The purpose of the content herein is to address a few of the elements, components and ingredients which suggest that HRM may advantageously or disadvantageously influence change management with a firm. A firm's change comes in many forms. Direction of performance, technological innovation, company culture, and even missions are just a few of the forms and HRM possesses some form of influence upon each. Yet, change may also occur without any short-term, immediate or durational HRM input. The predictament, situation, circumstances, and company wide praexiology determine HRM's influential weight upon change.
Indeed, HRM is a concept with is frequently used but may not be thoroughly understand nor entirely defined. Some have asserted that HRM may not possess any real or actual social scientific value but may be differentiated from conventional personnel management in order to test and asses its impact upon change management. There a plethora of issues at hand, too many for this paper to completely address.Organizational behaviour, HR intervention, complementarity, change enablement, organizational integration, employee commitment, flexibility and strength of HRM and the such are but a few of the issues addressed herein. Importantly, many authors assert that there is little evidence of any quality about HRM's impact despite assertions that training, internal human capital development, company sourced educational efforts and the such may prevent stupidity during change management - though cultural variables may also render stupidity to the margin.
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Manzoor (2009) investigated intervention sourced from HRM as applied to changes related to turnarounds in business activities. The author asserts that HRM studies mostly concentrate on their relations to change within the context of good management policies which attempt to enhance organizational performance. Such performance and subsequent change management is found in a company's vision, and organization's mission, a firm's training and additional venues of development which are impacted by HRM. The study attempts to apply an innovative model of HR change enablement which indicates that a company's turnaround require HRM strategies to target:
phase changes in external environment components which may be beyond the control of company
and good managerial policies
Manzoor employs such model to private banks competing in in Pakistan. After analyzing strategies for change influenced by HRM tactics, Manzoor suggests that a businesses turnaround is influenced by HRM tactics which interact with and generate an impact upon external environmental parameters, changes in a company's structural inertia, and good management practices. Each of which may be interwoven with HRM strategies in order to facilitate benefical (rather than detrimental) change.
HRM strategies seem to target one of the most important and dynamic assets of a company, its human capital. Further, within almost every business change one may find a human issue as a vital component. And, the sufficiency of reactions to such business changes and issues is a function of the decisions made by people. HRM has a role to play as organizations address change related challenges and as businesses attempt to achieve internal financial, technological, cultural and ethical changes. These are the focus of Sloan and Gavin (2010) in which the strategies, tactics and accountability of HRM are posited within the context of change management efforts directed at cultural and moral ingredients. The authors assert that in order to achieve such changes HRM strategies must:
Facilitate change process as internal and operative functions change to desired cultural and moral practices;
Create cultures which engineer employee cultural and ethical capacity
Reach a level of commitment to all pertinent objective
One important aspect of change management is knowledge transfer and HRM strategies applied to knowledge transfer is quite important in the Information Age as knowledge, information and data collection techniques sway competitive edges for companies participating in a competitive environment. Minbaeva (2008) investigated the methods and means of HRM strategies as applied to knowledge transfer within companies. The study asserts that HRM strategies weigh in on extrinsic and intrinsic incentives operating in knowledge receivers. Finding indicate that complementarity among HRM strategies exists yet may not necessarily create a positive impact. Here HRM strategies are critiqued in as much their impact and influence may be determental due to their lack of focus on the mechanics of knowledge transfer. One can only wonder where HRM strategies applied to training and skill set development fits into the critique. This study convered subsidiaries of Danish corporations scattered throughout more than ten nations.
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Cunha and Cunha (2004) explored the use of a equation modeling in order to test a framework depicting the impact of HRM tactics and policies on changes in performance and innovation (whether cultural, ethical or strategic. These authors view the methods and means by which company strategy and innovation are influenced by HRM in order to expose the dynamics of the relationship between HRM and change management. The authors correctly stress the flexibility of HRM strategies and the strength of HR frameworks. In order to provide beneficial support to change management in a firm, HRM must possess a level of flexibility which adapts to change processes, adopts change mechanics and expedites change enablement. HRM strength is also important, and supplies the HR system with solidity and commitment. HRM strength also supplies a viable perspective on company objects and, according to the authors, offers a positive impact on internal innovation and performance of organizational apparatuses. performances. Yet, HRM's flexibility and performance administration tactics may possess a beneficial performance of organizational apparatuses, such components of HRM may not, according to the authors, affect innovation performance.
The influence upon employee training by HRM is certainly a channel frequently utilized by business and firms. In another study in 2002 covering the years 1998 and 2000, via telephone survey of companies in Great Britain indicated that training (e.g. a change in employee capacity and skill set) and HRM strategies are high interwoven. The inspiration and drive to train is a function of HRM needs of employees. These needs are met via HRM strategies and tactics. The study also suggest that company based family members are trained and educated with greater degree when compared to non-family employees at small firms. These differences must be handled appropriately by HRM strategies in order to accomplish an optimum impact on employee skill sets and the overall implementation competitive maneuvers in small businesses.
HRM and mergers and acquisitions are also a hot topic. M&A is a well known method for achieving growth by companies attempting to attain a competitive advantage in an highly complicated and multinational environment. HRM can fulfill a value-adding role in mergers. Aguilera and Dencker (2004) assert that research and evidence does not adequately illustrate the methods and means that HRM benefits the M&A process. Their study confronts the human ingredient of M&A in which HRM strategies are linked to M&A tactics. The authors purport that since international M&As quite different in complexity and magnitude when juxtaposed with domestic mergers, it is necessary to investigate parameters in a domestic contexts in order to explain the influence of HRM upon the final performance of M&A activities. The authors are correct to assert that HRM fulfills roles pertaining to resource alloaction, process mechanics, and value assimulation which portray HRM influence upon the fit and national components of cross-border M&A activities. Indeed, M&A activity may benefit from HRM strategies but contributing to:
analysis of change conditions, e.g. readiness for change and potential sources of conflicts,
planning and implementing temporary structures supporting change management,
selecting and training change leaders,
identifying and minimising risks related to extensive transformation programs
On an interesting note, HRM must be placed within the context of the trend in which organizational changes occur via the utilization of project-based structures existing internally and externally among companies. Such change is occurring with HRM support in emerging and mature businesses. Management scholars have put forth many perspectives relative to project-based methods employed during change management. However, the impact of project-based structures upon HRM is often considered a difficulty and challenge to many businesses. Söderlund and Bredin (2006) attempted to design a schema for evaluating HRM in project-intensive firms, with subsequent influence upon change management. Their study of four businesses and the change and transformation of such firm's organizational elements indicated that four central issues combined with a series of questions must be confronted in order to enhance HRM's influence in company transformations within a project-intensive business.