Virtusa Corporation is a global information technology services company providing IT consulting, technology and outsourcing services.
Using our enhanced global delivery model, innovative software platforming approach and industry expertise, we provide high-value IT services that enable our clients to enhance business performance, accelerate time-to-market, increase productivity and improve customer service.
Virtusa serve Global 2000 companies and the leading software vendors in Communications & Technology, Banking & Financial Services, Insurance, Telecommunications, and Media, Information & Entertainment industries. We build and sustain application platforms for our clients that create competitive advantage.
B. Profile of E-Solutions
E-Solutions Lanka (Pvt) Limited is a BOI approved Software-Exporting Company, which began its commercial operation in the year 2001 having its registered office at the best business address, World Trade Centre, Colombo 01.
E-Solutions started the operation with 13 team members and over the years E-Solutions grew gradually and today E-Solutions have nearly 60 team members working hard, giving their full strength to give 'competitively, most complete' solutions to the customers in Europe. The most valuable resource E-Solutions have is our TEAM. E-Solutions always encourage innovative ideas and reward the team players who actively demonstrate and support 'The E-Solutions Culture' and 'The Quest for Excellence'. E-Solutions team has the opportunity to directly work with the customers and they share the experiences and know-how with their foreign colleagues.
1.2 Different organizational structure and culture and Organizational culture and structure
A. The organizational structure of Virtusa:
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Virtusa has its work divided according to function, and in this case the work is shared among three departments under three mangers, i. e: the Production Manager, the Human Resource and Administrative Manager and the Quality Assurance Manager, who in turn have the responsibility over various sub - groups under the main department. This type of structure enables a particular employee to gain more expertise and specialization in a particular field.
As an example, The General Operations department, the Training and Development Unit, and the Shift Operations Unit are directly under the control of the Human Resources Manager, and the employees of each of the sub - units are able to gain expertise in the particular area, and will not have to worry about the work handled in any other department, thus enabling the employees in each unit to carry out their tasks in an efficient and effective manner.
B. The Chain of Command at Virtusa:
The Chain of command is how the authority and responsibility passes from the upper organizational levels to the lowest levels. This exists in Virtusa as the subordinates of a particular department reports to the manager of each department.
Authority is the right of whom to do which thing in any environment. Thus, for example, if there is a fault in the production department of Virtusa, the Human resource manger dos not have any right to control the production department.
Responsibility is the obligation to carry forward an assigned task to a successful conclusion. Thus, for example if an employee of a particular department needs to obtain leave for a few days, he should ask another employee to look over to those matters of his department until he returns, but his responsibility cannot be delegated, and he should make sure that he completes his task as soon as he returns back from leave.
C. The Span of Control of Virtusa:
The span of control is the number of subordinates that report directly to a given manager or supervisor.
Advantages of a flat structured span of control:
Easy coordination of activities as there is departmentalization according to function.
Message reaches more employees faster, as there are less layers of management through which the message must pass through.
Empowerment provided, as employees of each section gains expertise on the particular tasks and duties of that section.
D. Organizational Culture of Virtusa:
Virtusa represents a role culture, where every individual is assigned a particular role. In this particular culture they have the benefit of specialization. For example they have cutters, markers and engineers who are specialized in their work. By adopting this culture employees do the work which is assigned to them thereby increasing the productivity of the organization.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Assumptions, values and beliefs of Virtusa affect the culture directly but cannot be seen physically. Virtusa is a lot conscious about punctuality as time management in aICT Company is of great importance in order to develop the targeted amount of ICT Solutions each day. Also, there is a particular Training and Development Dept. at Virtusa which specializes in developing the skills of the employees, thus also contributing towards the efficiency which finally results in Virtusa gaining a high amount of profit.
The physical structure of Virtusa symbolizes the company's underlying values and beliefs. Virtusa, as was stated before, is a one storey building, with all of its departments spread out in a particular order, so that efficiency is maintained, also providing a peaceful environment for the workforce.
