The role of corporate social responsibility

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The connection alternating the society and the business sphere has been a cause of concern in the moral behaviour of business. (Carroll, 1999:268; Heinze, 2005), therefore, a social organisation in which people have their dwelling automatically becomes an element of business activities. Business will not be able to function successfully without the society.

Getting the society to be operational in a location where business activity is being done is an attribute of Corporate Social Responsibility. Such gesture serves as a tool for promoting social development in our environment. Besides, an organised societal setting makes it conducive for any business operation to prosper.

The fact that business is quite dependent on the society says a lot about the roles of Corporate Social Responsibility should play in boosting the social development in any society because individuals cannot produce all their needs and wants and that the business community should show concern to the concern to the society that make the environment ideal for generation of profit.

Van Rooyen (2007) described Corporate Social Responsibility as a notion which is directed at equipping business of any kind in realising a bearable expansion in the society. Mindless of the nature and size of the business, it can create openings and benefits for the business and also the stakeholders.

Sustainability can also be created without having any negative impact with the application of Corporate Social Responsibility into most business organisations in the society.

Corporate Social Responsibility has to do with the fact business have a role to play in uplifting the society and to solve its difficulties and bearing in mind that social problems differ from society to society. Masaka, D. (2008)

My personal reasons for researching on this topic is that l suppose the role of Corporate Social Responsibility go a long way in helping the environment in which a company has its operation and also help the Government in developing the society while companies simultaneously gaining a good stand in terms of good public relationship thereby boosting the revenue and profits of organisations and also treating the stakeholders in a responsible manner.

NEED FOR RESEARCH

Although many write ups have been done about Corporate Social Responsibility by many authors (Gehrke, J. (2008), Hopkins (2007) but little has been able to address the role of Corporate Social Responsibility in enhancing social development in the Nigerian Perspective. Therefore, this work intends to research and investigate the role of Corporate Social Responsibility on Social development in Nigeria and also give a platform for further research.

Nigeria is a popular nation in Africa with about 160 million in population, making it one of the most populous nations in the world. Having said that, it had been facing all sorts of difficulties as regards the well being of its citizens which ranges from poverty, delinquencies, crime and all that constitute the social development problems in which this topic is going to study with a view to evolve useful suggestions on how the challenges could be mitigated.

PRELIMINARY LITERATURE REVIEW

Hopkins (2007) stated that Corporate Social Responsibility facilitates economic development through the involvement of corporations in the present time than before. The situation in which the welfare of the people lacking usual necessities can be raised here. These sets of people are mostly found in the developing countries and many in the developed nations.

Masaka (2008) cited Matten and Moon (2004:3) that while the Corporate Social responsibility burden falls on the company, the carrying out of it really depends on the wish of the organisation thus reflecting on the aftermath of the success of the business. In other words, the company holds the responsibility of exercising its right of corporate philanthropy to the adjoining society but at its own right to decide where and when to start. Such gesture of Corporate Social Responsibility therefore is suitable that it accountable in solving the societal problems.

Hawkin (2006) also discussed Corporate Social Responsibility in the aspect of sustainability and also stressed the fact that business organisation and the society are all part of the community in which commercial dealings as the focus of the business sector, it must also be agreed upon that the influence of the community at large is also the component of the trading environment. He continued that the supply of customers to the business and also the resources in satisfying its set goals and objectives also emanates from the community.

Because of this, the community, irrespective of its size is a compelling force to the advantage(s) gathered from the business sector and therefore shares in the burden of the performance and the contribution of the business.

Van Rooyen, J. (2007) also clarified the distinction between Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate charity in which he described the latter as the act of donating monetary incentives and also the provision of opportunities to the dwellers in the community and its stakeholders. This is different and must not be compared to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) where a company would follow a set of course of actions that have to be laid down as regards to CSR. These sets of actions can be favourable as regards to the impact it can have on the locality. The guidelines will also guarantee that any adverse effects on the actions of Corporate Social Responsibility could bring would be reduced before long.

