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The process of globalisation has affected the way organisations work towards adopting CSR approaches and implementing new strategies and practices to be more efficient and cost effective by tackling the fast moving and developing working environment we live in. Therefore businesses have the role of being socially responsible, by understanding that they have a duty towards their customers and all others that might be included in the company in which they operate in.
This social responsibility involves ethical, legal and economic necessities. Most of all it involves social issues that deal with consumerism, environment discrimination, occupational safety, and shareholders.
The ways of conducting a business vary to each case, implying that many organisations follow different paths for selling, promoting and achieving their target. The main problem arises when there is greed for money therefore companies decide to infringe on a few procedures by misleading customers, in acquiring their trust, and most importantly attention, by portraying an organization as an ethical institution of business but in actual fact (in some cases) using child labour, abusing workers rights and bringing more poverty towards third world countries.
Therefore managers must assure that people are considered, regarded as social welfare. By using this approach it will bring numerous advantages and will be explained more clearly in the paper below, by exploring main areas of CSR and its attributes to offer. Also I will illustrate main areas of CSR activity that a University adopts and is concerned with. Furthermore I will describe their driving forces and show differences from a corporation. Following from this I will then outline stakeholder's theory and ethical theories that can be used in practice to help improve Oxford Brookes Universities CSR.
Finally I will exemplify the CSR activities of Tesco and Nike by showing examples as to why I think Tesco is good and why Nike is in need for improvement. This will be done by providing clear evidence of their sustainable operations and portraying their achievements, and any areas in need of modifying their practices.
1) Corporate Social Responsibility defined and what it can offer
The term CSR that stands for Corporate Social Responsibility, was defined by Kotler et al (2005) to involve a movement of practices of a business aimed to encourage companies, universities and other concerning workplaces to be more aware of the impact they cause on the rest of society, stakeholders and most importantly any involvement affecting the environment towards pollution or taking away sources from nature.
CSR is a key element for a business activity to show their true intentions and commitments to the outside workforce. On the other hand Chandler et al (2006) argued that CSR was an attempt to define the future of our society, because businesses have a great involvement as they create wealth. Therefore they have the upper hand in constructing something that everyone can benefit and learn from.
Additionally Hopkins (2007) argued that CSR provided corporations with a platform to be involved in an economic development, giving an opportunity to stand out between competitors. By law they have a particular standard to follow but what would distinguishes the best ones from other companies would be to put extra work into improving their ways of doing towards the environment, by reducing co2 emissions, downsizing packaging, and usage of unnecessary material and disposal.
Furthermore they would have to investigate on the impact they cause on society to best suit others needs and optimize company's core competences. This would refer to volunteer commitment into implementing these additional practices and outstanding improvements that will seek more public appeal and socially more responsible and concerned of others, which in return will be more appreciated by buyers.
When looking at CSR we have to understand that it reflects on sustainable development, by improving quality of life, and running a business that meets ethical and legal guidelines. This can be easily seen as companies offer a great deal to society by helping towards community health (aids prevention, breast cancer and other illnesses), safety (crime prevention, additional security), education (computers for school), environment (preventing use of chemicals), and improving basic human needs and requirements (helping homeless and other that cannot survive on their own). In order for the society to understand company's involvement, the best way of doing so is to research on their status and analyze their CSR annual report with a general overview of the ongoing process and development taking place in the business practices.
Mainly the big players create a CSR report, but not all of them portray all the relevant facts and try to outline more positive aspects than negatives to show a better side towards the commitments they wish to follow during the year. By following this crucial step, organizations that implement these measures can increase their sales, strengthen their brand name, enhance corporate image, increase the ability to attract, motivate employees, attract financial investors and most important safeguard the environment and well being of people that take part in the organization (Chandler et al, 2006).
1.1) Corporate Social Responsibility awareness
As time is moving on people are being more concerned about CSR standards and want to know more information on the subject to find out if companies are taking care of their customers and planet, this also applies to universities towards policies practice towards students, their social impact and concerns in helping the environment and less fortunate people.
In order to understand this concept more clearly we have to understand that organizations need to take into consideration all the various stakeholders that take part into the whole association. With this in mind we look at the employees and outsiders that can affect the way the company will perform and its future actions. The outsiders include existing customers, future investors, suppliers, government's intervention, competitors and general public. All of which consider is their duty to be treated with respect and expect a certain standard that companies should adopt in order to keep their employees happy and general satisfaction output (Mehta, 2002).