Also, there is a large back garden at Virtusa, where the employees can relax after a busy work schedule to free their minds from stress, thus also contributing the efficiency and the productivity of the work force. These physical structures represent the culture of Virtusa.
Also, as the management of Virtusa looks after the welfare of the employees, which includes having a welfare shop at the factory premises where the employees are able to buy goods at a lower price, an also there is a well - trained nurse present in the factory at all times, and also includes a daily visit of a medical officer to look into the health matters of the employees, there is a low labour turnover at Virtusa.
E. How Organizational culture and structure affects business performance of Virtusa:
Virtusa works according to corporate culture. The top level management decides what employees should do. Always the top level management takes decisions accordingly to face the different situations. They also consider the ideas of staff as they are closer to customers. Their top level management has the experiences and they exactly have an idea about what they are doing.
Corporate culture helps the employees to build up strong relationships among them. The staffs of Virtusa always work together, peacefully during their working hours as well as non working hours. Training programs are conducted to improve the personality skills and the attitudes of employees, under the Training & Development Unit under the direct responsibility of the Human Resource Manager. By improving these skills of employees, the management can make them work better and hard to improve the company's performance effectively.
Virtusa uses an organization by role and also task culture. Departmentalization can be seen thoroughly and it helps the employees get more experience as the work. There are three main departments which operate in Virtusa which are the Production, Human resource, and Quality Assurance Departments. By dividing the work into different parts Virtusa has improved the company performance and thus is able to achieve the daily targeted production thus gaining a high amount of profit.
This structure of Virtusa can affect the company performance in these ways and also the culture of the organization affects on the company performance.
F. The organizational structure of E-Solutions:
E-Solutionshas its work divided according to function, and in this case the work is shared among mainly two departments under one manger, i. e: the Production Administration department and the Services Administration department are held under the General Manager. This type of structure is not ideal as this will lie more pressure on the Factory manager who has to look into all the activities in the factory, and also, there are chances for frauds and cheating to take place, as all the activities are supervised by one manager.
G. The Chain of Command at E-Solutions
As mentioned before, the Chain of command is how the authority and responsibility passes from the upper organizational levels to the lowest levels. This exists in E-Solutions as the subordinates of a particular department reports to the manager of each department, but in this case the process is more complicated as all of the employees of the production department should report to a single manager, and thus makes it difficult for the Production Manager as he should look into all matters concerning the production department.
H. The Span of Control of E-Solutions:
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The span of control is the number of subordinates that report directly to a given manager or supervisor.As observed in the organizational chart ofE-Solutions and also looking at the chain of command, it has a tall but broad hierarchical structure.But, in E-Solutions, as there are no heads or officers in charge who are responsible for each sub department, all subordinates should report to ne manager. As this is the case, this shows an improper way of management as too many subordinates report to a single manager, thus resulting in a number of interrelationships which is undesirable according to the inventor of the equation.
Also, practically these numbers of employees are hard to be controlled by one manager, as the manager should cater to all of their needs in order to ultimately achieve a high output with a high quality.
I. Organizational Culture of E-Solutions:
As mentioned previously, there are five types of culture, where E-Solutions. represents a role and also task culture. At E-Solutions.every individual is assigned a particular role. In this culture they have the benefits of specialization. By employing various departments the organization might be able to increase the productivity of the organization and to meet their company objective.
But, as all the production administration is held by one manager, the tasks are inefficiently managed, and therefore E-Solutionsis unable to achieve their target output per week. i.e. for example if they have assumed to send six containers per week, actually they are only able to send only three, thus decreasing their profits.
Also, there is no particular Training & Development Unit atE-Solutions., and therefore, there is no effort taken in enhancing the skills of the workforce, thus also reducing the level of efficiency.
This is also due to the physical layout of E-Solutions, as was stated before, is two storeyed, with the cutting department and the office spread on the 1st floor, and the other departments on the ground floor. This layout makes it a tiresome task, as the employees should run along the staircase to give the marked material to the cutting dept, and also to bring it back after it has been cut, back into the sewing dept, thus reducing efficiency.