Knights, D and Willmott, H (2007) postulates on moral principles of doing business which commenced as far back as 1980 in the United Kingdom and the United States when the new institutions of government thrusts on more favourable plan of 'non governmental' economic system which permitted unrestricted competition between business without fear of monopolies. This brought about the concept of personal management and trustful dependence for both individuals and the companies. It also emphasized on the fact that business pioneers rather than being compelled by government's regulation should be left alone to exercise restraint or dominance over their businesses. This ideology had been in practice since then and still in practice till present. Although, different kinds of disasters and fraud erupted after the market deregulation and more people affected, the business environment reassured the government and the masses of its inclination for the management of the adverse effects its practices might bring. This compelled the business community to always give strong considerations to the community as regards its actions and the effects. This took the form of ethics and which is strongly related with corporate social responsibility and stresses the notion that business organisations are not only out with the aim of accruing profits alone at all cost but also being socially responsible. However, the mere fact that business leaders and managers labelling their companies and organization of being socially accountable is not sufficient enough to be lawful but the standard and legitimate way is to adhere to the study of Business ethics.

Banerjee, S.B (2008) throws more light about why business firms would be justifiable to the community at large and also, what corporations should do in exhibiting their accountability to the society in helping it carry out some responsibilities and obligations to the masses. He also cited Jones (2005) by giving CSR a useful approach in the sense that he talked about the means by which companies and business entities could arrive at their social sense of duty without shying away from maximizing and accruing profits for the company and the shareholders alike.

Hopkins (2007) also referred to the European Union (EU) in its green paper in July 2001 which pointed out that CSR should not be looked at as a replacement to either the regulations or laws that pertains to rights of the people and also the environmental benchmark. Countries that do not have effective laws and regulations guiding socially responsible practices should put one into place in which parallel stance of Corporate Social Responsibility and those regulations and the legislations can be put into place.

Gehrke, J. (2008) talked about ethics and attitude in relation to companionship and accountability of a company or an organisation and he also emphasized on inseparable nature of social responsibility and ethics. Furthermore, it was said here that community dwellers too should be incorporated as a stakeholder and that they should be treated as well as the shareholders of the organization would be and that the decisions made towards the two entities would be positive rather than the other way round the company's habit would depict that of social responsibility.

Many organisations in Nigeria have started setting up a concrete plan for CSR and also getting the advantage of doing so because of its ability to affect the society positively as regards to its development and also of that of the of the business. Huge number of ideas and structures has been built over the years.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES

The notion of Corporate Social Responsibility is a new innovation in the Nigerian business sector and it emanated from the fact that companies derive some benefits from the local community in which they operate. Having said that, going by the nature of this topic, some question would be asked to give an in-depth knowledge to the research of this work.

Research Questions

What are the meanings ascribed to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria?

What are the policies of the Nigeria Government on CSR and how are the implementations guided and monitored?

Does Globacom Nigeria Plc have a tangible CSR provisions that would positively impact on the Nigeria Social Development.

In what ways can socio-economic growth be enhanced in Nigeria with the contributions of CSR.

Research Objectives

To investigate and analyse the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility from the Nigerian perspective.

To examine the Nigerian Government policies and the implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility.

To evaluate the impact of the corporate social responsibilities of Globacom Nig. Plc on the Nigerian Social Development.

To provide recommendations on the enhancement of CSR for socio-development growth in Nigeria.

Research Methodology

The research objectives will be met adequately through the use of qualitative methods of data collection. The nature of this research will not permit the utilization of any research method other than this because its nature, the population study and the data to be collected.

Data Collection Methods

Secondary Data: The data collected to meet some of the objectives will be library based, such as literatures, New Journals, articles, textbooks, bulletins from different libraries consulted in which the appropriate ones in meeting the objectives will be documented. Other research work on the similar topic will also be looked into and besides, some desk based materials and data from the company will also be made use of.

