The Universalism And High Commitment Business Essay

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What we hear and what we read is conveying someone elses interpretations. The way those are expressed may obscure the ideology and vested interest in those interpretations. Child (1969) discusses the ideology embodied in the development of management thinking, identifying how the human relations approach chose to ignore the difference of interests between managers and employees and how this dismissal of potential conflict influenced theory and practice.

Hegemony

Hegemony is the imposition of the reality favoured by a powerful subgroup in society upon less powerful others. Such a group exerts its authority over subordinate groups by imposing its definition of reality over other possible definitions. This does not have to be achieved through direct coercion, but by 'winning the consent of the dominated majority so that class dominated with the power appears lawful, pure and natural.

Rhetoric

Rhetoric is 'the art of using language to persuade, influence or manipulate' (Gowler and Legge, 1989: 438). Its 'high symbolic content' 'allows it to reveal and conceal but above all develop and transform meaning' (Gowler and Legge, 1989: 439, their italics). It 'heightens and transforms meaning by processes of association, involving both evocation and juxtaposition'. In other words, its artfulness lies in playing with meanings. It is something with which we are familiar, whether as political 'spin' or as the terminology used in effecting organisational change (Atkinson and Butcher, 1999).

In the 'eco-climate' of an organisation, where meanings are shared and negotiated, power and knowledge relations are expressed rhetorically.

These interweave through the warp to produce the basic pattern of the tapestry, but with differing colours and textures, and also differing lengths (durations), so that they do not necessarily appear throughout the tapestry. They constitute important contextual influences upon HRM, and in part account for the competing definitions of it.

BEST-PRACTICE SHRM:

High-Commitment Models

The best-practice approach highlights the relationship between 'sets' of good HR practices and organisational performance, mostly defined in terms of employee commitment and satisfaction. These sets of best practice can take many forms: some have advocated a universal set of practices that would enhance the performance of all organisations to which they were applied (Pfeffer, 1994, 1998); others have focused on integrating the practices to the specific business context (high-performance work practices). A key element of best practice is congruence between policies and horizontal integration. Difficulties arise here, as best-practice models vary significantly in their constitution and in their relationship to organisational performance, which makes generalisations from research and empirical data difficult. Here, it is argued that by identifying, by commitment and proper implementation of set of best HRM practices, all organisations will benefit and see improvements in organisational performance.

Universalism And High Commitment

One of the models most commonly cited is Pfeffer's (1994) 16 HR practices for 'competitive advantage through people' which he revised to seven practices for 'building profits by putting people first' in 1998.

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Pfeffer (1994) explains how changes in the external environment have reduced the impact of traditional sources of competitive advantage, and increased the significance of new sources of competitive advantage, namely human resources that enable an organisation to adapt and innovate. The universalist approach or 'ideal set of practices'(Guest, 1997), concerns about how ideal set of practices are achieved by close organisations, the hypothesis being that the closer an organisation gets, the better the organisation will perform, in terms of higher productivity, service levels and profitability. The role of Human Resources involve gaining senior management commitment to a set of HR polices and best practices and ensuring that they are implemented and that reward is distributed accordingly.

Measuring The Impact Of SHRM On Performance And The Balanced Scorecard

A study by Ernst & Young in 1997, cited in Armstrong and Baron (2002), found that more than a third of the data used to justify business analysts' decisions were non-financial, and that when non-financial factors, notably 'human resources', were taken into account better investment decisions were made. The non-financial metrics most valued by investors are identified in

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This presents an opportunity for HR managers to develop business capability and demonstrate the contribution of SHRM to organisational performance. One method that is worthy of further consideration is the balanced scorecard (Kaplan and Norton,1996, 2001). This is also concerned with relating critical non-financial factors to financial outcomes, by assisting firms to map the key cause-effect linkages in their desired strategies (Boxall and Purcell, 2003).

Kaplan and Norton adopt a stakeholder perspective, based on the premise that for an organisation to be considered successful, it must satisfy the requirements of key stakeholders; namely investors, customers and employees. They suggest identifying objectives, measures, targets and initiatives on four key perspectives of business performance:

Financial:

How we should appear to our stakeholders in order to succeed financially?

Customer:

How we should make our vision clear to our customers?

Internal business processes:

What business processes we introduce to satisfy our customers and shareholders?

Learning and growth:

What ability should be posses to achieve our vision?'

