Job rotation involves shifting a person from one job to another, so that he is able to understand and learn what each job involves. The company tracks his performance on every job and decides whether he can perform the job in an ideal manner. Based on this he is finally given a particular posting.
Job rotation is done to decide the final posting for the employee e.g. Mr. A is assigned to the marketing department whole he learns all the jobs to be performed for marketing at his level in the organization .after this he is shifted to the sales department and to the finance department and so on. He is finally placed in the department in which he shows the best performance. Job rotation gives an idea about the jobs to be performed at every level.
Job rotation is a well-planned practice to reduce the boredom of doing same type of job everyday and explore the hidden potential of an employee. The process serves the purpose of both the management and the employees. It helps management in discovering the talent of employees and determining what he or she is best at. On the other hand, it gives an individual a chance to explore his or her own interests and gain experience in different fields or operations.
Important Of Job Rotation
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Job rotation is the best way to keep the employees away from boredom. It's a human tendency to move ahead through the learning and experience that they gain over a period of time. It is difficult for them to carry on with same job for any significant length of time.
Potential job rotation
Job rotation in a well planned manner has positive impact on job satisfaction, involvement of people and retention of people. Some job rotations in respect to the individuals are:
Internal motivation to perform new challenges.
The services of job rotation
Today job rotation is no more an important tool for the HR strategy of the company. Job rotation is used as a means of punishing poor performers, settling scores arising organizational politics.
Realize the potential job rotation
To realize the potential of job rotation, there is a planned system for this:
1.Â Interest of organization - employee commitment, attrition rates, and issues related to business etc.
2.Â Eligibility of the employees - qualification, experience, skills etc.
3.Â Time period.
4.Â Ways of selection.
In the absence of above aspects, there is possibilities that job rotation scheme in the company get diluted and become a cause of loosing employee motivation.
Role of job rotation at different levels of management
Under job rotation at a slightly higher level, different business problems are identified in various areas. Then the top managers select the suitable people and shift them to tackle these challenges. This will lift their confidence levels as they solve the challenges of the organization.
Job rotation for workers includes aspects like work environment, working condition and learning opportunities.
If you do the job rotation in this way, you can get smooth career development leadership and employee satisfaction which results in higher levels of intrinsic motivation among the employees and enables them to contribute in retaining talents.
Advantages of job rotation
Job rotation helps to avoid monopoly of job and enable the Â employee to learn new things and therefore enjoy his job.
Provides an opportunity to broaden one's knowledge :-
Due to job rotation the person is able to learn different job in the organization this broadens his knowledge
Avoiding fraudulent practice :-
In an organization like bank jobs rotationÂ is undertaken to prevent employees from doing any kind of fraud i.e. if a person is handling a particular job for a very long time he will be able to find loopholes in the system and use them for his benefit and indulge ( participate ) in fraudulent practices job rotation avoids this.
Job Rotation Objectives
Reducing Monotony of the Job:Â The first and foremost objective of job rotation is to reduce the monotony and repetitiveness involved in a job. It allows employees to experience different type of jobs and motivates them to perform well at each stage of job replacement.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Succession Planning:Â The concept of succession planning is 'Who will replace whom'. Its main function of job rotation is to develop a pool of employees who can be placed at a senior level when someone gets retired or leaves the organization. The idea is to create an immediate replacement of a high-worth employee from within the organization.
Creating Right-Employee Job Fit:Â The success of an organization depends on the on-job productivity of its employees. If they're rightly placed, they will be able to give the maximum output. In case, they are not assigned the job that they are good at, it creates a real big problem for both employee as well as organization.
Exposing Workers to All Verticals of the Company:Â Another main function of job rotation process is to exposing workers to all verticals or operations of the organization in order to make them aware how company operates and how tasks are performed. It gives them a chance to understand the working of the organization and different issues that crop up while working.
Testing Employee Skills and Competencies:Â Testing and analyzing employee skills and competencies and then assigning them the work that they excel at is one of the major functions of job rotation process. It is done by moving them to different jobs and assignments and determining their proficiency and aptitude. Placing them what they are best at increases their on-job productivity.
Developing a Wider Range of Work Experience:Â Employees, usually don't want to change their area of operations. Once they start performing a specific task, they don't want to shift from their comfort zone. Through job rotation, managers prepare them in advance to have a wider range of work experience and develop different skills and competencies.