IDI (In-depth Interview): This method of data collection will also be made use of, for the aim of this study. This will be achieved through the use of unstructured questionnaire to draw out various kinds of answers and responses from the respondents of the study. It is chosen as the major method of data collection because information and facts will be gathered from as selection of members of staff of the case study (Globacom Nigeria Limited) in which they would be consulted on their official and personal views on the questions asked to collect data. Officials will be drawn from the Human Resource Department, Customer Services and the corporate affairs department as sample to aid information that will be collected to meet the research objectives of the study. Because of the nature of the research topic, experienced and specialized personnel from the case study organization to give their indepth knowledge, which informs the use of the in depth interview.

Observations: Some data would be observed physically on the field in the course of this research which constitutes the tangible data for the essence of this study. Data such as developmental and capital projects will be investigated and examined in the research. Physical and tangible projects of Globacom Nig. Ltd as regards to Corporate Social Responsibility will be looked into in order to ascertain its impact on the social development in Nigeria.

Written Records: Relevant information in the official records, journals an bulletin of the case study company, Ministry of Information and social development and other related Ministries, agencies and parastatals which are of importance will be contacted and incorporated as part of the data.

Analysis of Data

Research Objectives of this study will be met through the analysis of the data generated from the collection procedures of this study. Because of the qualitative nature of the study, the analysis of the data will also be in a qualitative form. Various data gathered from in-depth-interview through notes and electronic tapes will be arranged, transcribed and sorted under a thematic heading for analysis. The headings will be synchronised to the main objectives and the research questions of the study in order to address all essential issues as related to the realistic expectations of the study.

Data generated by the way of observation from the researcher and vital written records consulted will be arranged and essential information in relation will to the essay will be reported.

Limitations

The envisaged limitation as regard this research is having access to in- depth interview with the senior management of the case study company because of their tight schedules but as a way of averting this, plans are to be made in making a booking ahead of the interview.

Research Ethics

This research will be carried out in a manner in which it will not be injurious and hazardous to the researcher and the participants. Qualitative nature of data will involve interviews and the researcher would make sure that no-one will be put under any kind of duress in the process of acquiring information, besides, l promise to get my interview questions approved and not work in isolation or without the consent of my tutor.

I also ensure that the research will be carried out in an honest manner and also acknowledge various writers and authors in which their materials were made use of thereby avoiding plagiarism.

References

Banerjee, S.B (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility: the good, the bad and the ugly. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Fisher, C and Lovell, A (2009) Business Ethics and Values. Individual, Corporate and International Perspective. Essex. Pearson Education Limited. Prentice hall.

Hawkins, D (2006). Corporate Social Responsibility. Balancing tomorrow's sustainability and Today's Profitability. Hampshire. Pelgrave Macmillan.

Helg, A. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility from a Nigerian Perspective. (Unpublished work). Goteborgs Universitet.

Hopkins, M (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility and International Development. Is business the solution? London, Earthscan.

Jewell, S and Hardie, M (2009) How to write a Research Proposal for Module M25BSS. Coventry University.

Knight, D, Willmott, H (2007). Introducing organizational behaviour and management. London, Thomson Learning.

Masaka, D (2008). Why Enforcing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is morally Questionable: EJBO Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies Vol. 13, No. 1 (2008). Web: http://ejbo.jyu.fi/pdf/ejbo_vol13_no1_pages_13-21.pdf

Thorne, S. (2000). Data Analysis in Qualitative Research. BMJ journals from http://ebn.bmj.com/content/3/3/68.extract

Van Rooyen, J. (2007). The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Modern Business Development. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://ezinearticles.com/?The- Role- of- Corporate- Social- Responsibility- in- Modern- Business- DevelopmentHYPERLINK "http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Role-of-Corporate-Social-Responsibility-in-Modern-Business-Development&id=455618"&HYPERLINK "http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Role-of-Corporate-Social-Responsibility-in-Modern-Business-Development&id=455618"id=455618

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