The study of the Organizational Cultures

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Organizational culture has often been defined as studying behavior of individuals and groups within organizations. The way people interact with each other depicts the culture of those particular organizations. Culture varies from organization to organization as it is influenced by disciplines of psychology, sociology, politics and economics. Although it is primarily identified with psychology. Psychology of people differs from one to another. But psychology of the leader or head of the organization plays a very important role in determining the culture of the organizations (Allen & Meyer 1999, Johannes Steyrer, Michael Schiffingera , Reinhart Lang 2008, Jonathan H. Westover, Andrew R. Westover, L. Alan Westover 2009)

Organizational culture is generally seen as a set of key values, assumptions, understandings, and norms that is shared by members of an organization and taught to new members as correct (Daft, 2005). The study on organizational culture can take on a multitude of aspects, including levels (visible, expressed values, and underlying assumptions), strength (strong or weak), and adaptiveness (adaptive or unadaptive). Organizational culture is defined as 'a system of shared values (that define what is important) and norms that define appropriate attitudes and behaviors for organizational members (how to feel and behave)' (O'Reilly and Chatman 1996).

A survey of CEO'S of top companies indicated that corporate culture was believed to be the most important lever in enhancing the key capabilities ( Kamarul Zaman Ahmad, Lee Huey Ying 2009).

The influence of organizational culture is substantial but it has been discussed in diverse formats. Some authors are of the view that culture is depicted in the slogans and symbols of any organizations. Others have dugged deeper in terms of underlying norms and values that prevail in a culture (E.S Williams, K.V RONdeau and L.H Francesutti 2007).

Organizational commitment

Organizational commitment refers to an employee's belief in the organization's goals and values, desire to remain a member of the organization and loyalty to the organization (Mowday et al., 1982; Hackett et al., 2001). With the increasing speed and scale of change in organizations, managers are constantly seeking ways to generate employees' commitment, which translates to competitive advantage and improved work attitudes such as job satisfaction, performance, absenteeism, and turnover intentions (Lok and Crawford, 2001; Yousef, 2000).

Organizational commitment has also been defined as " the relative strength an individual identifies with and involvement in a particular organization, is fostered when employee perceive that they are treated fairly and are valued of the contributors when important promises have been met by the organizations and when employees can trust the organization. Organizational commitment can also be enhanced through merging identification and involvement with the organizations goals and values (Sully Taylor, Orly Levg, Nahiye A.Boyaciggillers, Suhon Beechler 2010)

Commitment represents a very desirable but somewhat vague in many organizational culture. Researchers have suggests that commitment can have in beneficial influence on organizations such as reduced turnover, lower absenteeism. Most researchers have emphasized that commitment represents but an attitude that describes an individuals linkage to the organization and a set of a wide range of issues important to the understanding of organizational commitment such as job satisfaction and causality. Others have individual the influence of personal characteristics a dimension of organizational commitment intrinsic motivation and affective commitment (I.E.Jernigan.3, Joyce M. Beggs and Gary. F. Kohut 2002)

CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS

Much research has been done in pakistan in this context. The importance of organizational culture and its effects on organizational commitment has been notified by researchers in Pakistan. Many researchers conclude that organizational culture has a positive effect on organizational commitment. Types of organizational culture develop different kind of organizational commitment among the employees. Organizational commitment is important to study because high level of commitmnent brings out favourable outcomes. Hundreds of studies have proved that organizational commitment is positively related wih job performance, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior (Nazim Ali, Qadar Baloch 2010)

A study conducted on WAPDA, KPK resulted that there is a positive association between affective, normative and continuous commitment with the employee performance and greater organizational performance. (Nazim Ali, Suktan Tahir Ahmed, Zaheer Khan and Qadar Bakhs Baloch 2010).

A research done on universities teachers of Pakistan reveals the organizational citizenship behavior has a significant and positive relationship with organizational commitment and also organizational commitment impacts positively in enhancing the organizational citizenship behavior of teachers (Ayesha Noor Nov, 2009). Thus this study will add to the literature available on this issue.

Significance of the study

Now the question that why culture is important for the organizations?. Many researchers suggest that an organization's culture develops to help it cope with its environment. Today, organizational leaders are confronted with many complex issues during their attempts to generate organizational achievement in these changing global environments. A leader's success will depend, to a great extent, upon understanding organizational culture. Different organizational culture tend to develop different kind of commitment of the employees towards their organization. So it is important for the development of the industries in Pakistan that more research should be done on this issue so in order to enhance the understanding of these concepts which will help in growing the industries.

Problem statement

Research shows that organizational culture has an positive effect on organizational commitment and is positively correlated to each other. The easy the organizational culture is to adopt the more the employees feel committed to the organization. In this study we would try to find out what are the outcomes of different kind of culture on different types of commitment i-e what kind of effect one kind of culture has on types of commitment.

Objective of the study

This study is conducted to measure the level of impact one kind of culture would have on different kind of commitment. The impact of market, clan, adhocracy and hierarchy on organizational commitment types i-e normative, continuance, affective commitment and the level of impact each type of culture has on each type of commitment.

Research Question

The research questions of this can be stated as

Q1: What kind of impact does organizational culture has on organizational commitment?

Q2: Does different kind of culture develops different types of commitment of the employee to the organization?

Q3: Does one type of culture always develops the same kind of commitment among the employees?

Q4: Does same culture type shows different kinf of commitment among different employees based on their perception of the organization?

LITERATURE REVIEW

The researchers have come up with different types of culture. The previous researcher has shown there are 4 types of culture.