Moreover as time progresses all stakeholders feel the need for the companies to improve over period by developing their standards to be more efficient and as a whole develop quality of life (Sharma and Staric, 2004). In order to do so organisations will attempt to enhance their strategic plan and make better business decisions on the basis of stakeholders needs by battling through the fast moving competitive working environment.
1.2) Corporate Social Responsibility activities concerns in Universities
Fundamentally CSR has a wide range of attributes to offer (Appendix A), that incorporates the environment, community, workplace, marketplace, showing all the relevant advantages they have to offer, that can be developed in an ongoing process. When taking all these factors into consideration we can focus on the role that Universities take in order to increase research, developing projects towards introducing fair trade products, reducing co2 emissions and improving teaching. At this moment in time we should then understand that Universities apply their CSR knowledge towards increasing education in business ethics, involvement of society and an encouragement to organise projects to integrate the community in need (Henriquez and Richardson, 2004).
Subsequently Universities give the unique opportunity to offer scholarships to researchers to teach business ethics and increase the involvement in the community. Moreover they commit towards interacting with regional communities, and illustrate the impact on the environment. By giving this opportunity for pupils to be involved into project by helping the community to deal with social problems, and in return it will create a social model to measure efficiency, produce a future development plan for the community and this is also directly linked to provide alternative strategies. Other benefits include a project management to the care and education for disabled students or any pupils in need of help. Another important factor would be investigating into providing measurements for investing in the charity sector.
University have to be aware of several CSR activities that need to be controlled and explored to be refined to their specific purpose of being responsible in safeguarding the environment by controlling and reducing the co2 emission produced by the buses by introducing more efficient vehicles that meet new regulations for the emissions of gasses. Furthermore Universities need to challenge the students to use the services they provide for transport instead of using cars, so that the end result would decrease congestion and safeguard the environment.
Other ideas include the introduction of using consumable products from fair trade countries, so that they can have an equal opportunity to evolve and integrate into the growing working environment that provides endless opportunities. At the moment Universities are pushing forward the idea of recycling in general towards recycling paper and all other waste to try to make use of all the resources or material that is good to reuse. More ideas involve using the right amount of usage of electricity by introducing timers that switch off automatically when not used, this can be seen to be cost effective and preserves nature too, because of the fast changing climate that is affecting the whole world with drastic and unpredictable weather forecasts conditions and in my opinion is a useful tool to take advantage of. Finally by applying these measure and suggested practices they can seek to be a sustainable practice by being self-sufficient, socially concerned and aware or people's welfare and needs.
1.3) Corporations and Universities
Before looking at differences between Corporations and Universities, we need to understand that a Corporation is a business owned by shareholders that buy and sell stock in the company, encountered as an individual entity (Bakan, 2004). Also we need to look at all the relevant stakeholders that take part into the two organisations.
Firstly stakeholders included in a University are government (providing additional equipment), students (taking part or wishing to), staff (teachers and all workers that take part), suppliers (towards food chain, consumables and materials) and companies (advertising purposes or wish them to sell their products or use, including food or technological equipment).
Secondly stakeholders in a Corporation are employees (workers), suppliers (sell and buy stock), customers (buyers and potential investors), banks (possible loans or payments to be made on credit) and government (through taxes and interventions).
The two combined have similar stakeholders but at the same time they have different goals, Universities revolve around teaching students about ethical behaviours, developing future strategies and creating sustainability. While corporations try to increase the value of their company, gain market share, grow as a whole, expand territory. The two combined have one aim in mind to evolve and become the best, and be prepared as best as possible for the future. Therefore the two have a goal in mind to include CSR approaches to gain profit from one another, so that universities educate future employees for corporations.
1.4) Driving forces for the adaption of a CSR approach at a University
Universities carry out a major task within the modern society to educate its students and widen their possibilities to acquire future jobs and give them an advantage towards achieving their dreams. With this in mind we have to understand that their main objectives are to be as efficient as possible towards gaining advanced knowledge and implementing CSR approaches to exhibit their true feeling towards safeguarding the community, environment, students, staff and workers.
Moreover the majority of Universities are private therefore they seek to overrule competitors and attract more students by meeting their needs towards academic information and social factors that might concern them. Additionally Universities tend to update readily their technology sector, vehicles (updated engines with low emissions), scholastic literature and mainly adopting and implementing CSR standards to create a sustainable environment. In order for these applications to follow through the communication process of associates of the University need to work closely, exchange ideas and evaluate circumstances to improve the overall situation.
