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Management basic principles and theories help us by the way of increasing effectiveness and efficiency, and help us in avoiding mistakes made in any organization. Management is an art and also is a science. As an art, management is where it carries out organizational functions through people. Whereas for science, it is concerned with laws, theories, practices which can be useful in specific situations. Management has significantly changed over the years. Due to this change in development, new concepts and theories have been brought up to improve and develop the management theory, from various disciplines such as behavioral science, technology and economics. There are several schools of management in business that we can compare with but in this essay, we will only compare and contrast with Behavioral School of Thought and Scientific School of Thought. There definitions will also be discussed in this essay and will agree with the one which is most beneficial to the business. The reference is given at the end.
In the Behavioral School of Thought, since the Hawthorne experiments were conducted, 'There's been an increased interest for behavioral sciences in management' as quoted by Krietner(1995). These experiments provided two of the studies that were experimented at the Hawthorne Works, Chicago from 1924 to 1932. The first group of experiment was led by a group of engineers who seemed to decide the relationship of lighting rates and worker productivity. A second group of experiments that were led by a group of women resulted in more increased rates of productivity than the first group. After a year, Harvard researchers, F. J. Roethlisberger and Elton Mayo joined in. The study created a strong theory for the human relations of management that was published in 1939.
Gawel, Joseph E. (1997) stated that significant behavioral scientists, Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg and other more, co-operated in several ways to gain efficiency and developing various techniques. They were trained in many different social sciences and used more complicated research methods and were against over specialized jobs, who had too much control over employees with no chance for them to make decisions, and little concern about their needs for recognition and self-fulfillment,(hence autocratic leadership was applied) thus they preferred more flexible organization structures. The theorists researching were Mary Parker Follett as well as many other psychologists who switched from understanding individual behavior to organizational behavior.
Kreitner (1995) stated one of the first pioneers in the behavioral thought was Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933). Follett broaden her horizon about political science and did a professional career as a social worker where she made herself engage in workplace related issues. Follett commented the best way to handle this, is by "creative conflict resolution". It involves kindly working with other people to develop new innovative ideas, often providing strong interpersonal advantage. Her work wasn't taken into consideration until conditions were changed.
In Scientific School of Thought, Kreitner (1995) mentions about the main theorists of this school of thought who is, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) is known as a "father of scientific management." He started to work at the age of 18 as a pattern maker, machinist and then later as a laborer. His experiments were on workers' productivity. It involves the right way to perform each work task, the time needed, resources required, and the work sequence. In 1911, Taylor published a presentation named "The Principles of Scientific Management". Taylor mentioned scientific management as the one of the best management approach for productivity increase.
Taylor proposed 4 principles of scientific management of thought:
To select workers regarding on their qualification and experience.
To train them to perform their jobs in the proper manner and so to have less mistakes been made (worker satisfaction).
Managers should co-operate between workers and management to assure the scientific management method.
Management should be more involved with the work of their workers.
Taylor's theory made businesses to realize how well an organization can be managed on a systematic manner, where part of motivation played an important role. These principles were used in many industries and helped to increase productivity. His theory had a great success because he designed a concept of work measurement, work design, production control that totally changed the identity of industry.
Kreitner (1995) shortly commented about Frank (1868-1924) and Lillian (1878-1972), they were strong theorists of scientific management. Frank was fascinated in developing the best way of working, which later became as "speed work" which was gained by diminishing insignificant motions. He worked with his wife and made himself heavily involved in time and motion studies. Lillian published works on the, "The Psychology of Management", and she was the earliest lady pioneer in scientific management. Time, motion and piece-rate incentives are the two main practices developed by scientific management theorist and are even applying by people today. The piece-rate incentive system means that the more income will be awarded to the worker who will produce the maximum output.
The cause of studying these schools of management thought is to make you able to praise and recognize how developments of management can help us in performing present practices, with the previous and current approaches. As being a potential manager it can assist us to understand the strengths and weaknesses of current managerial practices and enables to choose accurate management styles. Both Behavioral and Scientific School of Thought are based on their findings on various different aspects about management people who work in an organization.