Also, there is no space or a specific area of space allocated for the employees to relax after a busy daily work schedule, thus also contributing to the lack of efficiency in the subordinates.
There is also less facilities and no welfare opportunities provided for the employees at E-Solutions and also as there are more ICT Companies in and around Colombo, the employees leave the company when they get an ideal opportunity, thus the labour turnover at E-Solutions is high.
J. How Organizational culture and structure affects business performance of E-Solutions:
E-Solutionsworks according to corporate culture. The top level management decides what employees should do.
As there are fewer facilities for the employees atE-Solutions and also as there are more ICT Companies in and around Colombo, the employees leave the company when they get an ideal opportunity, which shows the inefficiency of management at E-Solutions.
Also, the physical structure of the factory, where the departments are arranged in two floors, with the cutting department and the office spread on the 1st floor, and the other departments on the ground floor. This layout makes it a tiresome task, as the employees should run along the staircase to give the marked material to the cutting dept, and also to bring it back after it has been cut, back into the sewing dept, thus reducing efficiency, and thus leading to les productivity than which was assumed.
E-Solutions. uses an organization by role structure. Eventhough Departmentalization can be seen all the tasks of the entire organization are looked into by two mangers, which makes management difficult.
This structure and also the culture of the organization affects the performance ofE-Solutions. affects the company performance by reducing the efficiency of the work force and thus reducing the profit and also the culture of the organization affects the company performance.
K. Summary of comparison of Virtusa, and E-Solutions:
hard to control
Management is concentrated on 1 manager and have to make more effort on managerial decisions and work
All departments are spread out in two floors, which is not an ideal layout in a ICT Company
Simple structure and easy to control employees
Management distributed among 12 senior members for a better control of each department
All production and services department spread out methodically in one floor providing a stress free atmosphere
Do not have a set vision, mission, values, goals and objectives
Should possess a culture of an export quality ICT Company, but possesses one of a small scale ICT Company.
No such image of employees, thus less efficiency , leading to a lesser daily production than assumed, resulting in a reduced profit
Increased rate of labour turnover
Do not have a set vision, mission, values, goals and objectives
Culture of an export quality ICT Company
Treats the employees as the most important asset of the organizationthus achieving daily targets as assumed resulting in gaining more profit.
Reduced rate of labour turnover
1.3 Factors influencing the individual behaviour of employees in Virtusa and in E-Solutions
a. Perception is the process of receiving information about making sense of the environment around us. (Course notes, ICBT).)Percepts are complex constructions of simple elements joined through association. Another is that perception is more subject to the influence of learning. Perception is considered a lot in organizations.
b. Attitudes can be defined as providing a state of readiness or tendency to respond in a particular way. There are a few functions of attitudes such as:
Ego - defensive
It is of major importance that attitudes of employees are taken into consideration, in any organization, due to the advantages given below:
Easy to manage, plan, organize, lead, and control.
Right attribute for the right job, adaptive to organizational culture.
Positive attitudes for a good service.
c.Demographic factors: These factors include education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc. The young and dynamic professionals that have good academic background and effective communication skills are always in great demand. The study of demographic factors is significant as it helps managers to pick the suitable candidate for a particular job.
d.Abilities and Skills: The physical capacity of an individual to do something can be termed as ability whereas Skill can be defined as the ability to act in a way that allows a person to perform well. The individual behaviour and performance is highly influenced by ability and skills. A person can perform well in the organization if his abilities and skills are matched with the job requirement. The managers plays vital role in matching the abilities and skills of the employees with the particular job requirement.
Personality can be defined as an individual's unique set of characteristics and tendencies which shape a sense of self, and what that person does and the behaviour that constitutes distinctive methods of relating to the environment. An individual's personality is a combination of lifetime experiences as well as genetic characteristics. Personality is an indelible characteristic and results in a pattern of predictable behaviour.
(Course notes, ICBT)
Personality traits can help people to find jobs that best suit their needs. There are five personality dimensions as follows:
The management of organizations needs to consider about the behaviour and personality of the employees to make more use of them and to have a clear idea about how their behaviour impacts others.