Furthermore by adopting these changes through efficiency and not overworking or abusing privileges such as water, electricity and using recycling facilities the University can save funds to then spend and invest on renovating or extra money in case of emergencies and attract more pupils waiting to enroll.
1.5) Driving forces for the adaption of a CSR approach in a Corporation
As time progresses Corporations have started to develop gradually by having a direct focus for extra usage of CSR approaches, because of the rise in interest from the public. Respectively stakeholders for the corporation started to show a major interest into adopting correctly new measure to improve effectiveness, update machinery to be more environmentally friendly, and approve ethical attributes to include within the working environment. Furthermore this will attract more investors and workers to pursue the company as it incorporates developed practices that are protecting the socio-environment. When adopting new methods there is a need for patience for things to develop, but it will bring numerous rewards towards saving funds and improving the overall corporation.
With this in mind corporations are advancing by seeking alternative strategies to fulfill investor's needs and wants. In return it will bring government funding, accountability, greater collaboration, value for money and further accessibility to other markets and segments for expanding or discover new areas in need of modifying. Officially the corporations are updating their file recognition system to portray their achievements and future areas of development by introducing CSR reports and annual overviews of performance output (Idowu and Filho, 2009).
2) Stakeholder theory and Ethical theories used to improve Oxford Brookes University's CSR
To begin with I would like to start off by introducing the stakeholder's theory, which is classically defined by Freeman (1984) as "any group of individuals who are affected by or can affect the achievements of an organizations objective". From this definition three principles follow to explain more clearly this concept (Appendix B). Firstly the principle of corporate legitimacy where the corporation should manage for the benefits of its stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, owners, employees, owners and local community to improve overall welfare.
Secondly the principle of stakeholder fiduciary motivates a relationship between the corporation and stakeholders safeguarding each other for future success and development (Friedman and Miles, 2006).
Thirdly the Urgency stage where there is concern over priority and power that might take place with the urgency to claim on the corporation. Additionally the process involved is to ensure that operations are managed correctly and have a duty of care for safeguarding the corporation. Furthermore the normative theory gives an insight as to how managers should act and view the purpose of the organization based on ethical principles being met in relation to stakeholders.
Therefore stakeholders have a proactive role in the organization; they have a substantial effect on the performance output, directing the corporation, in this content Oxford Brookes University, to the set objectives (Cooper, 2004). As a result they contribute towards: stakeholders relationship, follow and pursue the corporations purpose, they have a direct influence on developing attributes within the company.
Corporate Social Responsibility has taken over our lives by creating a set of tasks to follow, by being ethically aware of our own actions, mainly to understand that every action has a reaction to follow. These actions may follow two routes, one being ethically correct and the other being incorrect depending on own cultural beliefs that vary from one individual to another.
The rise in ethical concern is directly linked to the radical social changes occurring in our lives. Greater concern develops as people comply with the set of standards and conditions that have to be met in today's business environment. In order to evaluate complicated problems, you have to find alternatives solutions by finding practical adjustments in behaviour that need to be applied and implemented (McEwan, 2001).
The main advantage of this would be to get a wide range of ideas to then develop suited needs. The ethical analysis emphasises on the outcome based on moral acts assuming that it achieves the greatest good for greater number of citizens that might be included in this category. Consequently I would like to outline ethical theories that are relevant for practice to help improve Oxford Brookes CSR.
Following from this Oxford Brookes need to have a well established set of business activity there is a need to identify the awareness of Ethics, where both consumers (students, staff, workers) and sellers (university) are driven more to social responsibility, therefore it needs a structure, a policy, a code of practice, or a cultural understanding of the rules, but this alone is not enough (Moon, 2002). They also a need for individuals to differentiate between right and wrong, people who can make difficult decisions and are tough enough to stand by them (McEwan, 2001). This often includes both standing up for themselves and others, so that businesses can develop the kind of environment that promotes ethical development and general improvement.
2.1) Ethics applied
It is therefore essential to understand the meaning of Ethics which realistically deals with rules of behaviour, fairness, decisions concerning what is right and wrong, definitions of rules and undertaking responsibilities for individuals (Botes, 2000).
This means that it involves taking actions to ensure that the set rules and regulations are applied consistently and responsibly, becoming part of our moral values and safe guarding the interest of customers as best as possible (McEwan, 2001).
