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In this report students have to describe 4 chosen theory of Human Behavior and Human Resources management topic. To support the theory students needs to analyze how its work in practice and describe in details the application of selected topic in the company where student did their work experience.
In this report I will describe the following behavior theories: F.W Taylor management theory, Adams Equity Theory, McClelland acquired needs theory, Vroom Expectancy Theory. My chose HR topic is Planning, Recruitment and Selection and how this is applied in practice I will describe using my work placement experience in company called ADVANZ Hydrotherapy located in Tallaght Business Park, Dublin 24.
Terms of References
On January 2013 the Business Management teacher Karen Abberton requested a 4000-50000 word business management report on the Human Behaviour Theory and HRM. Students have to describe 4 motivation theories about human behaviour and analyse how these theories apply/work in the organisation where students do/did their work experience. This report was to be submitted by 18th March 2013 in partial completion of the FETAC, Level 6 (Business Management) module. Recommendations were requested.
Method of Procedure
Completing this report my first source of information was an actual work placement and theory covered in class. The information I got in the class I discussed with company manager, what helped me to analyze the theory and that use in real life. It is clear that theory is not fully used at work, but some of it ideas will be always placed in management work and strategy. My second source of information was internet, which I used to read more about the theories and how were these introduced to the world, why they took place in management history and what are the main points.
Description of HR topic
Success of leading companies depends on the creation of efficient methods of human resources management at the organizational level. The main role of it is the formation of strategic approach to the use and development of labor potential.
Any company needs to have a strategy and it is natural to choose employees to their respective strategies. I believe that the company business depends not only from the strategy but also from the management style and how managing department respect other people in the company. It is necessary that employees will be treated as assets of the company, as the human potential needs to motivate and develop in order to achieve the strategic goals of the organization.
Here in this part of assignment I will describe a very important part of human resource management job such as planning, recruiting and selection.
Every successful manager or company must have a plan and there is no doubt about it. Plan is not only organizing a person or company to work properly and stable- it helps in many reasons such as achievements of better results and creating a better market shares, analyzing the job and set of new goals and made the job in the company more constant in the business its works. Plan is actual set of company's goals and that should be created absolutely in every department of the organization in order to achieve the better results. Having a plan will help to reduce a company cost on several aspects like overstaffed or overspending on materials if this is a factory or overstock in any retailers, but also will help to create a right picture of company's position in the market for every certain moment, will help to create a proper timetable for staff development and motivation, improves company whole business and finally plan this is what save company time and money.
Also a well made plan helps managers to create a future picture about company development, like opening a new branch or set a new project or even hiring another staff member.
There are different aspects of planning and this is depends on department where plan was set on. Human Resources planning consist of 3 terms: short term within a year- this is a plan for maternity leave or for temporary replacement, medium term gap (1 to 5 years) needs more care when taking this type of planning as this plan lasting for longer period and as example there might be a company project. The last one is long term gap which is more than 5 years plan, what could be a temporary career break.
The main part of the job for Human resources department is to look after the company staff members, such as recruitment and selection, training and development, resolving staff problems and issues that arise and motivation. And all of these actions need a good, well thought plan.
In my opinion the most difficult plan for Human Resources department is to settle down a proper employment contract or organize a disciplinary handbook. Because these actions are legal issues and needs to be created following the employment law legislation.
Before starting recruitment process Human Resources department must go through a selection process.
Preparing for recruitment process HR Department have to go through 3 stages: preparing job description-clearly mark job title and duties involved in it, qualification and skills requirements, terms and conditions of employment such as salary, bonuses, holiday days, clarify location of work. Then the HR department must to spread away job offer advertising. At the beginning company will let their staff members to know about job offer. This type of advertising called internal. Before placing an advertising externally HR Department have to think maybe there is a person who wants to be promoted or somebody wants to step back (internal demotion). May be here is somebody who wants to try new role and that called internal transfer, if employee would like to change a department temporary or may be some of the staff members might recommend a right person for a role that been advertised. That shows respect to the staff members as a company wants their staff knows first about the offer made and this is mean that management does care about them plus that save a lot of time. If there is no right person within the company then advertising will be placed in internet or employment agencies- external advertising.
Afterwards when company will receive a thousands of CV and application letters HR department have to settle down another plan or rule -how to choose interviewee. For sure, department will not spend their time going trough all CVs. If CV is not suits Company requirements or CV is not made according the standards (layout and grammar), such a CV will go to the bin. Preparing a CV a person has to make sure there are at least no grammar mistakes and layout looks professionally including a name, phone, address, education history, employment history, interest and hobbies. Before completing the list of interviewees department has to create a picture of ideal candidate: defining the right education and qualifications, skills, experience. Aviations companies might even ask candidates send a picture as they have standards of how stewardess has to look like. Also HR will pay attention on personal qualities such as interest, ability to work with other, what motivates the person, did person completed an extra study, and how person works under stress and overall how the person cope with life.