As mentioned above the individuals attributes and their personality can and should be motivated by the organization in order to ultimately earn high profits.
Section 02: Different Approaches to management and Leadership
2.1 Critical evaluation of management approaches of Virtusa&E-Solutions, by using scientific management elements, bureaucracy, human relations, system & contingency approach.
a. Scientific Management Elements:
Introduced by Henry Fayol, this is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes work flow processes, improving labour productivity. The elements included in the theory are as follows:
Labour is defined and authority/ responsibility is legitimized
Positions placed in hierarchy and under authority of higher level
Selection is based on technical competence, training or experience
Actions and decisions are recorded to allow continuity and memory
Management is different from ownership of the organization
Managers follow rules/ procedures to enable reliable / predictable behavior
Below is an analysis of how the above elements are utilized in each of the organizations under comparison:
Labour is defined and authority/ responsibility is legitimized
Yes : well planned, work distributed under the control of 12 managers
Yes, but work is concentrated under one manager
Positions placed in hierarchy and under authority of higher level
Yes: well planned
No: Not well planned, congested structure
Selection is based on technical competence, training or experience
Actions and decisions are recorded to allow continuity and memory
Management is different from ownership of the organization
No, the Managing Director is the owner of the organization
Managers follow rules/ procedures to enable reliable / predictable behaviour
Not to a great extent, as the work is handled by one manager there is favourtism taking place
The above analysis shows that as the scientific management principles are followed very well at Virtusa, they have achieved their targeted profits while E-Solutions. failed to do so, as the above principles are not followed properly within the particular organization.
Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity, usually in large organizations and government. Max Weber outlined the key characteristics of a bureaucracy:
Specification of jobs with detailed rights, obligations, responsibilities, scope of authority
System of supervision and subordination
Unity of command
Extensive use of written documents
Training in job requirements and skills
Application of consistent and complete rules (company manual)
Assign work and hire personnel based on competence and experience
(Source: www. Analytictech,.com)
Virtusa has a well organized structure and the roles are carried out without any difficulty, thus achieving organizational goals and profits.
In the case of E-Solutions, even if they should possess a structure of a large organization, they do not have a well organized structure as management is confined to just one manager and therefore, no smooth run can be assured in any of the units, thus leading to receiving low profits.
c. Human Relations Approach:
The human relations approach argues that people are emotional rather than economic - rational beings; organizations are cooperative social systems rather than mechanical ones; and organizations are composed of informal structures, rules, and norms as well as formal practices and procedures. Important theoretical advancements in the human relations approach include the famous Hawthorne experiments conducted by Elton Mayo, Chester Bernard's cooperative system, etc.
Virtusa consists of an informal environment with open communications to give employees the freedom to make contributions on their own initiative and since there is a good communication between workers and the management influence's the morale and productivity. At Virtusa workers are motivated through a good and friendly working relationship with management. Employees are encouraged to team activities in order to motivate them as it allows people to form strange working relationship and increase trust between them.
In the case of E-Solutions too there is an informal environment and allows employees to have their own views communicated to the manager, but as mentioned previously as all employees should report to the factory manager, this communication is not of much benefit to the employees, as based on the personality of the manager, and depending on his likeness towards particular employees, he would make biased decisions, which is not approvable with regard to any organization.
d. Contingency Approach:
There are many forms of contingency theory. In general, contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory where there is no one best way of organizing / leading.
Four important ideas of Contingency Theory are:
There is no universal or one best way to manage
The design of an organization and its subsystems must 'fit' with the environment
Effective organizations not only have a proper 'fit' with the environment but also between its subsystems
The needs of an organization are better satisfied when it is properly designed and the management style is appropriate both to the tasks undertaken and the nature of the work group.
Some factors involved in the contingency approach are: Efficiency, organizational performance, strategy, technology, task, organizational size, structure, and culture, etc.