First of all the concept of ethics must be understood by exploring the nature and meaning of set responsibilities and reasoning by considering the relevance of different levels of moral development and weather this is the same for everyone and applicable in the particular case dependent on their own beliefs. These approaches would be used to appraise the organisations and to see if they can act morally towards consumers, employees and many other aspects and parts of an organization (Maheshwari and Ganesh, 2006).
There are two ways of conducting a business or running a University so that it follows certain aspects of ethicality towards Deontology and Utilitarianism (Takala and Uusitalo, 1996). Deontology states that one should treat people with respect not solely as a means to an end but work for their interest to safeguard their choices. Self-interested actions are immoral as rules have to be applied and followed. Utilitarianism says the greatest good to the greatest number of people, that actions are judged by the consequences.
The deontological position reflects mainly on HR values of empowerment and involvement but useful resources are can used as an end to increase Oxford Brookes profits and there is a barrier towards exploitation and unequal treatment using inconsistent actions (Takala and Uusitalo, 1996). While Utilitarianism supports policies like downsizing that reflects on the "greatest good". Therefore the organisation seeks to gain competitive advantage and efficiency by securing organisational surviving which protects jobs for the majority of employees, mainly based on consequences of actions (Lantos, 2002).
2.2) Stakeholder Theory applied to Oxford Brookes
Stakeholder's theory can be used in practice to improve Oxford Brookes CSR approach by identifying the main categories of stakeholders that take part and which they should be concerned with. Moreover by applying the Mitchell et al (1997) model they should be define the groups that influence the different fields, including the strategic management process, public policy, and environment. Furthermore stakeholder theory encourages a deeper thinking of ongoing business process, looks towards development, and explores future prospects and possible strategy advances. This theory examines the conditions that the university is involved in and finds a suitable way of distributing a standard to be followed. The normative theory follows moral guidelines for the operational management; following from this there is the power of legitimacy which is then combined with the use of appropriate manners by creating a structural behaviour to follow. Finally the combinations of the practices add contributions towards better connections and relationships with added communication.
2.3) Oxford Brookes Improvements
Therefore by considering these factors mentioned above we can identify the most suitable behaviour to improve the performance of Oxford Brookes Universities CSR by developing a professional expertise to improve the communication of ethics policy for the formation of a strategy and most important setting an example through professional conduct on issues such as fairness, equal treatment and confidentiality it is possible assure that the organisation will prosper adequately by increasing the stakeholders communication by raising alternative suggestions and awareness of any possible problems that might occur, by illustrating their goals clearly and illustrating their choices towards improving the whole system, towards teaching, safeguarding the environment and following standards of work ethics and any other concerns (Lloyd and Kidder, 1997).
3) CSR activities of Tesco in comparison to Nike
Nowadays there is greater concern as to achieve customer's needs and wants in the most efficient way, therefore companies such as Tesco and Nike can be analysed, by looking at their CSR activities and main interest they wish to carry out. Additionally they are being pushed by the public to raise awareness and to meet all requirements where necessary. The majority of corporation try do their best and develop in stages, but other firms ignore the possibility to improve and tend to neglect these procedures, that in the long run will bring the company down and stakeholders might be persuaded to move elsewhere and consider alternative options.
Consequently corporations need to develop their skills attributes to achieve sustainability and attract the most amounts of investors, safeguard the community and most importantly the environment. Each corporation has their own different ways into developing their skills and decide to follow and target the main areas within that field in need of improvements. This will be described below step by step.
3.1) CSR performance activities of Tesco and its main attributes with developments
Tesco was launched in 1919 in east London by Jack Cohen, and Tesco TLC is recognised as British international grocery and general merchandising retail chain. It is the largest British retailer by both global sales and domestic market share, with profits exceeding £3 billion, and the third largest global retailer based on revenue, behind Wal-Mart and Carrefour (Tesco, 2010).
Tesco's key issues are towards maximising their performance during the years and their targets for future improvement. They have provided the public with a range of examples of the work that they have been doing, from making their stores more environmentally friendly, to provide jobs for the long-term unemployment. There is also information on how you can get involved in Tesco initiatives, such as applying for a grant from the Tesco Charity Trust, signing up for Race for Life or supporting your local school through Tesco for Schools and Clubs (Tesco, 2010).
