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The simulation of organizational learning might be distinguished from the assumption of analysis and choice which emphasize required calculation and intention. Our clarification of organizational learning concludes from the three classical observations drawn from the behavior studies of organizations. The first is manner of action in organizations depend on the routines. It includes the same procedures in situations more than the calculation choices. Secondly, the choice in the organizational actions are history dependent. Actually, procedures are based on the interpretations of the past rather than the anticipation of the future. Thirdly, the choice in the organization is the target-oriented. Their doings depends on relation between their thinking and the aspirations they have for those outcomes.
2.0 What is Organizational Learning?
The learning Organization is the procedure by which an organization acquires the knowledge necessary to survive and compete in its environment. This admits the development of knowledge and understanding, shared among organizational employees, that leads to effective action. A organization learning is one with the capacity to acquire the knowledge necessary to survive and compete in its environment.
Organizational learning theory, notes that when we review the processes of organizational learning 'we encounter "learning from experience" as a genuine component of almost all approaches'. Christine Prange (1999: 27)
3.0 Literature Review of OL
Organizational learning mainly focuses on the five core areas which are given below:
Let's have a closer look at these disciplines:
Systems' thinking is the prowess of seeing the world in terms of wholes, and the practice of focusing on the relationships among the parts of a system.
3.2 Team Learning:-
Team learning is happened when group of people share their work experience together and the result generates about the synergy and productiveness. When a team is actually learning, the group as a whole becomes much more than just the sum of its parts.
The Shared vision go fourth when all the persons in an organization understands what the organization is trying to do, is genuinely committed to achieving that vision, and clearly grasps how his or her role in the organization can contribute to making the vision real.
The mental models are the mysterious beliefs and assumptions we hold about how the world works. These models contour the decisions we make in life, the actions we take in response to events, and the ways in which we interpret others' behavior.
The Personal mastery is the form of identifying what mark you want to leave on the world during your lifetime. That is, what's your unequaled purpose in life, and how do you want to go about fulfilling that purpose?
Now, we discuss the critical analysis of Different organizations working in the world in a most reasonable way and will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of organizations and make their comparisons to each other as well.
4.0 Critical Analysis# 1
The analysis made of one Company discussed below from point to point and then would make the comparisons of them with each other
The main strength of Tri-Pack Ltd working in the Major area of Port Qasim is the satisfaction of employees. It provides basic facilities like Medical insurance and transportation and its inflation rate is so nice comparatively other organizations working in the other areas. Secondly, this organization keeps up-to-date of the persons who are responsible to handle the relevant parts of the plant and conduct internal and external training of the individuals. Thirdly, this organization takes care of its Customers' and provides the necessary follow up. This organization has stock of raw material l at least one month and plan the economical strategy regarding expenses like spares, travelling (domestically and internationally).
This Company doesn't make proper advertisement of its product due to which the sale margin effects comparatively to competitors. The environment of working is so much congested so the individuals can't think independently to perform in a more efficient manner. These are the main weaknesses of the organization.
5.0 Critique Analysis #2
Now, we shall discuss the major strengths and weaknesses of ENGI-Plastic Industries have a joint venture of Plasco-Pack (PVT) Limited.
The main edge of the organization is to shift its product of manufacturing according to the demand of the market. Firstly, they started to manufacture the plastic shells and they earn fame in manufacturing this product. Secondly, they shift the product from plastic shells to PET bottles and they got success again in this product because this product is according to the market demand and then they made a decision to shift their product again and started to manufacture plastic caps and they captured the whole market again and become the market leader.
They don't much take care of its employees and don't give the necessary fringes and benefits which they demand. Their planning according to raw material stock and fellow up of their customers' is weak, which is the major weakness of this organization. Their venders are not as much stable as they have to be and this is also a main weakness of this organization. This organization also doesn't have appropriate budget plan for the advertisement plan.
6.0 Critique Analysis #3
The third Analysis made by me is of Coca-Cola Beverages which is very renowned in beverage industry.
The main edge of this organizastion is to induce a proper budget plan for the advertisement, raw materials, and spares of the plant. They take very much care of the people as employed there and provide the necessary fringes and benefits like medical insurance, transportation and they also give performance bonuses to motivate the others individuals. They have so much high rate of inflation so that the employees could perform their duties in a better way. Their customers are much happy because they awarded them according to the sale targets and arrange get together to keep the long term relationships with them.
The persons working in this organization doesn't have time to go home specially who are working in the production department because if there is any problem in the plant and the relevant person isn't there, he will have to come even if there is midnight. Hence the engineers don't have mental peace while working there which is the major weakness of this organization.
7.0 Comparisons of the Analysis:-
Now, we take the look on the comparisons between these Critique analyses.
The strategy of Tri-Pack Ltd and Coca-Cola beverages to keep the satisfaction of their employees is better as compared to the ENGI-Plastic Industries because if the employee is satisfied, then the performance of organization would be better in market.
The approach of technological advancement in Tri-Pack and Coca-Cola is also far better ENGi-Plastic because former conduct internal and external training for their employees to keep up-to-date of the new technologies and the latter doesn't take care of them.
The shifting of product is the key point of ENGI-plastic according to the market demand but the Tri-pack and Coke remain consistent on the product and they don't try to shift the product to someone else.
The raw material stock is also so much important and the ENGI-Plastic doesn't keep stock with them to run their plants continuously and they stopped their machines due to the shortage of raw material but the Stock is very important in others two organizations.
The satisfaction of employees regarding mental peace is the key point of ENGI-Plastic as compared to Tri-Pack and Coke. In Tri-Pack and Coke, employees are bound for 24 hours to complete the tasks.
In the Organizations following factors are required in order to be strong i.e. benefits of employees e.g. insurance, incentives, mental peace and calm. Organizations should increase a little input for the employees to get the huge output. Organizations should have the knowledge of the previous experiences and make planning in economical and productive point of view. Proper strategy of people working in organizations according to their psyche so that they can play an important role in organizations which is necessary. The system of organizational learning thus has to take into account different system levels and their inter-consecutiveness by learning to deal with complexity and interdependent variables on different system levels.
Conceptual framework for the management of organizational learning
In the conclusion, we shall discuss and have to take look into the contributions on organizational learning and derived five distinct theoretical perspectives on organizational learning: the decision-making perspective, the system-theory perspective, the cognitive perspective, the culture perspective and the action learning perspective. Presently, there is so very much variety of assumptions about the determining factors of organizational learning but almost no knowledge about the effects or consequences for organizations. The subordinate of our models on organizational learning clearly need more attention in order to understand the economic necessity and value of learning and knowing that we are so convinced about.
10.0 References and Weblinks:-
Organizational Learning. Barbara Levitt; James G. March. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 14. (1988), pp. 319-340.
Dierkes, M.; Berthoin-Antal, A.; Child, J.; Nonaka, I. (Eds.):Handbook of Organisational Learning and Knowledge Oxford University Press Summer 2001 section 1.0
Prange, C. (1999) 'Organizational learning - desperately seeking theory?' in M. Easterby-Smith, L. Araujo and J. Burgoyne (eds.) Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization, London: Sage.
http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Organizational_learning, Section 2.0
<http://www.infed.org/thinkers/senge.htm section 3.0>
http://www.tripack.com.pk/aboutus.html critique analysis#1 section 4.0
http://pagespak.com/pakistan-yellow-pages-company-details.asp?id=424470 critique analysis#2 section 5.0
<http://www.coca-cola.com/en/index.htm Critique analysis #3> section 6.0