Employees have been found to develop general beliefs concerning the degree to which the
organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational
support [POS]; Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986; Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). A considerable amount of evidence indicates that employees having a high level of POS experience their jobs more favorably (e.g., demonstrating increased job satisfaction, positive mood, and reduced stress) and are more invested in their work organization (e.g., demonstrating increased affective organizational commitment and increased performance; see review by Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002).
For many years, organizational theorists have alluded to employment as the exchange of employees'effort and loyalty for the organization's provision of material and socio emotional benefits (e.g., Etzioni, 1961; Gould, 1979; Levinson, 1965; March & Simon, 1958; Mowday, Porter, & Steers,1982; Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974). These characterizations of the employee-employer relationship emphasize organizations' attainment of favorable outcomes through the generous treatment of employees. For example, employees who are well treated are more likely to become affectively committed to the organization (Meyer & Allen, 1997; Mowday et al., 1982), to exceed their explicitly required work responsibilities, and to respond flexibly to organizational problems and opportunities (George & Brief, 1992).
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According to organizational support theory, the development of POS is encouraged by employees' tendency to assign the organization humanlike characteristics (Eisenberger et al., 1986).Employers commonly value employee dedication and loyalty. Employees who are emotionally committed to the organization show heightened performance, reduced absenteeism, and a lessened likelihood of quitting their job (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Meyer & Allen, 1997; Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 1982).
Perceived organizational support (POS) is also valued as assurance that aid will be available from the organization when it is needed to carry out one's job effectively and to deal with stressful situations (cf. George, Reed, Ballard, Colin, & Fielding, 1993). POS would be valued by employees for meeting socio emotional needs, providing an indication of the organization's readiness to reward increased work effort, and indicating the organization's inclination to provide aid when needed to carry out one's job effectively (Eisenberger et al., 1986).
Overall, it appears that employees with higher levels of POS are likely to be more committed
and possibly more willing to engage in extra role or "organizational citizenship" behaviors
(Organ, 1988) than are employees who feel that the organization does not value them as highly.
Telecom Sector Of Pakistan
Out of the top four cellular players Ufone has been the biggest impetus behind the Cellular industry's 17% growth as declared by PTA in its annual report for the year 2008-2009. Ufone's is at the top with an astounding revenue growth of 46% during past year.
The report states that cellular telecom sector in Pakistan maintained a positive growth rate for the year 2008-09 despite a cut throat tariff and call packages competition and sluggish economic conditions in the country.
A recently released annual report PTA for the year 2008-2009 has shown growth of 17% in revenue for the cellular industry overall reflecting that the industry is involved in a healthy competition and its strategy to increase customer base as well as revenues through value added services and call minutes has worked so far.
Amongst the top four players, Ufone led with 46% increase in revenue, Mobilink the largest cellular operator in the country in terms of declared customer base has increased its net revenue by 4%over the same period, Telenor also performed well with 14% increase and Warid telecom fared with 9% increase in revenue. The total revenue of the industry saw a growth from Rupees 182.122 billion in the year 2007-2008 to Rupees 212.423 billion in the year 2008-2009.
But despite these increases in revenue the most of the operators are showing losses as these have to invest further in a competitive market. Unfone however has shown a profit of Rs 1.7 billion despite that fact it has further invested USD 245 million in the last year to expand and improve its network. PTA attributes this to Ufone's robust and prudent handling of its finances.
PTA also has noted that Average Revenue Per User has also decreased over the year as the customer base has expanded into the lower income segment that used voice telephony more instead of value added services. Mobilink and Ufone here again have shown the way with leading the industry by getting better revenue as compared to the rest of the industry from data services.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Rollinson (2005, pp.189) defines that: Motivation is a state arising in processes that are internal and external to the individual, in which the person perceives that it is appropriate to pursue a certain course of action (or actions) directed at achieving a specified outcomes (or outcomes) and in which the person chooses to pursue those outcomes with a degree of vigour and persistence. Similarly, it is also defined as a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995).
In psychology, motivation is usually employed to explain people's behaviours (Rollinson, 2005), for instance, why a person behaves this way or that way? As to this point, three important components of behaviour which are thought to have a profound influence on performance are described as follows: direction, intensity and persistence. Generally speaking, direction of behaviour mainly refers to what a person most desires to do and what their objectives are when doing something. Then, intensity of behaviours equates to how much efforts they would like to make or how hard they are going to try in that direction. Last but not the least, persistence of behaviours refers to people's abilities to bear difficulties and the extent to which people could keep doing in that direction.
Motivation is fundamental to human behaviour. Bartol and Martin (1998) define motivation as the force that energises behaviour, gives direction to behaviour, and underlies the tendency to persist. Similarly, Greenberg and Baron (1997) define motivation as "the set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behaviour toward attaining some goal". There are three key parts to this definition: arousal, drive, and mobilisation of effort. Arousal is the initial feeling of interest that a person has toward attaining a particular goal. The second aspect of the definition, direction, is what people will do and actions they will take to get closer to attaining the end result. For instance, in the American culture, if an individual is trying to get the next promotion, he will probably stay at work late to do additional work and develop excellent relationships with the key decision-makers. The third element of this definition of motivation, mobilisation of effort, refers to the persistence or maintenance of the behaviour until the goal is attained. This means that the candidate desiring a promotion will continue the aforementioned behaviour until promotion is reached.