They recognise that investors require financial performance, measured through profitability, market value and cash flow or EVA (economic value added); customers require quality products and services, which can be measured by market share, customer service, customer retention and loyalty or CVA (customer value added); and employees require a healthy place to work, which recognises opportunities for personal development and growth, and these can be measured by attitude surveys, skill audits and performance appraisal criteria, which recognise not only what they do, but what they know and how they feel or PVA (people value added). These can be delivered through appropriate and integrated systems, including HR systems. The balanced scorecard approach therefore provides an integrated framework for balancing shareholder and strategic goals, and extending those balanced performance measures down through the organisation, from corporate to divisional to functional departments and then on to individuals (Grant, 2002). By balancing a set of strategic and financial goals, the scorecard can be used to reward current practice, but also offer incentives to invest in long-term effectiveness, by integrating financial measures of current performance with measures of 'future performance'. Thus it provides a template that can be adapted to provide the information that organisations require now and in the future, for the creation of shareholder value

CONCLUSION

HR Professionals should always consider whether investment in HR will help achieve business objectives and how it will increase business productivity. Secondly, trust is the foundation to add value in organization.HR manager / director should consider ways of increasing trust levels in an organization which is based on confidence, honesty and the ongoing participation.

In order to achieve organizational goal people should be managed by excellent human resources management. The Human Resources Management Framework draws the concerns to four areas. It signifies the public service through legislative, financial and operational realities.

Leadership

Leadership is the skill to develop good relationship, identify and use the talent of workforce for result while considering ethical business concerns. Some of the desired outcomes are explained below and what must be the performance indicators manager must consider while looking at framework

Employees Productivity

A good workforce delivers good and service appropriately and perform efforts to improve. Productivity is defined as the ratio of output to input. It increases when we use less resources to produce more. Increased productivity reduces cost enhances profitability and save resources

Suitable Work Environment

A good working environment provides support services to employees to achieve their assigned task. Safe, healthy and competitive environment increases employee productivity which in turn save cost and resources for the organization and increases employee motivation.

Workforce Sustainability

Workforce sustainability can be achieved by using the employees effectively while considering their individual capacities to achieve organization goal. Directly right person on the right job increases efficiency and therefore errors and mistakes can be curtail therefore saves cost.

Human resource management concerns the management of the employment relationship. In this essay examination of the warp and weft that give the tapestry its basic form, pattern, colour and texture has been discussed. We need to recognise that organizational issues and people constitute the surface stitching of the tapestry. We are fully aware of the value representing context as a tapestry. This include how we perceive reality, make assumptions about it, and define it for ourselves.HR function plays an important role in an organization progress and growth. HRM policies and practices is directly linked with the organization performance. SHRM indicates that people in organization are strategic resources i.e. man force capital that must be balanced in implementing corporate strategy.

HRM adds value to business by:

Increasing the effectiveness of the processes.

Making recruitment process effective.

It ensures compliance with policies and procedures and ensure all department follow those policies and procedure consistently.

Creates accountability.

Identify and ensure when and how HR should be proactive, reactive, or anticipatory.

Its makes employee participative.

HRM maintain the company margins and meet company goals.

It meets the legal requirement related to HR.

It ensures that employees appraisals are carried out on regular basis.

Ensures fair employee compensation.

For successful enactment of these role HR manager must: know where the company's is going, position where company stands among competitors and Capabilities and competence of HR manager to execute the task. To successfully accomplish business partners role and SHRMs change agent, the HR practitioner must be very well informed, multitalented, multi skilled and obtain essential competencies like business know how, strategic visioning and global operating expertise, reliability, veracity and consulting skills, among others.

This essay has identified number of implications for both decision makers and managers.Firstly organization should develop policies related to HR based on the business strategies they follow as business strategies and policies related to HR are not mutually independent. For the purpose organization should have HR department representation to the board level. Secondly, the emphasis should be given on the development of those HRM policies and business strategies which improves employees' outcome such as attitude, skills and behaviour. Thirdly, the important aspect of HRM strategy should revolve around selection, work design, performance appraisal, training and development, incentives, communication, promotion, Participation, involvement. Fourthly, business strategy should revolve around cost, quality and innovation.

HR Professionals should always consider whether investment in HR will help achieve business objectives and how it will increase business productivity. Secondly, trust is the foundation to add value in organization.HR manager / director should consider ways of increasing trust levels in an organization which is based on confidence, honesty and the ongoing participation.