The political environment affects the International ICT Company in many ways. Hereby the factors such as political environment and stability, government policies, tax regulations, government views on ethics should be considered in advance. Government policy on the national security plays an important role in the industry The exchange rate is an important factor, as the industry is evolved in dealing with foreign buyers and in imports of supplies. Therefore fluctuations of these factors may affect the industry in many ways. Therefore the future should be foreseen and correct decision has to be made.
Therefore, as compared before, Virtusa has a high deal of efficiency with regard to the performance of the employees, and thereby is able to gain a high organizational performance with the due concern being given to the external factors which affects the organizations as well. In contrast, E-Solutions. does not have the efficiency required to achieve the organizational targets thus reducing the profits expected, and influenced by the above mentioned factors, E-Solutions has a lower chance of surviving in the competitive International ICT Company.
2.2 The different styles of leadership and how effectively these leadership approaches could be used
Leadership style: can be looked as the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.
The three main styles of leadership are as follows:
Autocratic Leadership (Authoritarian):
This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers.
Democratic Leadership (Participative):
This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process .However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority.
Delegative Leadership (Free Reign/ Laissez Faire):
In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it.
2.3 The appropriate way the leader should act
The team leader whoever it is should take the responsibility ofhandling the situation and also facing the consequences, good or bad.
For example, if the Team Leader in the above company Virtusa is the CEO of the company, he should be humble enough to accept that the company has made a few mistakes that had lead them to the crisis which they are facing at the moment.
Share the Vision:
The vision of the organization should be articulated to all the employees of the organization, thus making all the employees aware of where they are expected to reach and what their main objectives should be.
In the above scenario, it is not stated if the organization does have a vision already. If it already does this vision should be expressed to all the employees of the organization by the use of e - mails, and if there is no vision statement available already, one should be created immediately.
Clearly Lay Out the Plan:
In the above Company virtusa, as it is a time of crisis, the team leader should create a series of Transformation communications outlining the types of changes that were required to turn the company around.
The new transformation agenda should clearly outline the three objectives to ensure success:
to improve the current state of the business
Training the employees of the organization throughout the world
build for the long-term
Tell Them What They Can Expect:
It is the team leader's responsibility to have regular communication with the employees, and also inform the managers of the various branches of the organization about how the training plan is conducted and about the specific role you and your team plays in executing our transformation agenda.
It is necessary to let the employees know that they are considered the most valuable asset in the company, and to really create the kind of partner engagement, respect and dignity, and raise the level of insight and ultimately the experience and the commitment that the organization has towards its employees.
Foster Two-Way Communication:
Encouragement of ideas and suggestions from all employees of various levels in the organizational hierarchy should be made welcome and encouraged more and more, as no one knows about the business and the customers and their expectations better than the work force.
As this is a global team, the team members would be of different cultures, and therefore the team leader should pay attention to each of the team members. Therefore, the team leaders should adapt a style of leadership according to the preferences of its team members.
2.4 Which type of leadership, why and how they can be implemented
Appropriate style of leadership
Justification of implementation
Effective and efficient decision making can be implemented, thus loosing some time is not of much importance with comparison to the serious situation.
Eventhough the team leader is well informed in all matters regarding the situation, other employees should also be consulted as members specialized in each discipline would have more expertise on the problems and solutions in those situations.
Type of task
Autocratic, Democratic, &
As there can be new employees with less knowledge and expertise, at this instance autocratic style of leadership can be used.
There can be employees with a considerable amount of knowledge and expertise in their field of work, in which instance, the democratic style of leadership can be implemented.
There also can be senior members or employees of the organization having many years of experience in their field of work, at which the free - rein style of leadership, can be used.
The team leader should be able to discuss with the parties concerned and solve the matter, as if the problem persists it will result in the organization moving from the worse to worst
Tasks and authority should be delegated within the other team members equally, so as to reduce the amount of stress for everyone.
Section03: The implication of motivation theories in order to motivate the team members and improve their productivity:
Motivation: It is the psychological process that causes the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed.
Motivation theory: It is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed.
