 1997)As example of IBM the company has downsized it employed the diverse staff to assure that it workforce diversity remains intact it believes that diversity is understanding and appealing to the customer base the IBM chief Louis V.Gerstner says" our market place is made up of all races, religions and sexual orientations and therefore it is vital to our success that our workforce also be diverse"

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