Tesco have understood that their success has come directly from their behaviour, by being responsible, earning trust from customers, suppliers and stakeholders. This was achieved with hard work, and in my opinion I consider it to be a good organisation that safeguards the community and ambience at the same time. Through the CSR report it can be see that they have to combat everyday with daily challenges into reducing the environmental impact they can create and maintaining consistency of standards throughout the market. This strategy is applied consistently on a daily basis (Tesco, 2010).
They manage all aspects of business from customers, operations, people, community and finance. Therefore their aims are to actively support local communities, buy and sell products responsibly, care for the environment by reducing carbon foot print, give customers healthy choices, and create good job with careers opportunity (Humby et al, 2007).
3.2) Tesco's promise to stakeholders
Change within the supermarket sector needed to change in order to be at the top of the league, therefore Tesco promised to reflect on its aim and improve drastically their strategies and ways of doing, taking priorities into reducing carbon emissions, packaging content, adopting more recycling procedures, having a centralised strategic focus outlining their good and bad choices, acknowledge people views and interests, and as a whole provide extra information as to their operations are running in order to be analysed and improved when needed. Thus Tesco will have the opportunity to interact adequately with its stakeholders. With their motto "every little thing helps", meaning that minimal changes will bring them a step closer to achieving all their wishes (Humby et al, 2007).
As a global business, Tesco tries their best to minimise climate change. The progress they have made this year across their businesses and by working with their suppliers and customers they are determined to do more. At the moment Tesco tackles with climate change and safeguarding the environment by reducing carbon emissions by 60 %, using correct packaging to preserve the products, use 100% recycle bags, therefore recycling plays a huge part in this role for great concern of waste constrictions, and finally they buy sustainable products that don't harm as much the nature preserve (Tesco, 2010).
Other targets that have inclined me to choose Tesco as a good corporate company are the way in which they give 1% of pre-tax profits to charities, provide schools with vouchers that give in return equipments, and make the community a part of its structure. Furthermore this shows the amount of strength and power they put into developing their ideas and showing all stakeholders their achievements.
3.3) CSR performance activities of Nike and its main attributes with developments
The second organisation that I chose is Nike, that I believe it could do much better in respect to its CSR performance, and consider it to be the least of my favourites. Nike is a major company that trades and sells sportswear and equipment, it officially became known as Nike in 1978, took its name from the Greek goddess with a meaning of victory. It's all based around its trademark logo, and highly recognised by "just do it", targeting the younger generation into its hands. Although this wasn't the case, in the 1990s protestors were against their discovered sweatshops and there was public awareness towards child labour and unfair treatment. This showed how the organisation behaved inappropriately and became greedy. Nikes business model revolves around marketing the high-end consumer's products manufacturers in cost efficient supply chains, but the pressure received from activists forced them to look towards improving and actually adopting CSR approaches before losing their business completely (Zadek, 2004).
Furthermore in order to achieve success Nike needs to be identified through the 5 Corporate Responsibility stages, otherwise known as an organisational learning curve. Zadek (2004) provided a list. Firstly companies are part of a defensive stage, where they start to accept there is a problem only after it happened. Secondly they reach the compliance stage, where adjustments have to be made in accordance to CSR practices by updating rules and regulations to minimum requirements. Thirdly they may be suited in the managerial stage, in which they find themselves in a long term problem that needs major assistance. Fourthly there can be a company at a strategic stage, where they realise that a strategy is needed to improve the business practice for long term success. Finally there is a civil stage, where they promote society concern and welfare for stability and global progression. At this moment in time Nike is still in the Strategic stage and still has more work to do to comply all past mistakes. In this learning curve Nike managed to participate in facilitating, convening, financing initiatives to improve workers conditions and generally be more responsible with its stakeholders that are Key to global empowerment.
3.4) Nikes Corporate Social Responsibility
The company had to higher external professional to analyse their current working environments and were looking at their 900 suppliers, this gave proof that they still lacked in labour standards. It was concluded that the problem was the way in which Nike conducted its approach in business, motivated more in cost effectiveness and maximising profits. Nike tried to offer competitive prices and deliver quality items, but they realized that they had to manage and improve their CSR as stakeholders were holding back (Nike, 2010).
Overall Nike is trying to improve but at the moment is in need of more involvement and could do much better in respect to CSR and an overall change of performance and strategy needs to be renewed and focus on a program that would benefit all concerning workers and provide a safe working environment that meets all requirements towards working hours, wages, health and safety, co2 emissions during transport, usage of material and disposal and general use of nature reserves.