Analyzing a CV employer might pay attention on record of employment or gaps of employment and what was happened during these gaps. This is not really a good sign if employee was changing a job too often (as example every year) or if an employee worked too long with one company (more then 7 years). To understand these entire qualities interviewer will made a short list of questions for them and get ready for interview.
There are different set of questions: direct-when there is only two answers like Yes or No. Topic-changing question- transfers an interviewee from one topic to another. This question is good in case if candidate went too long answering one question. And also creates a better flow and control during the interview. Probing questions allow interviewee to expand on their answers, but answering on such a questions candidate needs to attached evidence and experience, because that what employer are looking from asking such a question. Opened-ended questions allows candidate to relax, because it is allows talk more and this is really suits shy candidate. Reflecting questions expecting an answer Yes or No. These are very straight questions. The last one is a specific question like: Tell me about time when, what level of achievement, how good are you on working with the team, what will you doing ifâ€¦
There are many types and procedures organizing the interview and this are really depend on company strategy. Sometimes there might just one to one interview- individual. The advantage of that interview is that interview is cheaper for the company and less stress for the interviewee, but because there is only one person doing the interview there is higher chance of personal attitude from the side of interviewer for an example racial discrimination, personal dislike, religion dislike.
Interviewing panel-when is 2-3 interviewers attending the interview. This type of interview will be more expensive and much harder for candidate. But this is reducing level of bias.
Selection board is when there are 3-5 interviewers and all of them involved into the interview. They will ask all different questions what create more challenging atmosphere for interviewee. This type of interview will suit for very confident persons and probably used when company hiring a person to cover a highest position in the company such as department manager.
There is another type of interview called group selection. Candidates performing under the task given and employer will observe people while completing the task. This task is usually based on problem solving and this will help employer to see how candidates work in group, who is a leader and who is a follower.
So the main function of interview is to check candidate for quality and credibility, because a lot of people are laying on their CVs. Employer will check candidates asking a probing questions as well.
Usually if the candidate passes the first interview it will bring the person to second phase-assessment or second interview. During the assessment phase employer likes to use group interview or singly tested doing some exercises. Candidates will be more tested. During the interview candidates will get more information about the company, work place and job process and might get feedback on the results.
The last phase of interview is negotiating part. This is time when employer will check all the references and go through last questions to clarify that offer is clear and accepted. Candidate discusses about terms and condition such as salary, bonuses, holidays days.
If two parts of interview are happy enough candidates gets a position.
Over the past years and decades, many successful organizations are increasingly paying attention to the quality use of a management system. Management of the companies are trying to establish an effective management system and one of the most important condition for the successful implementation is the involvement of staff in efforts to develop and improve the system.
There are many different theories about staff motivation and effectiveness of management process, developed by experts and scholars such as F.W. Taylor, Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland, Hertzberg, McGregor and Vroom.
Reading Scientific Management Theory written by F.W Taylor I had different opinion and feeling on it. I used to work in a company where I had an assistant manager position, so I do have some management skills. I absolutely agree with a theory in a sense that any senior person should have a clear plan of work and give clear instructions to workers and sometimes even give a time limit to complete the task. But in the same time company management have to realize that this type of management is not suitable for every organization. Companies where people have to work on their own initiative, like a designers, marketing departments, staff in crèches will not be able to follow the whole system as their work mostly requires a creative approach. Or some of logistic companies will not be able to follow this theory in all aspects, as their job depends on many factors like weather circumstances, or cars condition and other.
But as Taylor I do not like people who are working just because they have to work. I am a person who likes and prefer to work while at work and work hard. I do understand that Taylor theory is totally suit people with workaholic attitude. I pure agree that people who trying avoid the tasks or do work slowly in a purpose should not be treated as other hard working people or should be dismissed.
There are main points of Taylors Theory:
Management has find the best and quickest way of completing the task observing the tasks complication by staff members
Define the best ways of completing the task based on the most rational way of doing the tasks and define the performance requirement for the results.
Selection of most suitable workers. According to Taylors theory the best works are people with high money motivation, who will work extremely hard if they know that they will receives some amount of money afterwards.
Improvement of tools for work-make work completion as easiest as possible using the right materials or facilities and equipments
Creating a best atmosphere for work
Clear and understandable chain between the results and the amount of labor.
The calculated system of the work performed.
Providing people with clear information about what they have to do and about their results
Establishing good relationship between administration and workers.