Types of culture

There are four types of culture

Clan

Adhocracy

Hierarchy

Market

Each of these types of commitment shows the feature a company's facts in the best and most appropriate way to operate. In other words these stereotypes represent their basic assumptions, beliefs and values. None of the types inherently better than another just as no culture is necessarily better then the other. But some culture might be more appropriate in certain context than others (Bruce M Tharp).

Clan culture

Clan culture is a type of culture where employees have open and friendly place to work and where people share a lot of themselves. It is like an extended family. Leaders are considered to be mentors or even parental figures. Group loyalty and sense of tradition are strong. There is an emphasis on the long-term benefits of human resources development and great importance is given to group cohesion. There is a strong concern for people. The organization places a premium on teamwork, participation, and consensus.

Clan is also similar to hierarchy culture type as it is also in worldly focused worth integration. However clan emphasizes flexibility and desertion rather than the stability and control of hierarchy. Clan culture operates more like families as its name suggests and value cohesion and humane working environment group commitment and loyalty (Andrew Chan 1997, and Aaron Cohen 1999).

Adhocracy culture

This type of culture has a dynamic, entrepreneurial, and creative place to work. Employees and leaders embrace innovation and risk-taking. A commitment to experimentation and thinking differently are what unify the organization. They strive to be on the leading edge. The long-term emphasis is on growth and acquiring new resources. Success means gaining unique and new products or services. Being an industry leader is important. Individual initiative and freedom are encouraged.

Adhocracy is similar to clan culture type rather than inward focus and concern for differentiation. This culture types value flexibility adaptability (Aaron Cohen 1999).

Hierarchy culture

Hierarchy culture is a highly structured and formal place to work. Rules and procedures govern behavior. Leaders strive to be good coordinators and organizers who are efficiency-minded. Maintaining a smooth-running organization is most critical. Formal policies are what hold the group together. Stability, performance, and efficient operations are the long-term goals. Success means dependable delivery, smooth scheduling, and low cost. Management wants security and predictability.

Hierarchy organizations share similarities with the stereotypical large beaurocrate corporations. They are defined by stability and central as well as internal focus and integration. They value standardization, control and well defined structure for authority and decision making (Bruce M Tharp 1999)

Market culture

A results-driven organization focused on job completion. People are competitive and goal-oriented. Leaders are demanding, hard driving, and productive. The emphasis on winning unifies the organization. Reputation and success are common concerns. Long-term focus is on competitive action and achievement of measurable goals and targets. Success means market share and penetration. Competitive pricing and market leadership are important.

Market type is similar to the control this value stability and control in over orientation and they value differentiation. This culture type largely gains importance because of the globalization in the world with its outward focus. Market culture is focused on relationships more specifically transactions with supplier, customer contractors, union, legislators, consultant, regulators etc (Bruce M Tharp 1999)

Allen and Meyer (1990) conceptualized a model of organizational commitment and identified three components:

Affective commitment.

Continuance commitment.

Normative commitment.

Affective commitment

The affective component refers to the employee's emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in, the organization. Much of the research undertaken in the area of organizational commitment focused on affective commitment (Brunetto and Farr-Wharton, 2003). The continuance component refers to commitment based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the organization. Affective commitment is related to both demographic characteristics and work experience , it also influences performance of an individual . Affective commitment affects the variables that represent work experience job satisfaction and job tension (A Cohen 1999)

Affective commitment can also be defined as emotional attachment, identification and involvement that an employee has with its organizational goals( Meyer & Allen 1993). Affective commitment can further characterized into 3 factors

Beliefs in and acceptance of organizational goals and values,

A willingness to focus effort and helping the organization achieve its goals &

A desire to maintain organizational memberships.

Normative commitment

The normative component refers to the employee's feeling of obligation to remain with the organization. Normative involvement has received less research attention. Many studies have revealed that the level of organizational and managerial support an employee feels, their involvement in decision making (Porter et al., 1974; Mowday et al., 1982) the amount of feedback received about job performance and job role(Mathieu and Zajac, 1990), leadership behaviors and organizational culture influence whether a person has high or low organizational commitment.

Normative commitment is the commitment that a person believes that they have to the organization as a feeling of obligation to their workplace. It is also referred as a "generalized value or loyalty and duty". Normative commitment is natural only due to the way we are raised in society. Normative commitment can be explained by other commitment such as marriage, family and religion etc (Wiener 1982).

Such perceived feelings generally motivate individuals to behave appropriately and do what is right for the organization.

A wide range of commitment antecedents can be grouped into 3 categories.

(1) Personal characteristics e.g. professional qualifications, identification, acceptance, belongingness

(2) Task related characteristics e.g. role difficulty and assessment.

(3) Organizational characteristics e.g. senior supportiveness, centralization of authority and classification

Continuance commitment

Continuance commitment reflects recognition of costs of laving an organization. Indirect or direct investments in the organization represent such costs best and are operational by the variables like age, education. These demographics variables and turnover are expected to demonstrate the strongest relationship with continuance commitment. Research shows that continuance commitment has 2 dimensions;

Personal sacrifices: theory shows that personal sacrifice is related to personal investment

High alternatives: relates to situational variables like job satisfaction perceived performance or job tension.

Statement of the Problem

While research has shown that organizational behaviour affect employees' commitment to the organization, the literature does not offer guidance on how different types of organizational commitment are affected by difference in organizational behaviour. First, we do not know the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organizational culture different types of organizational commitment. Finally, we do not how the interaction of organizational culture and organizational commitment.

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