3.5) Critical discussion of Tesco´s CSR activities and sustainability operations
Tesco has achieved its success by being socially driven and creating a sustainable business, with their passion they have centralized their concerns purely on customers' needs and safeguarding the community and all other aspects that are included (Appendix C illustrates all the features in a visual picture), but at the same time they are driven by the competition they face with other leading supermarkets (Asda, Waitrose, Sainsbury's, Coop, ect) to gain all customers and future investors.
Tesco is also recognized as on the largest supermarket provider in UK, with 2,318 store and employed over 326,000 people, provides online services, and have their own branded products at three levels for different customers, from value, normal and finest. This provides us with numerous options and choices from which to choose from, which shows that Tesco are trying to target all customers and meeting their requirements.
After a long analysis of Tesco, it was certain that their success incorporated branding and their reputation, which are to be known as their core competencies. Branding was associated to them as they carefully package their good, branded adequately, and promoting the trade mark of "every penny counts" (towards saving). Furthermore the company has a strong brand name as it is associated with good quality products, trustworthy goods and symbolizes amazing value (Palmer, 2004).
Moreover their service departments have been developed to facilitate management for better efficiency; its innovative improvements have attracted many customers by making them feel safe and looked after. The whole experience is reassuring and meets expectations, towards loyalty card systems (awarding point's when buying in Tesco with extra savings to offer), and general adjusting for customers.
In order to find out if Tesco has actually achieved its goals we have to look at their CSR report (Tesco, 2010), which gives a broad outline of their goals and achievements during the year 2007 to the beginning of 2010. The figures show that Tesco has been successful because it developed a profitable business, offered a significant amount of jobs available to the public and engaged with the community. This in return created commercial sustainability, developed effective staff teams, contributed the community (towards offering jobs, donating to charity, safeguarding the environment), and developed a safe an efficient working environment for its workers (Ogbonna and Whipp, 1999).
Finally what exerts Tesco from other retails is their forced way of maintaining power by pushing themselves even further, by introducing their 10 point plan (Appendix D), which highlights further improvements to be made and in my opinion I can see Tesco develop further and become stronger than ever.
CSR takes a great part of organizations roles by giving them a guide to rules and regulations to be used to be efficient and kind to the environment. CSR takes care of the social aspects, environment, consumers, suppliers, and all relevant stakeholders of its class. The activity keys highlighted in this paper are essential and have to be taken into account and applied by all companies. By using them, corporations can gain a great advantage, mainly to do with customers and potential investors; it will give them a competitive edge towards all other competitors.
The practices that were mentioned within the paper are: the safeguarding of peoples right, environment protection, creating a sustainable organization, creating the right working conditions for employees, keeping up to date with regulations and standards to be kept. Furthermore I looked towards stakeholder's management and ethical concerns that need to be dealt with and how they can improve a University. All these improvements will in turn make the organization successful, credible, raise motivation within the workforce, challenge stakeholders to get involved and find additional strategies that can improve the structure and running process.
As concerns are growing more and more each day governments are raising issues and standards so they have to keep up to date, and can create major problems such as fines and imprisonment if they are not followed correctly or infringed.
In addition CSR activities in Corporations and Universities were looked at and differentiated, corporations have their main interest towards money making schemes and profit generation, while Universities tend to be concerned more with students welfare, education and creating a good working environment. All the stakeholders were analyzed and identified, they were found to big a major influence on the way they apply their practices and strategies. Mainly all these corporation have in common to make a profitable organization, be part of a community, safe guard the environment (reduce co2), and improving all general working conditions and workplaces.
Finally I took two examples of companies, and illustrated the points on how they work and what they need to improve, who has been successful and who hasn't; between them you can see that there are major differences.
Tesco was my first choice of good CSR corporation as they proved to be exceptional at what they do, all highlighted and discussed above, their success proved to attract millions of customers and their loyalty will not be broken. They are continuously expanding and still pushing on boundaries to become always better and not be beaten by the opposition.
Nike was my second decision as a need for Improvement Company in regards to corporate citizen, which was responsible for the sweatshops in china and other third world countries; they exploited their rights and used them to maximize profits with no regards to their welfare. They are a good example of a corporation that didn't follow their duties correctly. Therefore due to the involvement of the public and CEOs they are forced to changed but are doing so to minimum requirements and as a slow ongoing process.
To Conclude CSR is the driving force of the modern society and is developing the whole public to be more concerned of issues of sustainability, and to not take things for granted that are given to us by nature or mankind.