Motivating each of the individuals in a team requires recognition on your part that each team member's motivation needs are different, and motivating the team requires a different approach from motivating the team members.
It is unlikely that you will ever manage a team where everyone is adequately trained. It is even more unlikely that any leader has a team that never needs coaching. You need to be able to identify the training needs of your team members and be able to get that training for them. And you need to coach all the members of your team, even the well trained ones, to help them achieve their best levels of performance.
Motivation theories are mainly of two types:
Content (need) theory
3.1 Content (need) Theory:
This theory mainly focuses on the internal factors that direct and enhance human behaviour.
The following are some of the major content theories:
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Aldermen's ERG theory
Hertzberg's motivator-hygiene theory (two - factor theory)
Of the different types of content theories, the most famous content theory is Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. Maslow introduced five levels of basic needs through his theory.
The Hierarchy of Needs is as follows:
1. Physiological Needs: basic issues of survival such as salary and stable employment
2. Security Needs: stable physical and emotional environment issues such as benefits, pension, safe work environment, and fair work practices
3. "Belongingness" Needs: social acceptance issues such as friendship or cooperation on the job
4. Esteem Needs: positive self-image and respect and recognition issues such as job titles, nice work spaces, and prestigious job assignments.
5. Self-Actualization Needs: achievement issues such as workplace autonomy, challenging work, and subject matter expert status on the job
Just like Maslow's hierarchy of needs, through dual factors theory, Hertzberg describes certain factors in the workplace which result in job satisfaction.
Hertzberg's two factor theory is another major content theory that focuses on the individual needs of the people. According to Hertzberg, he basically identified two separate groups of factors that had a strong impact on motivation. His first groups of factors were the hygiene factors which consisted of factors such as working conditions, quality of supervision, salary, status, company policies and administration.Â Having said that, the Â second group of factors Â identified were known as the motivating factors which consisted of factors such recognition, achievement, responsibility, interesting job and advancement to higher level tasks as and growth etc.
3.2 The effective implementation of the Content theories to motivate employees:
According to the Virtusa HR, the employees should work overtime to achieve the objective of the organization to increase the nutritious food supply in the world. Also the employees are made responsible to carry out PEST control on disease carrying insects.
In order to achieve this objective and to keep the employees motivated the first two levels of Maslow's hierarchy can be used as follows
The basic pay of the employees can be increased or in addition to the basic pay an over time rate can be paid. The facilities such as a balanced meal can be provided during the time they are on over time as to encourage them. The time can be allocated among each and every employee as to give them a break in between the tiring work they do. This shows the organization is concerned about the employees and will lead to motivation.
While they are at work, they can be provided with necessary instruments and equipments to keep them safe such as face masks, gloves and etc. Also it is better to giver them a proper training and development program at the beginning of their recruitment. They will be educated to work in a safety background and how to use pesticides and fertilizes carefully. In addition to these each and every employee can be provided with a hand book which gives brief information on how to deal with these kinds of poisonous chemicals. Then the number of accidents during working hours will be reduced.
Rather than providing safety only to workers, their families can also be looked after by providing medical schemes, life insurance as well as health and safety insurance.
Also the workers can be motivated by granting them a certain percentage of the company's profit in order to make them feel them that they are secured and are part of the organization.
Along with Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's two factor theory can also be applied to motivate the employees. Herzberg's two factor theory is consisting of two components such as motivation factors and hygiene factors.
Increment in salary would be a factor which motivates the employees. As discussed above, over time payments, salary increments and pension schemes can be provided to the employees operating in this multi national company.
Certain improvements to working conditions can be done as follows. The employees can be provided with quality equipments and fertilizes, special events can be organized to build team spirit and to build up the strong relationship between employees to make them get to know each other and to make a friendly working environment.
The employees can be paid much more attention and can be given more recognition. In order to give them more recognition and to make them feel as part of the organization, the company can apportion its final profits and can allocate a certain part of the profit to its employees. Once they have achieved a given target they can be appreciated.
The workers should be given targets which they are capable of achieving and leaders can be appointed among the employee groups to make them responsible for related jobs.
