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The relationship between the organization and its members is influenced by what motivates them to work and the rewards and fulfillment they derive from it. The manager needs to know how best to elicit the co-operation of staff and direct their performance to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. The study of motivation is concerned basically with why people behave in certain way. Motivation does not operate in a vacuum and the behavior in which they do operate is affected by the processes of perception, learning and thinking.
The definition of motivation is to give enthusiasm or interest, incentive, reason that causes certain behavior or a specific action.
Four common characteristics identified by Mitchell underlying the definition of motivation are as follows.
Keeping all the major motivation theories in view it permits that the uniqueness to be shown in one way or another. Everyone has a unique nature.
Motivation is supposed to be under the controls and behaviors of workers being influenced by motivation, for instance efforts given, are seen as choices of action.
Two great important factors are: (1) What gets people activated (arousal); (2) The force of an individual to keep engaged in desired behavior.
It is not the performance and not the behavior itself. It prefers that a person's choice of action is influenced by action, and the internal and external forces.
The above characteristics defining motivation as "the degree to which an individual opts to engage in certain specified behaviors".
In order to fulfill some expectations individuals need to produce some driving energy within themselves through which they can achieve their certain goals by completing their tasks. This concept gives rise to the basic motivational model, which is illustrated in the figure below.
Basic Motivational Model
(Behavior or Action)
Needs or Expectations
Kreitner et al. suggest that although motivation gives necessary contribution for job performance it is not the only one. It is also a combination of level of skills and knowledge of completing the task along with the ability; sentiments and feelings; and inhibiting and facilitating conditions not under the individual's control.
Extrinsic Motivation: is related to "tangible" rewards such as salary and fringe benefits, security, promotion, contract of service, the work environment and conditions of work. Such tangible rewards are often determined at the organizational level and may be largely outside the control of individual managers.
Intrinsic Motivation: is related to "psychological" rewards such as opportunity to exploit someone's ability, challenge and achievement receiving appreciation, positive recognition, and being treated in a caring and considerate manner.
The useful approach to the study of motivation is through an understanding of internal cognitive processes - that is, what people feel and how they think. The different cognitive theories of motivation can be divided into two approaches that are contrasting: process theories and content theories.
Content Theories of Motivation:
Major content theories of motivation include:
Maslow's hierarchy of needs model;
Alderfer's modified need hierarchy model;
Hezberg's two-factor theory; and
McChelland's achievement motivation theory.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory:
Maslow's basic proposition is that people are wanting beings, they are always in the search of more and their wanting dependent on the things they already have. He suggests that human needs are arranged in a series of levels, a hierarchy of importance.
Physiological needs: These include homeostasis such as satisfaction of thirst and hunger; maintain temperature regulation, and the need for oxygen.
Safety needs: These include safety and security, freedom from pain or threat of physical attack, protection from danger or deprivation, the need for predictability and orderliness.
Love needs: These include affection, sense of belonging, social activities, friendships, and both the giving and receiving of love.
Esteem needs: These include both the esteem of others and self-respect. Self-respect involves the desire for freedom, independence, strength, achievement and confidence. Esteem of others involves prestige, status, recognition reputation, appreciation and attention.
Self-actualization needs: This is the development and realization of one's full potential. Maslow's sees this as: 'what humans can be, they must be', or 'becoming everything that one is capable of becoming'. Self-actualization needs are not necessarily a creative urge, and may take many forms which vary widely from one individual to another.
Alderfer's Modified Need Hierarchy Model:
A modified need hierarchy model has been presented by Alderfer. This model condenses Maslow's five levels of needs into only three levels based on the core needs of existence, relatedness and growth (ERG theory).
Existence needs: are concerned with sustaining human existence and survival, and cover physiological and safety needs of a material nature.
Relatedness needs: are concerned with relationships to the social environment and cover love or belonging, affiliation, and meaningful interpersonal relationships of a safety or esteem nature.
Growth needs: are concerned with the development of potential, and cover self-esteem and self-actualization.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory: It concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if present, they don't lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. By considering some factors related to job context, and concerned with job environment and extrinsic to the job itself can be defined as follows:
Hygiene or Maintenance Factors: They serve to prevent dissatisfaction and motivate the individual to superior effort and performance. These factors are related to job content of the work itself.
Motivators: The strength of these factors will affect feelings of satisfaction or no satisfaction, but not dissatisfaction.
McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory: McClelland identified four main socially developed and arousal-based motives.
The Achievement motive: Employees with a high need for achievement (nAch) seek to excel and to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations. Achievers avoid low risk situations because the success secured easily is not the real achievement. Achievers find the results as one of chance rather than one's own effort in high-risk projects.
The Afflictive motive: People with a great need for affiliation require harmonious relationships with other people and demands for acceptation by their colleagues. They tend to confirm to the intention of their work group. Highly motive people prefer work that gives important personal interaction and causing the result in providing well performance in client interaction situations and customer service.
The Power motive: A person's need for power can be of two types - institutional and personal. Employees needing personal power tend to direct others, and this thing often is seen not desirable. Those who are in need of institutional power also considered as social power tend to set up the efforts of others to accomplish the objectives of the organization.
Thematic Apperception Test: McClelland used (TAT) as a tool to measure the individual needs of different people. This is the test of imagination that presents the subject with a series of ambiguous pictures, and the subject is asked to generate a spontaneous story for each picture. The assumption is that the subject will be projecting his or her own necceceties into the story. The test carries out the individual's score for each of the needs of affiliation, and power and achievement.
Financial rewards of motivation:
Financial rewards play a vital role in motivating people in the workplace. The firm or organization offers their employees financial rewards in the form of package that comes below:
Salaries: fixed amounts per month or year for performing a role;
Benefits: It includes staff concessions, travel costs contributions, staff uniforms etc
Time-rate pay: offered on time-worked pay; employees are paid per hour in small firms and organizations.
Commission: employee gets rewards on achieving the no of sales.
OtherÂ performance-related pay:Â e.g. granted bonuses for achieving the milestone of targets.
Shares and options: It is very common in large businesses whose shares are trades their shares in stock markets, but not much common in small businesses.
PensionsÂ - .Pension benefits are not offered in small businesses. It is getting less common.
In most cases, an employee might expect to have a mixture of the above in a pay package.
Non Financial rewards of motivation:
The need for non-financial methods of motivation is accepted by most of the businesses. Some of the main methods are given in brief description below:
Job enhancement: It gives an employee extra responsibility of tasks to be performed the job remains unchanged but the employee has to perform some additional task being in its job that gives the employee a courage to take on more responsibility and experiences less repletion and feels autonomous.
Job rotationÂ In order to produce interest in the employees they must be involved in the different no of jobs to increase motivation in them.
In Job rotation the employee needs extra training because at initial level they are not familiar with the new tasks that might be the cause of reduced productivity but on the other side it proves to be beneficial and covers for absent co-workers.
Job enrichment EmployeesÂ takes more responsibility when they are give complex tasks and asked to them to fully take on the responsibility and fulfill more no of tasks. It motivates by the employees by giving them opportunity to exploit their abilities fully.Â
It is great paramount for the students' success that they learn Motivation. The sources of motivation are complex. Motivation learning links with own personal that appears within an individual, but external factors causes influence. At the fore front of all instructional design the principles of motivation must be kept by the motivators. The applications of motivation theory are limited only by one's imagination.