Reading trough his theory I did not find any evidence showing that factories where his theory was in use creates a good atmosphere at work and have good staff motivation. In my opinion this is not good work atmosphere where is a placement role like guards. Their part of job is to control other workers speed and not allowed them to work slowly or even slow down. This feels like people work in a sweatshop factory or they are like slaves.
Concluding his theory I might say that this theory is good for the company, orientated on profit, results and good place in the market with high performance and leadership, but will not suit for many workers. As from the motivation aspects there is only money aspect that will push people to work, but how many people have such an attitude? I do not think that just money might be a greatest motivator for people.
Another theory which I like and very agreed with that is McClelland acquired needs theory. This theory is based on the fact that there are people who have an increased need for achievements and such a people usually work much harder and do better. But unique part of this theory is that people who have low level of such a need can develop it through training.
This theory is totally apply to me as my experience shows if I do not received appreciate training or I do not get enough challenges I likely to became bored. A believe this is a good theory for staff motivation and developing. Using such a theory company management might create for themselves (organization) a good and professional group of staff members and avoiding staff flow and waste of time.
Talking about Adams Equity Theory I might say that this is seems to me like ideal theory for the employees. This theory based on fact that employees compare their job and efforts they put into it to the benefit, and rewards they getting back from it. And at the same time they compare themselves with somebody else at the same work and how other perform, how much effort they put and what they got. Because only comparing with somebody else might give an honest, fair balance.
If an employee sees injustice, he is losing the motivation to inputs of effort at work and then there is an insult to the management. If wages are lower labor performed, the employee is making less effort such as starts late for work, leaving early, late on breaks and refuses taking an extra task or responsibility. If the employee knows that his wages are higher than labor performed than he/she feels guilty in sense of others and keeps work hard. Here is an equity comes. Saying that we cannot expect all people will follow this way for sure. Some people are happy to have a lot of money for doing nothing.
Justice - is equal to the ratio of labor costs to the reward.
There is simple way of explaining Adams theory using such a diagram:
Here in this diagram I tried to illustrate balance between outputs and inputs.
Surely people would like to be treated properly and appropriate way, but how to know what is the right way. The more people there are the more different opinions. Different people respond differently on the sense of injustice.
Understanding of the equity theory - helps managers understand that improving the environment for a single person, you can change the perception of other people and upset the balance of weights and therefore, it will create more problems.
That why in the beginning I sad that this theory is seems to be ideal for employee but very hard to manage for employer.
Vroom Expectancy Theory
Vroom Theory based on the fact that employees have different expectations as to what they do. Management needs to understand what resources, training and checks will suit to the right person. Vroom understands that performance of the employee is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and ability.
The expectations theory states that people can be motivated if they have certain goals and expectations for the completed goals.
Vroom Expectancy theory is based on 3 factors:
Expectancy-management has to understand what kinds of resources are suitable for an employee.
Instrumentality- management has to control that all employee expectation and promises were achieved.
Valance-management has to realize what employee value and appreciate.
These three beliefs interact psychologically and so are the motivators.
Based on everything above Vroom has a formula where: motivation= Valance Ã- Expectancy.
Behavioral Theory and HRM
Before to start my work experience I set up a few goals which I liked to learn during the process. These were to learn about professional management and ethic while running a personal business and which necessary points I have to know employing people.
There is no particular HR department in the company. Advanz Hydrotherapy HR department is an actual manager/director of the company. Communicating and discussing such a question with the manager I have to come back to the time when manager start his career in the Advanz. He creates a plan for personal development and skills achievements, as bathroom industry was completely new industry for him. He learned from the company founders, from the suppliers and competitors. Research reports about industry also fulfill his knowledge. Only when he brings himself to the certain level he took a managing position in the company. Summarizing this information I want to say that from the personal development he understands what type of people he wants to see in the company and which skills are required for work.
Because of the company size manager do not waste a lot of money or time during employment period. This is not a tall hierarchy level company, where needs to hire employees for different departments. Company needs only few people for the factory and few office people. He takes it simple and actually people who have been employed once still working in the company. There is no staff flow in the company, what actually mean that staff members are happy with everything. From another point it might be because of recession where people afraid to lose their job.
Anyway if manager will need an extra person firstly he will use internal advertising. There are some evidences about it: when professional factory staff member left the company he brought his friend to cover his role. Manager does like taking people which are recommended from somebody else, rather than wasting time and money for new staff members. But anyway if he is not able to find a right person within the company he will place external advertising using employment agencies. At the moment company employ only part-time employee, so company advertising letter will definitely state this factor, but they never state salary rate. Company never uses internet for employment.
If company will need another factory floor worker the necessary skills will be: previous experience on working in the factory, plumbing experience, English language knowledge is essential, team work and good communication manners, good customer service. People with bathroom industry experience will have a better chance to get a work. Even if a possible employee has a good knowledge of work he will be provided by training anyway. Usually fixed-term employee will spend their time on training. So it means company uses "sit beside" training system.