The concept of organizational commitment has been treated as a variable of interest in its own right and a variety of definitions and measures have been proposed (Mowdayet al., 1982; Meyer et al., 1998; Coyle-Shapiro et al., 2006).
In an early con-ceptualization, organizational commitment was defined as an individual's (1) belief in and acceptance of organizational goals and values, (2) willing-ness to exert effort toward organizational goal accomplishment, and (3) strong desire to maintain organizational membership (Porter, Steers, Mow-day, & Boulian, 1974)
The commitment literature is quite extensive (for reviews, see Balfour& Wechsler, 1990;Hulin, 1991;Reichers, 1985)although based largely on research in the private sector( Becker, 1960;E tzioni,1961;Grusky, 1966;Mowday, Porter, &Steers,1982;Mowday & Steers,1979;O 'Reilly& Chatman,19 86;Salancik, 1977;S taw,1 977). Prior to the late 1970s, there was substantial dissensus about t he definition and measurement of the commitment construct. Some scholars (Grusky, 1966; Hrebiniak & Alutto,1972; Lee, 1969,1 971;Stevens, Beyer, &Trice,1 978) defined commitment as an employee's desire to remain with the organization. Others (Schneider, Hall,& Nygren,1 974;S heldon,1 971) defined commitment in terms of identification or the extent t o which the employee identifies with the goals and values of the organization. Definitions of commitment included loyalty (Buchanan, 1974),job involvement (Weiner & Gechman, 1977), job attachment( Koch& Steers,1 978), job commitment (Farrell &Peterson, 1984), and moral commitment(Werbel & Gould 1984).
Many factors influence employee commitment. These include commitment to the manager, occupation, profession, or career (Meyer & Allen, 1997). Organizational commitment focuses on employees' commitment to the organization. In explaining the significance of organizational commitment, Meyer & Allen (1997) refer to Morrow & McElroy's (1993) statement that organizational commitment is the most maturely developed of all the work commitment constructs.
As part of their research, Meyer & Allen (1991) developed a framework that was designed to measure three different types of organizational commitment: (a) Affective commitment refers to employees' emotional attachment, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Employees with a strong affective commitment stay with the organization because they want to. (b) Continuance commitment refers to employees' assessment of whether the costs of leaving the organization are greater than the costs of staying. Employees who perceive that the costs of leaving the organization are greater than the costs of staying remain because they need to.
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(c) Normative commitment refers to employees' feelings of obligation to the organization. Employees with high levels of normative commitment stay with the organization because they feel they ought
Pos and employee motivation
POS AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMTNT
It will contribute to the exiting literature of pos, em and o.s because I have selected sample from the telecom sector of Pakistan.
THEORITICAL FRAME WORK
H1: POS is positively related to Employee motivation.
H2: POS is positively related to Organizational Commitment.
Perceived Organizational Support
Listed below are statements that represent possible opinions that YOU may have about working at _____.
Please indicate the degree of your agreement or disagreement with each statement by filling in the circle on your answer sheet that best represents your point of view about ____.
Please choose from the following answers:
1. The organization values my contribution to its well-being. ________
2. The organization fails to appreciate any extra effort from me. ________
3. The organization would ignore any complaint from me. ________
4. The organization really cares about my well-being. ________
5. Even if I did the best job possible, the organization would fail to notice. ________
6. The organization cares about my general satisfaction at work. _________
7. The organization shows very little concern for me. _________
8. The organization takes pride in my accomplishments at work. ________
1. Â I arrive at the office on time and do not leave early.
2. I expect the same levels of accuracy in my own work as my employees.
3. I do not blame others. I take responsibility for my part in mistakes.
4. I encourage a "no blame" culture where staff are able to admit mistakes and learn from them.
5. I do not keep secrets from my employees.
Â 6.Â I do not encourage gossip or rumour.
7. I set high ethical standards for my behaviour towards employees and hold myself to those standards.
8. I ensure that staff have the training they require.
9. I participate in training to improve my own skills and competencies.
10. Employees have an active role in developing objectives for themselves, their team and the company as a whole.
11.Â I regularly check that objectives between different parts of the team or company are congruent. Everyone pulls together forÂ Â the same end rather than competing for different results.
12. I have a clear system for handling employee discontent.
13. Employees are aware of the system for handling discontent and feel encouraged to use it to address problems.
15 I do not build rapport with my team by sharing my weaknesses and fears. I am honest but professional.
16. Employees are encouraged to make mistakes.
20. I trust my staff.
I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help this organization be successful.
I talk up this organization to my friends as a great organization to work for
I feel very little loyalty to this organization(R)
I would accept almost any type of job assignment in order to keep working for this organization
I find that my values and the organization's values are very similar
I am proud to tell others that I am part of this organization
I could just as well be working for a different organization as long as the type of work were similar(R)
This organization really inspires the very best in me in the way of job performance
It would take very little change in my present circumstances to cause me to leave this organization(R)
I am extremely glad that I chose this organization to work for, over others I was considering at the time I joined
There's not too much to be gained by sticking with this organization indefinitely(R)
Often, I find it difficult to agree with this organization's policies on important matters relating to its employees(R)
I really care about the fate of this organization
For me this is the best of all possible organizations for which to work
Deciding to work for this organization was a definite mistake on my part(R)1