Job enlargement is another method of job design when any organization wishes to adopt proper job design it can opt for job enlargement. Job enlargement involves combining various activities at the same level in the organization and adding them to the existing job. It increases the scope of the job. It is also called the horizontal expansion of job activities. Jon enlargement can be explained with the help of the following
Example - If Mr. A is working as an executive with a company and is currently performing 3 activities on his job after job enlargement or through job enlargement we add 4 more activities to the existing job so now Mr. A performs 7 activities on the job. It must be noted that the new activities which have been added should belong to the same hierarchy level in the organization. By job enlargement we provide a greater variety of activities to the individual so that we are in a position to increase the interest of the job and make maximum use of employee's skill. Job enlargement is also essential when policies like VRS are implemented in the company.
Advantages of job enlargement
Variety of skills :-
Job enlargement helps the organization to improve and increase the skills of the employee due to organization as well as the individual benefit.
Improves earning capacity:-
Due to job enlargement the person learns many new activities. When such people apply foe jobs to other companies they can bargain for more salary.
Wide range of activities :-
Job enlargement provides wide range of activities for employees. Since a single employee handles multiple activities the company can try and reduce the number of employee's. This reduces the salary bill for the company.
Â The main objectives of Job enlargement are
To motivate the employees
Giving exposure to employees
Achieving the organizational goals and objectives
Disadvantages of job enlargement
Increases work burden :-
Job enlargement increases the work of the employee and not every company provides incentives and extra salary for extra work. Therefore the efforts of the individual may remain unrecognized.
.Increasing frustration of the employee :
In many cases employees end up being frustrated because increased activities do not result in increased salaries. Â
Problem with union members :-
Many union members may misunderstand job enlargement as exploitation of worker and may take objection to it
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Job enrichment is a term given by Fedric herzberg. According to him a few motivators are added to a job to make it more rewarding, challenging and interesting. According to herzberg the motivating factors enrich the job and improve performance. In other words we can say that job enrichment is a method of adding some motivating factors to an existing job to make it more interesting.
The motivating factors can be
Giving more freedom.
Giving employees the freedom to select the method of working.
Allowing employees to select the place at which they would like to work.
Allowing workers to select the tools that they require on the job.
Allowing workers to decide the layout of plant or office.
Job enrichment gives lot of freedom to the employee but at the same time increases the responsibility. Some workers are power and responsibility hungry. Job enrichment satisfies the needs of the employees.
Advantages of job enrichment
Interesting and challenging job :-
When a certain amount of power is given to employees it makes the job more challenging for them, we can say that job enrichment is a method of employee empowerment.
Improves decision making :-
Through job enrichment we can improve the decision making ability of the employee by asking him to decide on factory layout, method and style of working.
Identifies future managerial calibre:-Â Â Â
When we provide decision making opportunities to employees, we can identify which employee is better that other in decision making and mark employees for future promotion.Â
The characteristics or features of job enrichment are
Nature of Job
Direction and Control
Therefore, it can be correctly stated that "Job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment are simply attempts by managers to avoid individuals at work", because these terms are used by the managers to design jobs in the organization.
Employees work in a team or group towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. There is coordination and cooperation among the employees and individualism is reduced.
2.) Followings jobs can be enriched as
In order to make the job of sanitation worker more satisfying, enjoyable and meaningful, the manager of the organization should make his/ her job more challenging by granting him/her authority to control and plan accordingly his/her work or act like dividing the work according to the nature of the work in which one is good. Giving them more responsibility and which will indirectly leads to positive results.
Security guard is the one who secure your property in your absence. He/she should be motivated well so that he/she can perform their job at their best. They should be satisfied with their job by providing them with incentives, grievances and other basic necessities. Therefore job for them will be more enjoyable and meaningful. And this also will leads to positive results for the organization.
The job of lab assistant can be enriched by creating endless opportunities of the operations. Making the job meaningful and enjoyable. Letting him/her to control and plan for the lab. In order to reduce the burden of the work and more easy and quick, more assistants can be hired. Maintaining cooperation between them and also coordinating their work towards the achievement of goals, objective and positive results.
In order to make the job of school teacher more meaningful, enjoyable and satisfying, the senior management should give authority to teachers to instruct their students individually and in groups, using variousÂ teachingÂ methods such as lectures, discussions, and demonstrations.
They will feel comfortable, well motivated and enthusiastic to teach the students fairly.
The job of the receptionist can be more meaningful when he/she will be able to achieve his/her targets, recognition and self-actualization. They will get a sense of belonging to the organization.
Receptionist's burden of work can be reduced by the management by providing with more technological and modern instruments. This will motivate him/her to get the work done on time and leads to progress of an individual as well as an organization