The Role Of Motivation In Job Performance

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Most of the organizations believe in the power of the competency within the organization and in the industry. It is important for the entire organization on how their workforce feel about their job and the leaders can recognize it in their employees' job performance. In this case, the approach on motivation is the center of the study which is also applied in the organization. The approach of the organization in the motivational aspect is placed in a higher level or dimension that can answer their need for competency. Motivation allows the organizations and individuals to focus on the development of their behaviors and knowledge. Overall, the motivational aspects on the job and in the organization are to energize the workforce to provide the effectiveness in their job. There is study that explains in the amount of job involvement of the individual. It defined that an individual's understanding on his job has an effect on the job performance. Meanwhile, the motivational processes increases or influences the job performance and other work outcomes of an individual. Clearly, the job performance of a person is a result of the combination of motivation and job involvement. Some study delivered the idea that there is autonomy in the organization that can affect not only the performance but as well as the job satisfaction, motivation, and role perceptions.

Problem Statement:

There are two identified problems in the study.

1. Is there any relationship between motivation and employee performance?

2. What are the effects of motivation in the organizational commitment and productivity of an employee?

Research Aim and Objectives

The aim of the study is to investigate the role of motivation towards employee performance. In order to assess the role of the motivation of the employee's job performance, there are objectives that need to be considered.

1.      To deliver the theories and models of motivation in the organization

2.      To demonstrate the motivational approaches existed in an organization

3.      To recognize the perception of both employees and employers regarding the motivation

4.      To identify the effectiveness of motivation in the job performance of an employee

Conceptual and Theoretical Framework

The concept of the study is based on the communication and the factors that might contribute to its effectiveness. Through engulfing the barriers of communication, the study can deliver the essence and importance of motivation for the job performance of the employees. With the application of motivation in the organizational commitment, there are concepts and principles that tend to explain the overall performance of the employees, the theories and models are used to assess the effectiveness of motivation in the study. Some of the theories that can be used are the Extrinsic and Intrinsic theories of motivation and the Hierarchy of Needs by Maslow. Generally, the model or theories in motivation is the basis for the development and growth of the employees and their role within the organization. The motivational process can somehow deliver the organizational commitment of each employee if the organization only recognizes the importance of the employees in making the business successful in the industry. 

The variance in dependent variable, Motivation, can be explained by the 4 independent variables: job satisfaction, good wages, organization philosophy and leadership style.

Motivation towards better performance depends on the satisfaction of needs for responsibility, achievement, recognition and growth.

When workers are given interesting work, good pay, availability of resources, have sufficient authority, and friendly and cooperative co-workers, they perform better. Research has found that diversified, challenging jobs are more satisfying and intrinsically motivating for employees. Perhaps most important to employee motivation is helping individuals believe that the work they are doing is important and that their tasks are meaningful. Satisfied employees contribute to greater business benefits for the employer. Foremost, businesses would experience an increase in productivity. Happy employees perform better than disgruntled and stressed ones. Businesses would also see improved recruitment and retention. Additionally, there would be lower rates of absenteeism and improved customer service. Overall, there would exist a more motivated, satisfied and equitable workforce.

Note that both job satisfaction and money are motivating. One works to achieve that which one needs and which one does not have, and this could be either one or the other or both.

Leadership plays a very important role in motivating employees. If the leadership is incapable, corrupt and of low moral values, it's going to have a negative effect on the employees. If the top management is constantly sending messages down the organization that the employees are unimportant, second class and dispensable the resultant behaviours will be high absenteeism, low productivity, employee sabotage, hostile behaviour and low motivation. On the other hand if the leadership is considerate of the employees and shrewd at handling situations, employees will be more motivated.

Good leadership and company policies will also add to job satisfaction of the employees.

Figure- 1.1: Theoretical Framework

Stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources or needs of the worker. A lack of support or help from supervisors and co-workers Physical isolation if an employee has little input in decision making processes and the job environment lacks communication between the employer and the employee absence of family-friendly policies also affects an employee's job satisfaction. If their job expectations are unclear or they have too much responsibility if an employee feels there is a lack of opportunity for growth or promotion, job stress might result from their inability to advance in the workforce. Their job insecurity translates into job stress physical conditions of an individual's job can also create job stress. For example, crowded, noisy or polluted locations are unpleasant and dangerous conditions that would most likely lead to job stress. Stress up to a certain level will increase employees' performance to achieve goals. But beyond that level it is going to have an adverse effect on the job satisfaction of the employees hence diminishing its positive effect on the motivation of employees.

Research Design:

In this cross-sectional correlation field study data on 4 independent and the dependent variable were collected from middle managers and lower employees in a non-profit semi-government organization through questionnaires.

Studies on the basis of time horizon are divided into cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In a longitudinal study the researcher studies people or phenomena at more than one point in time in order to answer a research question. In such a study data on dependent variable is obtained before and after a change to measure the effect of change. In a cross-sectional study data are gathered only once, perhaps over a period of time, in order to answer a research question. Such studies are called "one shot" or cross-sectional studies. Since data is gathered only once to measure the effect of independent variables (job satisfaction, pay, company policy and leadership) on the dependent variable (motivation) this is a cross-sectional study.

Investigations are of two types: causal and correlational. Causal studies are done when it is necessary to establish a cause and effect relationship. A correlational study merely identifies the important factors associated with the problem. A correlational study done in organization is called field study. The purpose of this research is not to find out "what caused what". It is intended to merely identify the factors affecting motivation of employees in different organizations. Hence it is a correlational field study.

Hypothesis

If employees feel greater satisfaction on the job, then they will be more motivated to perform well.

If employees are given good wages, then they will be more motivated to stay on the job.

If leadership is friendly and considerate, then the employees will feel less stress and more motivated towards their job.

All the three independent variables will significantly explain the variance in the motivation in employees

Source of Data

This will be primary and secondary data.

Primary Data:

Data was collected through questionnaire. Some informal interviews with employees in different organizations were first conducted to get a first big picture of the problems.

Secondary Data:

It is also important to have sufficient understanding regarding the potential problems in literature. Internet will do its best to run you astray, away from the topic as much as it can. It was needed to develop further understanding. Much time was spent in conducting a search in relevant articles, electronic websites, journals and research reports conducted earlier on similar topics.

Significance of the Study

The study attempts to investigate the idea motivation and its contributing factors to increase the job performance or productivity of an employee. Therefore, if the study successfully identified the effectiveness of the motivation, the concerns of the organizations, particularly on their employees' performance, will be resolved. In addition, the study serves are the reference for both academic and business context to help achieve their respective goals.

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