Essential skills for administration position: fluent English, good phone manners and excellent customer service, flexibility, managing skills, experience of administrative job or job in the office, good time management, strong bookkeeping knowledge. Relevant experience of industry is not essential but can be an advantage.
Manager will not spend a lot of time checking CVs. If person suits require needs manager will arrange interview with that person.
The interview flow the simplest way. Manager and assistant will invite the interviewee to the company office and will go through person CV. Mainly manager will pay his attention on skills and experience. He tries to create relax atmosphere during the interview. Usually the manger asks to tell more about previous experience, about the company where interviewee worked, his/her actual duties and actual works carried out. Having a wide experience in that industry manager will easily spot if person is lying and do not have any previous experience. The simple technical questions will let him to understand it. If manager will satisfy his needs and interviewee happy with company rules, salary and other benefits, the person is likely to get a work.
During a time when students were looking for a work experience I attended few interviews and it was much structural and formal rather than here in this company. I just have a phone conversation with the manager about my chosen course and my previous experience. Manager of the company likes give a chance to people as well. If they prove themselves as a strong, interested at work and hardworking employee, they will stay in the company even if they do not have enough skills- such an action might motivate people for great performance during probation period and achieving the goals. There is 6 month probation period in the company.
As in every company Advanz Hydrotherapy is experiencing some problems with management system which affect company performance as well. In my opinion there is no ideal manager, as staff is always unhappy with something. Manager role is the hardest and the dirtiest role ever, so why this company has the same problem as everywhere. Because of personal business manager might be too stressful sometimes and that fact might affect staff members, what actually de motivate and upset them.
Company does not have a proper marketing department employee, whose daily duties involve: web page updating, text messaging, e mailing, promotions and news update in the Facebook page and twitter desk. The person who looks after this part of job is like a contracted employee and works on distance. Office administration is not the right person for such a role as this is not what she likes to do and not what she was trained/studied for. Such a situation is demotivating; create a stress and challenging her. She also do not have a lot of pleasure completing such a task, but also she has no a time and so on this affect company performance as promoting and informal tools do not look strong, competitive enough. What's more this is not done on daily basis and that affect task quality and consistency. Doing text messaging I realize that phone list is not up to date. Company received a reply from some customers asking to stop messaging. Customer list was not up to date and that annoyed some costumers. So this factor shows company unprofessional side. Being placed in the marketing department I did not have a strong leader beside me and could not became inspired to become interested in such a work. Because of that I do realize I don't want to have any future work connected with marketing. Researching a lot of competitor web pages I find out that a lot of companies are working hard on e-marketing tools and strongly push products in the internet. Advanz Hydrotherapy did not come close to sell products online, but actually it is very common at the moment. I do understand company does not have a budget for such a person at the moment. But anyway such a factor should not destroy work system of office administrator.
There are good points about selecting staff in the company as well, as factory staff is work a lot in their initiative, they are ambitious, creative and they most important is they do care about their work. When there was a busy time for the company guys were always stayed overtime and there were not just money matters as saying again they trying their best to provide an excellent customer service. Manager sees their work and always appreciates it, what's more he is always delighted when guys are coming with new ideas. Manager always asking advices about technical part of work what makes them fill part of the team, being important and valuable, and for sure this is affect quality of their work. I have never heard any customer complain about the baths during my work experience. Summarizing the information above I might say that well-chosen, properly motivated and valued on time employee brings "mighty harvest" for employer: self-discipline, quality of work, the time of execution and the consequence of all this is usually constant clients and their respect, trust to the company. From another way a dissatisfied workforce may result in low productivity, strikes which will in turn have an adverse affect on the wealth of the owner.
Concluding the report information I have to say that planning the interview and selecting the rights candidates might seems like as easiest part of Human Resources tasks. But actually it is involve a lot of painstaking subtasks like creating advertising, selecting the CVs, organizing the interviews. The main question what HR management has to answer is -who is the company ideal employee is and how they can describe him, what is an essential skills and education required.
Advanz Hydrotherapy manager uses like a lazy style of planning the interview and selecting the rights candidates. Such a style might be related to small company business. There is no departmentalization separation in the company as manager carries a lot of duties himself including Human Resources.
Observing company HRM system there was some recommendation made:
To hire professional marketing person who will strongly orientated on pushing company products.
During the "bad days" manager have to control his patience, as it is very easy to lose staff respect and that will affect company performance
Manager has to keep appreciate staff initiative when undertaking some tasks, as this is really motivate staff members
Manager has to keep communicate as much as possible with staff members as this will keep team work spirit and inspire staff members for better performance.