In Scientific management of thought, it explains how managers can improve person-talk dealings to boost efficiency. Improvements like total quality management and lean production are often watched as the advances on the early scientific management principles mentioned by Taylor and the Gilbreths. It has co-operated in many different areas, including industrial engineering and human resource management. "Taylor believed that the decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after a strickt study on an individual at work. Taylor's theory has developed a major awareness in the management in early 20th century.
Criticism - Firstly, scientific management avoids the individual differences: for an employee the most efficient way of performing a work would be inefficient for other employee. It is due to every individual has separate way of thinking and working. This difficulty was expected by Taylor, it is not fully addressed by managers who only see the likely developments to efficiency. Taylor said that scientific management cannot perform properly unless there are worker advantages. In his opinion, the management should rearrange the work in a way that a person is able to maximize the output more and get paid more; this could be done through by training and implementing more efficient measures for a product. Secondly, no man is an 'economic man' and a man's behavior is not only determined by financial needs but also by other needs like social needs, esteem needs and security needs. Kreitner (1995) mentioned that Taylor's theory makes work more flexible by avoiding unnecessary attempt, which will rise in labor unions and this is due to comparison has not been made by Taylor between workers with machines and hence labors will perform harder for the same payment and thus there is no time to relax.
In Behavioral management of thought, it views the study of how managers react in order to motivate labors and inspire them to work at higher level. It says us how workers become demotivated when managers do not treat their workers properly. It depends on the usage of psychological methods in motivating employees to work better, rather than giving those rules and regulations provided by classical school of management. They believe that people are the most important resource of an organization which gives them growth and development in their behavioral school of thought. The other schools of thought only stress on efficiency, principles and processes and they ignore the most important part of management which is the human behavior. The theorist's stresses upon the understanding of human behavior at work i.e. conflicts, expectations, motivation, etc.
Scientific management indicated the productivity of individual, behavioral management stress concentration on the total organization. It focuses on managerial principles rather than working systems. Better working conditions would boost confidence and worker's satisfaction which in return increases productivity. Elton Mayo plays an important role in the study of human resources. He is also well known for his experiments called Hawthorne experiments. He carried out many different measures to develop productivity. Other major supporters were Abraham Maslow, Chester Barnard and Douglas McGregor's (theory X and theory Y).
Following are the methods which Mayo concluded:
To work as a group and not as individually
The need for, salary, security and sense of belonging is more essential rather than thinking about the environment for productivity.
Giving workers breaks in their working hours; therefore workers will be well motivated, thus resulting an improvement in productivity.
According to scientific school of thought, the workers are only allowed to do what the manager tells them to do, thus lead to work failure. In some cases it is better to listen to the responsible person, the manager, who gives them direction. Whereas in behavioral school of thought, the workers use their creativity in the product, which leads to increase in output produced. The scientific management is considers on the output and work done by an individual. They make payment to the workers according to the output they produced. But according to Mayo, he mentioned that the worker cannot be treated as isolation, but must be seen as a member of a group. Scientific management gives more importance to money such as giving the worker money for a particular task (thinks that money motivates man). They pay more to the worker comparing to their efficiency (Derek S. Pugh and David J Hickson 1996, pg. 102-106). In the behaviorist school of thought, the rule of self-satisfaction is preserved. They tantalize and inspire them in their given task. The workers work efficiently when they are fully secured and satisfied.
By looking at the above text both the schools, scientific school of thought and Behaviorist school of thought, deserve same priority. Scientific school of thought can never gain its goal because of the aspects concluded above, example the manager has the control over the workers to do the particular task in which he is skilled at, and to be trained to have increase in productivity and make less fault. Meanwhile, the behaviorist schools of thought will also go towards failure because it gives their workers a lot of freedom, and have a lot of trust on them. There are many criticisms on both scientific school of thought and the behaviorist school of thought which states that these both theories are not accurate to follow and to rely fully, so some theories of scientific school of thought and some of behavioral school of thought can join together to give us more efficiency, improving the relationship between labor and the manager, increasing in productivity, to put consideration with the work not the money, dividing task equally between the worker and the manager, and many other factors. Many would suggest behaviorist school of thought because it provides freedom to the workers. But there are many negative prospects even. Similar things happen with the scientific school of thought, it gives more efficient output but there are few errors too.