Gomez-Mejia & Balkin (1992) states that organisations set of polices related to HR will be more effective if it is consistent and in line with other organization strategies. For an organization, in order to retain competitive advantage business strategies of cost quality and innovation will be more suitable (Porter,1985). If a strategy influences the relationship between organizational performance and HR management policies then it is a cost business strategy. Similarly, a quality business strategy also influences the relationship between Human Resource Management policies and business performance. An innovation business strategy also influences the relationship between organisational performance and HR management policies (Schuler & Jackson, 1987).

Abstract

Human resource approach and practice is a management function aimed at maximizing return on investment in human capital. The main purpose of HR department is to ensure that there is an increased pool of human knowledge, skills and abilities in the organisation.

HR function plays an important role in an organization progress and growth. In today's frequently changing and highly competitive environment, organization's ultimate success or failure is also affected by it as success now also depended on how the organizations discover and manage their human resources.

The essay will focus on activities handled by the human resource department such as hiring practices, training and development, performance appraisal, payment practices and managerial perceptions and preferences in the organisation. Further, the discussion will also take into account the challenges and limitations faced by the organizational managers in an organisation to implement comprehensive human resource management practices.

This essay will review that in order to examine human resources and their management we need to be knowledgeable of not just the multiple layers of its context but conceptual plans and the way they intersect must also be seen. Further, we have discussed that ideologies and ideas, experiences and events are interwoven or say interconnected and not isolatable or discrete and HRM itself is therefor, embedded in that context that is it is a part of that web and cannot be examined in isolation.

This essay also takes in to account tapestry to establish and make HRM sensible. We have discussed the ways of seeing the context which are the wrap, the thread running the length of the tapestry, and focuses on how we recognize reality, how we make assumptions about reality, and define if for others as well as for ourselves. Further best fit school and best practices of HRM which increases the organizational performance and meet goal congruence between organization and individual goals are also been discussed.

Introduction:

A situation observed from one angel gives one impression and seen from another angel gives another impression. In order to gain full understanding of the situation you will need to get full information and gain full understanding of the situation. Facts can be easily misinterpreted when we examine situations, people, events etc out of context, as context is their which gives us full understanding of the situations.

Context describes the situation and gives us the codes to decode them, the language to understand them and provides the keys to understand the meaning of different phases. This essay will explain HRM is far more than a practices, procedures, portfolio of policies, and concerned with the employees relationship management (Keenoy, 1990). HR function plays an important role in an organization progress and growth. In today's frequently changing and highly competitive environment, organization's ultimate success or failure is also affected by it as success now also depended on how the organizations discover and manage their human resources.

However, it has been observed that certain events and changes in wider context create repercussion for the organization and creates tension in the organization which the managers have to manage by making various choices. In brief tension within the organization arises due the following factors such as several stakeholders, stakeholder's difference of opinion upon events, stakeholders past experiences and knowledge, stakeholders may have different goals and aims, their needs, interests and goals, the conflict between formal organization and individual potential and needs. Theses tensions affect the performance and productivity of the organization which in turn leads the organization towards failure

The various layers of HRM context has been overlayed by the world of ideas and values which specify the ways and steps of organising society, the way of acquiring and utilizing power, and the way of distributing resources.

The essay will review that in order to examine human resources and their management we need to be familiar of not just the multiple layers of its context but conceptual plans and the way they intersect must also be seen. Further, we have discussed that ideologies and ideas, experiences and events are interwoven or say interconnected and not isolatable or discrete and HRM itself is therefore, embedded in that context that is it is a part of that web and cannot be examined in isolation.

Aim and Objectives

The essay takes into account various factors which contribute towards the success on an organization and discuss various models and approaches to human resource management. It will evaluate the relationship between HRM and organizational performance and factors which an HR director should consider to restructure a failing organization which includes proper hiring, training, employee motivation and performance appraisal.

The aim of the the essay is to explore factors which would help reconstruct a failing organization. This essay will basically focus on following objectives which are: Understanding of HRM and its significance to the business will be developed. Examination of the different models and approaches to manage human resource such as, the best-fit approach, the configurationally approach to HRM, The resource-based view of HRM, and the best-practice approach to HRM. Evaluation the relationship between SHRM and organizational performance and best practices of HRM will also be covered along with different models and its impact of HRM on organizational performance

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