As discussed above Herzberg's theory can be applied in order to motivate employees in this company to over come this critical situation.
3.3 Process Theory:
Process theory of motivation is a cognitive rational process and concentrates on psychological and behavioral processes. This basically motivates individuals and focuses on how workers needs influence their own behavior.
Main process theories include
Vroom Expectancy theory
Adam's Equity theory
Needs Goal Setting theory
Vroom Expectancy theory efforts linked not just to the desire for a particular outcome, but moderated by an evaluation of the likelihood of success. Here motivation strength is determined by the supposed value of the result of performing a behavior and the supposed probability that the behavior performed will lead the result to materialize.
The conclusions that can be strained from this theory are,
Individuals will only act when they have a reasonable expectation that their behavior will lead to the desired outcome.
Effort alone is not sufficient. It has to be accompanied by ability and skill.
Job satisfaction results from effective job performance rather than the other way round.
Job design is therefore of crucial importance.Â
Adam's Equity theory states that the return for inputs such as skills, effort and training the employee receives outcomes which are pay, status and fringe benefits. The ration of input to outcome is created through this theory and equity is achieved when the ratios are the same for everyone in an organization. Here an individual perceives that he is getting less output for his inputs as compared to others he will feel inequity and eventually will be demotivated. Some factors which can be reduced inequity are individual in different ways like reducing his inputs, demanding increase in outputs in form of increase in salary and etc.
According to equity theory, people are motivated by their beliefs about reward structure. They have tendency to use personal judgment to balance the outcomes and inputs in the relationship for comparisons between various individuals.
3.4 The effective implementation of the Process theories to motivate employees:
As mentioned above process theory can be applied in order to motivate the employees in this company. Mainly goal setting theory and expectancy theory can be used to overcome these crises.The employees in the organization should be able to achieve the given goal within the given time period. Therefore it is essential for task to of easy achievability and also to the team members should be with positive attitudes and focused on the organizational goals rather than individual interests.
As for an example the workers should be given goals which they can achieve. According to the scenario demand for grains has been increasing and fertilizes and grains are complements. Therefore the supply of fertilizes also need to be increased. In order to increase the supply of fertilizes, the workers should be motivated and their productivity should be increased.
It is discussed in the expectancy theory that employees should have the ability and skills to do the specific tasks. Therefore effort alone is not enough. They should be satisfied in order to gain maximum contribution from them. This is one of a crucial event which can be seen in any organization.
In the above report the following factors are analyzed in order to solve problems through Global teamwork and innovation. One of the main challenges for the organization is to train employees all around the world within a short period of time.
In achieving a successful business performance, any organization should use the most appropriate structure and culture suiting its industry. Therefore as shown in the above report, it is clearly proved how the organization with the most suitable structure, culture, and having the best type of employees succeed in achieving their objectives and goals, while the other organization which is not strategically planned is unable to achieve their targets.
Therefore, in conclusion this report shows how and why any organization should function according to a most suitable structure or culture, and by following certain management theories in order to achieve their targeted goals.
Therefore, when considering the appropriate leadership style for the team, it was clear that all the three forms of leadership - Autocratic, democratic and free - reign should be used at various instances within the team.
As the top management of the organization, noticed a disconnect in the market at their normal procedures, it was necessary for them to motivate all the employees to rise from this situation of crisis. Thus it is investigated how some of the content theories and the process theories of motivation could be applied to the given scenario.
For the team to be focused on to the organizational objectives, it is necessary for them to follow a set of acceptable behavior or practices - group norms. The group norms may vary within groups of different countries based on the culture of group members as this is a global team.
In order to increase the productivity of teams, cross functional teams could be implemented which increase the productivity of the teams as more information and ideas would could be gained. Also there are a few drawbacks in addition to the many advantages of the cross functional teams to the organization.
Several factors which affect the success of the team's performance is then investigated and how these can be avoided are explained.
Finally, the impact of technology on the team functioning within the above organization is investigated and how it can be implemented effectively is analyzed.